Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Plastic Strain on Anisotropic Behaviour of AISI202

Vijay Gautam, Prahlad Kumar Tewari, Rohit Shukla

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 517-523
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14466

Aims: In the present study an attempt has been made to determine the effect of plastic strain on the anisotropic parameters of AISI202 series.
Study Design: The parameter commonly used to characterize the anisotropy of sheet metal is the plastic strain ratio i.e. the ratio of true width-strain to thickness-strain. Accurate determination of plastic strain ratio is difficult as it is influenced by percentage elongation given to the specimen during uniaxial tension test. Moreover, AISI202 shows approximately 60% of uniform strain during tension test and no necking is observed at all, which adds to the problem in accurate determination of anisotropic parameter.
Place and Duration of Study: Samples were tested at Plasticity and Metal Forming Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University (DTU), New Delhi, between January 2014 and April 2014.
Methodology: Tensile specimens were laser cut from 0.8mm thick sheet in the direction of 0°, 45° and 90° with respect to rolling direction. To determine the effect of percentage elongation, the specimens were tested in tension by giving 15%, 20%, 30% and 35% of plastic strain much before fracture occurs.
Results: Experimental results showed that as the plastic strain increased from 15% to a maximum of 35% during tension test, the average plastic strain ratio increased from 0.988 to 1.122 respectively, and the same trend is seen in the values of planar anisotropy which varies between a minimum of 0.025 and maximum of 0.149. The equivalent plastic strain during deep drawing can be as high as 40%; therefore anisotropic behavior at 35% of plastic strain is more accurate and significant to be used in simulations.
Conclusion: The experimental studies showed increase in plastic strain ratio on increase in the percentage elongation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sustainable Urban Forestry in Nigerian Built Environments

A. C. C. Ezeabasili, I. E. Iloghalu, B. U. Okoro, I. F. Manafa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 524-531
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14613

Vegetation in cities and suburbs are important in making built environments more livable, economically and ecologically more sustainable. Urban forestry benefits include erosion control, flood control, fruits and some fuel wood supply. Urban forests play several roles such as relaxation, recreation, physical and psychological comfort for the public. Very importantly the type of trees planted varies with ecological zones and cultural values. Urban forest development in Nigeria is presently been threatened due to rapid urban population growth, human activities, limited land area and poor implementation of government policies. This research work was carried out to evaluate the spatial distribution of urban trees in Awka, Anambra state, Nigeria. Documented observations will aid in creating awareness of the importance of urban forest to the general public. A sustainable urban forest development and forest management techniques that accommodate human, social, political, cultural and economic factors remains imperative.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Implications of Negligent Misrepresentation in Law of Delict: A Judicial Rendition

P. Nico Swartz, Odirile Otto Itumeleng, Kagiso Tshwene

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 532-541
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14684

This paper is based upon a literature review. Its aim is to forward a review on the evolution of negligent misrepresentation especially in the South African jurisdiction. The birth of negligent misrepresentation stemmed from Roman law under the guise of the action legis Aquiliae. This action was confined to claims of personal damage and damage to property. The Roman-Dutch law attempts an extension to this action, to every kind of loss sustained by a person in consequence of wrongful acts of another. The Aquilian action has reached its end development in South African law, where compensation for negligent misrepresentation may be claimed ex lege Aquilia. As Aquilian liability results from every culpable and wrongful act which causes patrimonial damage, it is adumbrated that the law of delict will collide with the constitutional demands of the South African law. This paper suggests that the South African law of delict should developed and used as an instrument to serve constitutional purposes. South African Constitutional cases, such as Fose v Minister of Safety and Security and Carmichele exert that if the law of delict does provide a remedy, it is inappropriate to award additional constitutional damages. Foreign case law of Canada in Hedley Byrne & Co v Heller advocates a fresh approach with regard to negligent misrepresentation which relies heavily on Mukheiber v Raath case law.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Distribution and Accessibility to Post Primary Educational Institution in Ogun State, Southwestern Nigeria: Case Study of Yewa South Local Government Area, Nigeria

O. O. Fabiyi, S. A. Ogunyemi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 542-552
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/12328

Access to post-primary school education plays significant role in the future prospect of children in any nation. However the accessibility to post-primary education depends on availability of school within minimum spatial distance to children of different economic divide in the society. Spatial distribution of post-primary school has been generally uneven in most developing countries and thus limits the level of accessibility to that level of education. The study examined the spatial distribution of post-primary education in Yewa South local government area, in the southwestern Nigeria. The locations of post-primary schools in the study area were captured through handheld Global Positioning systems (GPS) receivers and the spatial analyses were carried out in the GIS platform. The results showed a dispersed pattern for the overall assessment of spatial distribution in the areas. However a clustered pattern was obtained for 9 electoral wards while a dispersed pattern was obtained in Ilaro ward (a relatively urban ward). Some students in the public post-primary schools travel as much as 5 kilometers mostly on foot to school every working day.
The paper concludes that spatial reengineering and reorganization of post-primary school is necessary in the study area if the access to educational facilities would be enhanced.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Chickens Fed with Solid Wastes in Terms of Heavy Metal Contents in Zaria Metropolis, Nigeria

S. Uba, A. Uzairu, M. S. Sallau, H. Abba

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 553-570
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/11651

The concentrations of Zn, Pb, Cu, Cd and Hg were spectrophotometrically determined in local chickens that were fed with the solid wastes for three months and dumpsite-soils in both dry and wet seasons. Dumpsite-leachates were analysed in wet season only across the sites. A total of four hundred and thirty two samples of chicken organs, leachates and soil samples were investigated. The trend in the bio-availabilities of the metal ions in the analysed samples was; soils > leachates > organs with the exception of mercury. Overall, the order of the bioavailability of these metals in the analyzed samples across the sites and seasons was; Hg > Cu > Cd > Pb > Zn. The concentrations of mercury, cadmium and lead in the chicken-organs were all above the FAO/WHO (1986) recommended limits for human consumption across the sites. However, the concentrations recorded for copper and zinc were below the safe limits some of the dumpsite chicken organs. Overall, significant differences of the metal ion concentrations in the analysed samples across sites and seasons at p<0.05 were recorded, thus, consuming chickens grown in these dumpsites might pose a serious health threats to consumers due to metal ion bioaccumulation through the food chain.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Queuing Model to Reduce Energy Consumption and Pollutants Production through Transportation Vehicles in Green Supply Chain Management

Amir Azizi, Yones Yarmohammadi, Ali Yasini, Amirhosein Sadeghifard

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 571-581
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15376

Aims: The main goal of this study is to minimize the function with coefficient c, which minimizes vehicles' transportation time and waiting time in supply chain centers.
Study Design: Environmental pollution and shortage of nonrenewable energy resources have increased governments and people's concerns in consuming green products. Queuing and transportation theories have been used in order to reduce energy consumption in a green supply chain.
Methodology: Queuing modeling was performed using LINDO Software. In order to validate the designed model, transportation data of an Iranian dairy products company was used.
Results: The results showed that proper allocation of the present vehicles with certain capacities and employment of queuing theory in the green supply chain caused the reduction of energy consumption through optimizing transportation and waiting times in the green supply chain.
Conclusion: Green products are the result of green supply chain management in organizations' performing strategies in order to reduce waste and environmental pollutants and take a step towards saving energy resources.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Over the Physiologic Inhibition of 1,25(OH)2D on Monocyte-Tissue Factor (CD142) Expression

Kusworini Handono, Intanwati Sherly, T. Endharti Agustina

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 582-590
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15007

Background and Aims: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus is a systemic autoimmune disease with increased risk of thrombosis through the induction of tissue factor (TF) expression, the principal initiator of coagulation. Despite its correlation with some autoimmune diseases, including SLE; vitamin D also correlates well with thrombotic events in SLE or non SLE patients. Vitamin D is an immunomodulator that might have an anti-thrombotic effect by down-regulating TF expression in an vitro model of healthy subjects. Therefore, we studied the effect of metabolite active form of vitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] on monocyte-TF (CD142) expression of SLE patients.
Methods: Monocyte culture were obtained from 6 Indonesian SLE patients and 3 age- and sex- matched, healthy Indonesian participants to evaluate the effect of various concentrations of 1,25(OH)2D on monocyte-TF expression in LPS-induced monocytes. The monocyte-TF (CD142) expression was then analyzed by flow cytometry using Monoclonal Anti-human Coagulation Factor III/TF (CD142)-Phycoerythrin and FITC anti-human CD14.
Results: In vitro model of monocyte culture from SLE patients revealed that 1,25(OH)2D showed no inhibitory effects of monocyte-TF expression (p = .275). Higher or lower doses of 1,25(OH)2D did not correlate with high or low CD142 expression in monocyte culture of SLE patients(r=.1, p=.322).
Conclusion: In vitro study of SLE patients showed that 1,25(OH)2D has no inhibitory effect on TF expression. Ten nM 1,25(OH)2D seemed to be the optimal concentration for suppressing LPS-induced monocyte-TF expression in healthy groups but not in SLE groups.
The different characteristics of monocytes, VDR polymorphism, and the need of higher concentration of vitamin D were the best explanation so far for the different effects in monocyte culture of SLE patients.

Open Access Original Research Article

Temperature and Time-Dependent Behaviour of a Water Base Mud Treated with Maize (Zea mays) and Cassava (Manihot esculanta) Starches

Akintola A. Sarah, S. O. Isehunwa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 591-597
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14870

Starch, one of the commonly used additives in drilling fluids, degenerates with time under cyclic temperature and pressure loads, causing changes in mud properties. This study was designed to establish the effect of temperature and aging on water base mud treated with starches prepared from maize (Zea mays) and cassava (Manihot esculanta) starches. The effect of potash and tannathin on the muds was also investigated. Plastic viscosity of treated samples at varying temperatures (24.4, 40.0, 60.0 and 80.0 O C) was determined using standard API practices over a period of 72 hours. At ambient conditions, the plastic viscosity of samples treated with maize and cassava varied between 5 and 7 cp and increased to between 6 and 12 cp when the samples were further treated with potash. Plastic viscosity for industrial starch varied from between 5 and 6 cp but increased to between 7 and 10 cp when further treated with potash. Predictive models for plastic viscosity and yield point gave coefficient of variance between 90 and 92% respectively. However, all the starches degenerated within 24 hours and would require further treatment to prevent biodegradation.