Open Access Case study

Radiation Effects: Recommendations for Safe Plasma/Flame Cutting Operation

S. B. Majolagbe , A. A. Abioye , K. J. Akinluwade , O. S. Adesina , A. R. Adetunji

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 237-242
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15438

Plasma cutting has been a revolutionary method of processing metals as it provides precision cutting with a smooth finish. The Plasma Arc Cutting machine is an important machine used for producing fine cuts and creating shapes in materials. In addition to high energy radiation (ultraviolet and visible) which plasma arc cutting generates, the intense heat of the arc also generates substantial quantities of fumes and smoke from vaporizing metal in the kerf. With a reflection on a case study, this paper examines the working processes of the machine and the effect on the health of operators or any unsuspecting member of the public. With the safety regulations and recommendations from certified bodies, recommendations are made to ensure safety and limitations of health hazards during the use of the machine.

Open Access Short Research Article

Awareness and Willingness to Utilize Health and Safety Measures among Woodworkers of a Timber Processing Firm in Ghana

Stephen J. Mitchual, Mark Donkoh, Francis Bih

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 178-188
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15786

Reports from studies on occupational health and safety in the wood industry indicate that woodworkers are exposed to various types and degrees of hazards ranging from bacterial, viral and chemical infections to physical injury. In this study therefore, the awareness of occupational health and safety and willingness to use personal safety equipment by woodworkers were considered. A cross-sectional survey design was used for the study. Data for the broader study were collected from 300 respondents at a sawmill in Ghana using questionnaire which consisted of Likert-type items. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and Scheffe’s post hoc test at 0.05 level of significance where necessary. The result indicated that the respondents rated very high their awareness of occupational health and safety issues related to their work. The mean rating of the respondents’ awareness of occupational health and safety issues ranged from 3.72 to 5.51 which were higher than the theoretical mean of 3.50. Additionally, educational background of the respondents appeared not to have significant influence on their ratings of awareness of occupational health and safety issues (20 out of the total number of 27 items did not show any significant difference). Furthermore, the respondents highly rated their willingness to use personal safety equipment at work and their rating was not significantly influenced by the departments they belonged to. Lastly, the result suggests that it is more likely for woodworkers to be willing to use personal protective equipment when they are aware of the safety and health implications on their occupation.

Open Access Short Research Article

Non-Financial Incentives and Job Satisfaction among Hotel Workers in Port Harcourt

Justin Mgbechi Odinioha Gabriel, Lawrence I. Nwaeke

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 227-236
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15900

This study examined the association of non-financial incentives and employee’s job satisfaction of Hotel Workers in Port Harcourt. Questionnaire was the instrument for data collection, and the data were presented using frequency tables, simple percentages and pie charts whereas hypotheses were tested through the Spearman’s Rank Order Correlations Coefficient that was powered by the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). The results showed that: (1). There is a significant relationship between job enrichment and employee job satisfaction. (2) There is a significant relationship between job autonomy and employee job satisfaction. (3) There is a significant relationship between promotion and employee job satisfaction. The study concluded that employees are more interested in the non monetary attention granted them by their superiors on a daily basis; hence treating them rightly everyday effectively communicates how valued, trusted and important they are in the organization. The study recommended that: (1) Management should regularly conduct performance appraisals in order to promote those who are due (2) Management should allow employees sufficient freedom to do their jobs without much interference (3) Employees should be recognized and treated as organizations’ most valued assets that they are.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Ecological Risk Index and Environmental Health

Gavril Cornutiu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 172-177
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15626

Background: The correlation between health and the environment has been acknowledged since ancient times. Values of environmental parameters situated beyond the ecological range produce vulnerabilities and latent pathological mechanisms or generate other reactions. This phenomenon can be called ecological pathogeny.
Objective: The aims of this paper are to prove the existence of the abovementioned phenomenon logically and intuitively using a graphical approach and to define a method for calculating the potential pathological risk index for a given person in non-ecological environments.
Methods: The method consists of a theoretical analysis followed by a synthesis, beginning with the history of medical concepts and mathematical statistics.
Results and Conclusion: a) Given the relationship between environmental parameters situated beyond the ecological range and several pathological states there is a need to introduce the notions of ecological pathogeny and pathology; b) It is possible to find a graphical pattern that suggests the origin of ecological pathology; c) We can quantify the ecological risk index in non-ecological conditions; and d) The concept of ecological pathology involves the cooperation of every academic specialty as well as social and political courts concerned with the human-environment interactions, including nourishment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Do Vertical Stiffness or Dynamic Joint Stiffness Have Footedness-related Differences?

Tiago Atalaia , João M. C. S. Abrantes, Alexandre Castro-Caldas

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 189-200
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15821

Aims: Unilateral hopping (UH) is one of the common tests for footedness assessment. Inter-limb differences between vertical stiffness (KVERT), ankle dynamic joint stiffness (ADJS) and knee dynamic joint stiffness (KDJS) are expected to exist between the dominant and non-dominant limb. Thus the objective of the present study is to verify those differences, denoting KVERT, ADJS and KDJS as indicators of footedness.
Study Design: Comparative study.
Place and Duration of Study: MovLab/ CICANT/ Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, between November 2013 and June 2014.
Methodology: A total of 31 participants (20 female and 11 male) presenting different footedness (right and left) were assessed. Using a 3D motion capture system and a force platform, 10 seconds of UH (for each side) were recorded. Synchronised ankle and knee sagittal moment of force-angular position were used to calculate ADJS and KDJS for the support phase of all hops recorded by participant, divided into two sub-phases: controlled dorsiflexion (CDF) and powered plantar flexion (PPF). The same criteria was used to analyse the synchronised vertical component of ground reaction force (GRFz)-centre of mass (CoM) displacement used for KVERT computation. A paired samples t-test was used to assess inter-limb differences.
Results: No significant differences were found between the dominant and non-dominant limb with the exception of the ADJS in the PPF stance sub-phase (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Footedness does not seem to influence KVERT or KDJS during a hopping task, whereas ADJS presents differences in PPF stance sub-phase.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Analysis of Free Space Optical Communication Link Using Different Modulation and Wavelength

Harsimranjit Kaur, Gaurav Soni

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 201-209
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15503

In this paper different modulation formats NRZ and RZ and different wavelengths 1550 nm and 1310 nm and two photodiodes APD and PIN has been investigated on free space optical communication link. The value of Q has been observed in all the cases in different eye diagrams. It is clear from the observations that the Q value is highest when we use wavelength of 1550 nm, NRZ modulation format and APD photodiode. On the other hand it is lowest when the same wavelength is used with RZ modulation format along with PIN photodiodes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Constraints to Cocoyam Production in Kaduna State, Nigeria

S. Abdulrahman , A. Abdullahi , B. Muhammad

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 210-216
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16167

Aims: Aims of the study were to describe socio-economic characteristics of cocoyam farmers and ascertain the constraints associated with cocoyam producers in Kaduna state.
Study Design: Primary data were collected from cocoyam producers through the use of structured questionnaires.
Place and Duration of Study: “This study was carried out in three local government areas in Kaduna state”, Nigeria between August and November 2014 cropping season.
Methodology: Multistage purposive and random sampling techniques were employed for data collection.
Results: The study showed that 34% of the respondents fall within the age range of 30 and 39 years. The majority of the farmers (50%) had no formal education. The household size ranged from 6-10 persons, whereas (73%) were not members of cooperative society. Results indicated that pest and disease was the most severe constraint of cocoyam producers with about 91.13% of cocoyam farmers attesting to this fact.
Conclusion: The findings of the study ascertained the causes of decline in cocoyam production among farmers in Kaduna State. The study showed that cocoyam production is yet to be maximized since several constraints still limit its production. The most severe problems included pest and disease, unavailability of improved seed, inadequate capital, high cost of input, labour shortage and access to market. These constraints constitute serious impediments to cocoyam production and need to be addressed adequately before cocoyam production can be improved in the area. It was obvious from the study therefore that cocoyam production was declining as a result of the majorly agronomic and marketing constraints. It is recommended that agro based industries should be encouraged by the government to support research and production of cocoyam products for commercial purposes and timely and adequate supply of fertilizer should be made available to farmers at affordable price in order to enhance the production of cocoyam.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antioxidant Properties of Fungal Endophytes Associated with the Three Medicinal Plants Gliricidia sepium, Canna indica and Gardenia jasminoides

Sahar Eskandarighadikolaii, Thomas Edison dela Cruz, Melfei Bungihan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 217-226
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16272

Fungal endophytes live within tissues of living plants without causing any disease. These fungi are recognized sources of natural, bioactive compound with potential applications in agriculture, medicine, and food.
Aims: This research study aimed to isolate and produce bioactive metabolites from fungal endophytes isolated from three Philippine medicinal plants and assess their antioxidant activities.
Study Design: The study used exploratory research where medicinal plants were selected because these were considered to contain a wide range of endophytes which could have varied secondary metabolites that exhibit biological activities.
Place and Duration of Study: Research Center for the Natural and Applied Sciences at the University of Santo Tomas, Manila and Center for Natural Sciences at Saint Mary’s University, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya during June 2011 to October 2012.
Methodology: Medicinal plant leaf endophytes (MPLE) were isolated through surface sterilization of healthy leaves of Gliricidia sepiumCanna indica and Gardenia jasminoides. Selected MPLE were grown in vitro and extracted for their secondary metabolites. Assay of antioxidant activities was done using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) while total phenolics content was through the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The number of metabolites present was detected using thin layer chromatography.
Results: A total of 73 fungal strains belonging to 23 different morphospecies endophytes were isolated from the three host plants. G. sepium had the highest number of morphospecies (32) among the three medicinal plants studied. These fungal endophytes were identified as belonging to the genera Botrytis. Curvularia, Aspergillus, Trichoderma, Penicillium, and Gliocladium. Many MPLE were identified only as mycelia sterile The MPLE crude cultures showed antioxidant activities (75-90%RSA) and total phenolic content of 134 AAE/g. There were a maximum of 11 secondary metabolites present in the crude culture extracts belonging to the class of flavonoids, terpenoids, phenolics, fatty acids and coumarins.
Conclusion: Fungal endophytes are rich in tropical regions and the three Philippine medicinal plants studied are good hosts of fungal endophytes which showed antioxidant activities and secondary metabolites which can be harnessed as sources of pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals.