Open Access Short Research Article

Maasai Community Perception of Oral Thrush: A Qualitative Study

Haikael Martin, Pammla Petrucka, Joram Buza

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 37-42
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14711

Aim: To determine perception and understanding of oral thrush among Maasai women of reproductive age (WRA), Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs), village leaders and health care workers in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA).
Study Design: Cross sectional, qualitative research.
Place and Duration: Three villages namely; Olbalbal, Misigiyo and Alelilai in the Ngorongoro Conservation Area, between March 2013 and September 2014.
Methodology: We included women of reproductive age (210), village leaders (5), Traditional Birth Attendants (TBA) (13) and health care providers (18). Data was collected using focus group discussions among Traditional Birth Attendants and village leaders, interview for women of reproductive age and health care providers.
Results: The community recognizes that oral thrush is a problem among pregnant and lactating Maasai women. According to the Traditional Birth Attendants and village leaders, it is believed that oral thrush came with the modern use of western medication as opposed to their traditional medications used earlier. They stated that their way of life has changed significantly causing these problems. Most WRA say oral thrush is a problem, but they do not know the cause. However, health care providers know that oral thrush is a problem with some knowing the causes and associated risk factors in the Maasai community.
Conclusion: There appears to be an information gap between community members and health care providers with respect to the causes of oral thrush in women of child-bearing age in Ngorongoro Conservation Area. It is noted that TBAs are important to rectify this deficit, because if they understand the problem they can influence changes. Results from this research work can inform more effective health promotion initiatives and interventions.

Open Access Short communication

Innovative Strategies Improving Therapy Adherence

Helmut Niederhofer

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 82-83
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/12992

Aims: The aim of this short communication is to report strategies of how to improve patient`s adherence.
Methodology: 60 psychiatric in-patients were subdivided into three subsamples with different methods to organize outpatient treatment, one third was informed about the importance of therapy continuation, one third fixed an appointment before discharge and one third had a face-to-face contact, lasting for at least 15 minutes.
Results: Results show, that personal contact (94% continued therapy after discharge) is the best method to motivate patients suffering from psychiatric diseases to accept outpatient treatment.
Conclusions: To improve patient`s adherence, personal contact to the psychiatrist, who continues therapy after discharge, should be favorised.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterisation of Distillery Molasses Stillage and Assessment of Water Quality of a River Running through a Sugar Cane Plantation in Southern Zimbabwe

A. Kanda , G. Nyamadzawo , J. Gotosa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13732

The aims of this case study were to characterise partially-treated distillery molasses stillage, determine river pollutant loading and its self purification capacity during the dry season (April to September) in 2012 in southern Zimbabwe. Monthly water and stillage samples were analysed in triplicate for BOD5, DO, NO3-N and PO4-P using standard procedures for water and wastewater analysis. Discharge was estimated using the area-velocity method. River pollutant loading was determined as the product of pollutant concentration and discharge. River self-purification was determined using the upstream and downstream approach. Normality-tested data were subjected to analysis of variance and the least significant difference post-hoc procedure at 95% confidence limit using GENSTAT statistical package. Pearson correlation test was used to determine the strength of associations among parameters. Average monthly values for pond stillage (4 559±9.01 mgBOD5/l; 3 647±2.31 mgTDS/l; 876±2.08 mgNO3-N/l; 729.40±1.15 mgPO4-P/l; 40.35±1.61°C, pH: 4.50±0.06 and 0.46±0.06 mgDO/l) were outside the Zimbabwean permissible limits for safe surface discharge. Average monthly concentrations of parameters upstream differed from those at the first point downstream by between 1.76 and 725.00%, but decreased further downstream (except for DO and pH). Trends of loading rates were: TDS (SP4<SP3=SP1<SP2); BOD5 (SP1<SP4<SP3<SP2); NO3-N (SP1=SP4<SP3<SP2) and PO4-P (SP1=SP3=SP4<SP2). Distillery pond stillage was found to be acidic with high organic matter, nutrients and total dissolved solids for surface discharge. The characteristics of the river upstream were not sufficient for its self-purification within the studied stretch prompting the need for further pre-treatment of stillage. The variation of pollutant concentrations was attributed to uncharacterised watershed and in-stream non-point sources of pollution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Threats to the Conservation of Wetlands in Ghana: The Case of Songor Ramsar Site

John Adu Kumi , Mary Adu Kumi, Andrews Apraku

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 13-25
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13906

Wetlands are important ecosystems internationally recognized, as exemplified by the Ramsar Convention of 1971. They are diverse in terms of habitat, biota, distribution, functions and uses. Many wetlands have lost their pristine quality and have been transformed to modified ecosystems, but their salient role in the ecosystem function cannot be replaced. Over exploitation due to developmental activities and over dependents on their values for livelihood are threatening their existence. Presently, there are five sites with a surface area 178,410 hectares designated as wetlands of international importance, in Ghana. These sites are located in the strategic area of the country which includes the Densu Delta, Muni Lagoon, Anlo-Keta Lagoon Complex, Sakumo Lagoon and the Songor Lagoon. These wetlands are an ecologically valuable resources with diverse fauna including marine turtles, avocets, terns and other migratory or wintering wildlife species.
However, overexploitation and dependency as well as developmental activities on their values for livelihood are threatening their existence. The Songor Lagoon Ramsar site inhabits over 87,000 people in its ecological sensitive area putting enormous pressure on the natural resource and therefore endangering the existence of the species and their habitats.
Therefore a study to investigate the environmental impact of the socio-economic activities on the wetlands has been deemed necessary in order to recommend sustainable measures for the restoration of such sites.
This study used a blend of qualitative and quantitative methodologies to gather both primary and secondary data. Simple random sampling, descriptive and inferential statistics were all employed in data analysis as well as interpretative technique also.
The results indicate that about 92% of the respondents heavily depend on Songor wetland for livelihoods. It was also in established that, 52% of the inhabitants are involved in fishing with chemicals whiles 60% also reclaims the land by using sand for construction in the site. Consequently, wetland resources have been overexploited and degraded, leading to frequent flood and storm attacks.
In conclusion, access to the wetland by the public to undertake activities has made its management on sustainable basis difficult for the management authority. It is therefore recommended that, awareness should be created about the values of the wetland among the community members, also environmental impact assessment should be done before any project is carried out in the site, and the local authorities should formulate a policy or review existing regulations to provide a legal framework for sustainable utilization of the resource and access to critical areas in the Ramsar site.

Open Access Original Research Article

Seroprevalence of Anaplasma Infection in Sheep and Cattle in Kurdistan Province of Iran with an Overview of one Decades of its Epidemiological Status in Iran

Mohammad Khezri

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 26-36
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15535

Aim: Anaplasmosis is an important economic livestock disease. Limited information on its epidemiology in Iran is still lacking thus the aim of the study was to determine the seroprevalence of the disease in sheep and cattle in Kurdistan province of Western Iran with an overview of one decades of its epidemiological status in Iran.
Study Design: This was a mixed cross sectional and longitudinal study carried out for a period of July to September 2013. Using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (c-ELISA), for anti-Anaplasmaantibodies.
Methodology: A total of 182 blood samples were collected from 105 cattle and 77 sheep for the detection of antibodies against Anaplasma species using cELISA method. For this purpose, cattle and sheep of different sex and age were examined.
Results: Examination of 182 blood samples revealed that 8 (7.62%) and 5 (6.49%) of cattle and sheep were infected with Anaplasma species, respectively. Also, the prevalence of Anaplasma infection in relation to age and sex was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The study showed an increasing prevalence of the infection in cattle and sheep of Kurdistan area in western Iran which help to have appropriate prevention measures for Anaplasmosis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Couple Stress Fluid Past a Porous Spheroidal Shell with Solid Core under Stokesian Approximation

T. K. V. Iyengar , T. S. L. Radhika

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 43-60
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13368

The present paper deals with the flow of an incompressible couple stress fluid past a porous spheroidal shell which is made up of two confocal prolate spheroids S0 and S1 where S0 is within S1. The spheroid S0 is taken to be a solid and the annular region between S0 and S1 is porous, with the boundary of S1 being pervious. The flow outside S1 is governed by the linearized version of Stokes’ couple stress fluid flow equations and that within the porous region is governed by the classical Darcy’s law. The resulting equations are then solved analytically for the velocity and pressure fields and drag experienced by the body is obtained. The variation of drag with the different parameters like the material and the geometric is studied numerically and the results are presented through graphs. Stream lines are also plotted to understand the flow pattern.

Open Access Original Research Article

Small-Scale Rural Agro-Processing Enterprises in Ghana: Status, Challenges and Livelihood Opportunities of Women

Richard Ampadu-Ameyaw, Rose Omari

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 61-72
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15523

This paper explored the status, challenges and livelihood opportunities of women small scale agro processors in selected rural communities of the Ga East district of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. It aimed at identifying the needs and options available to these women and the need to scaling up agro-processing in the communities. A total of seventy-five women were randomly selected to participate in the administration of the semi-structured questionnaire interview as well as the focus group discussions which were used to elicit information for the analysis. The study argues that achievement of the state’s objective of empowering women requires an assessment of the state of their activities (e.g. agro-food processing), contributions of small scale rural women’s enterprises, particularly agro-processing to livelihoods improvements. The empirical study results show that while opportunities for rural women entrepreneurs to expand production and penetrate existing markets (locally and internationally) exist there are some impediments which need to be removed in order to allow for growth and development of rural micro and small enterprises (MSEs) for improvement in rural livelihoods. Based on the findings it is concluded that unless the constraints of the agro-processing industry are identified and corrected, Ghana’s dream of revitalizing trade in processed food may only remain a mirage. It is suggested therefore that a deliberate attempt at promoting agro-processing enterprises development that supports local entrepreneurs, particularly rural women should be encouraged aggressively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Sacchromyce cerevisiae (Yeast) Supplementation in Varied Cereal-Based Broiler Starter Diets on Gut Microflora and Morphology

A. D. Ologhobo , Adighibe Lois Chidinma, O. O. Adeleye , I. O. Adejumo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 73-81
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15810

The experiment investigated the effect of yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) on gut microflora and gut morphology integrity of broiler chickens.
A total number of 324 day old Arbor Acres broilers chicks were allocated to 9 x 3 replicates pens consisting of twelve birds each. One of the nine diets consisted of wheat, maize and sorghum with 5% SC inclusion each while the other six diets are the positive and negative control (positive control- maize, wheat and sorghum with antibiotics and negative control-without SC were fed for twenty-eight days. Data on gut morphology and gut microflora from the caeca were collected. At 28 days of age, two birds per replicate that is six birds per treatment were sacrificed through cervical dislocation. Sections of ileum were cut, flushed in distilled water and fixed in 10% formalin for 48hours. The tissues were grossed and cut into smaller pieces of 3mm thick in pre labeled tissue cassette. They were processed using Automatic tissue processor. Total anaerobic counts (TAB) were determined using Fastidious Anaerobe agar (FAA) incubated at 37°C for 5 days. Enterococci counts were enumerated using Slanetz and Bartley incubated aerobically at 37°C for 48 hrs. Coliform counts were enumerated using MacConkey agar, incubated aerobically at 37°C for 24 hrs and Lactobacilli counts were determined using de Man Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar, incubated anaerobically at 38°C for 48 hrs. After incubation, colonies formed on the respective media were carefully counted and calculated. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated using Duncan multiple range test.
Inclusion of SC in the diets had a beneficial effect on the ileum morphology resulting in a significant increase (P<0.05) in villus height of birds fed maize +SC, wheat +SC, sorghum +SC, maize +AB and sorghum +AB but crypt depth, muscular wall length (MWL), villus to crypt ratio and goblet cells number were not significantly different in the dietary treatments. Although the highest crypt, MWL, villus/ crypt ratio and goblet cells number were recorded in Maize +AB (1526.8 µm), sorghum +AB (3466.9 µm), and wheat + SC (2750.7 µm and 129) respectively. Inclusion of SC in the diets had no significant difference on the ceca digesta of broiler birds compared to the positive and negative control on Coliform, total anaerobic bacteria and Lactobacillus sp. Populations. Significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in Enterococci population. Birds on sorghum -SC were significantly higher than birds on sorghum + AB but comparable with rest of the dietary treatments.
Using Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) as a growth supplement can enhance the growth and nutrient absorption of broiler birds through the inhibitory effect of yeast against pathogenic microorganisms.