Open Access Case study

An Overview of Karachi Solid Waste Disposal Sites and Environs

Haq Nawaz Abbasi, Xiwu Lu, Guangyu Zhao

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 294-303
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/11125

Impact assessment is a powerful tool that has been remarkably successful in allowing the consideration of social, economic and environmental effects. The development in Pakistan is supported with the growth of the gross domestic product, the steady increase of the population and the change of lifestyle; resulting waste amounts have also increased considerably. Karachi is the largest metropolitan city of Pakistan with 10% of total population of country and generating more than 10,000 ton/ day solid waste. The main purpose of this study to assess the environmental impact of landfill sites activities in the study area. The impact of the solid waste activities in the area was consider on the area’s geomorphology, geology, air and water quality, biological resources and socio-cultural environment is considered. Potential impacts identified through review of literature, professional judgment, SWM process understanding and field observations at different landfill sites. Sampling was carried out of air, soil and groundwater samples and analysis them physical and chemical parameters. The finding of soil analyses reveals that soil is sandy with brown to yellowish brown color. pH range from 7.25 to 8.08, sulphates concentration is high. CO2 and CO level in air is higher according to national environmental quality standards. Analysis of groundwater samples showed that groundwater from most of the sites was within acceptable range. The major environmental impacts are land uptake, quality of resources, disturbance of small mammals and wild life.

Open Access Short Research Article

The Stopping Powers of Water and Lung for Protons in Radiotherapy

Güneş Tanır, Rıza Dilek, M. Hicabi Bölükdemir

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 287-293
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15979

Aims: This study aims to calculate the energy losses in unit length of protons during their movement within water and lung by using two analytical equations.
Study Design: One of the equations used in this study is the mass stopping power equation suggested by Bethe-Bloch (1930-1933) and modified by Tsoulfanidis (1995) and a new approach has been suggested in the other one.
Methodology: The suggested new approach was obtained by substituting effective z*, Z* and I* values into the equation reported by Tsoulfanidis. Although the energy range of protons used in the radiotherapy is 75-250 MeV, in this study 0.001-250 MeV energy ranges were performed to identify the stopping power. In addition, a new empirical relation was given to simplify the expressions for stopping power. The results were compared with the other researcher’s results.
Results: The suggested approach for the mass stopping power (Equation 2) can be used for both high- and low energy protons. Stopping power values of protons should be especially useful in such medical fields as radiobiology, biomedical applications, radiotherapy and so on.

Open Access Original Research Article

Groundwater Flow Modeling in a Nubian Sandstone Aquifer, South Western Desert, Egypt

Ahmed Hassan, Gamal Elsaeed, Mohamed Nagaty, Eman Abdelghani

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 243-254
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15736

This paper presents a methodology for management and evaluation of groundwater aquifer in the Middle Part of Darb El-Arbaein Area. Three dimensional lithologic modeling techniques have been used for detailed characterization and groundwater flow modeling of the aquifer system in the middle part of Darb El-Arbaein area. Well log data was used for setting the lithologic model using Rock Works software V. 15. A groundwater flow model, facilitated by MODFLOW 2011, was built using results of the lithologic model. The model is used for simulation of the groundwater heads and quality changes for next 10, 25 or 50 years under four different scenarios as follows :- (i) The first scenario with the present extraction rate which is 97360 m3/day to irrigate 2430 feddans, (ii) The second scenario is to increase the new cultivated lands in the studied area, the rate of groundwater extraction is 133360 m3/day to irrigate 3240 feddans, (iii) The third scenario is to change the discharge and working hours of productive wells, groundwater extraction rate reaches 48600 m3/day to irrigate 2430 feddans, (iv) The fourth scenario is to use the third scenario and increase new cultivated lands, the total rate of groundwater extraction is 64800 m3/day to irrigate 3240 feddans. The simulation results for the first and the second scenarios show that, the groundwater table started to decline due to the over pumping from the productive wells but the third and the fourth scenarios control and safe groundwater extraction. The non-reactive transport model MT3DMS has been applied along the flow model. It was found that TDS of the groundwater in the studied area increased throughout 10 years, but after 25 years there would not be a significant change of expected groundwater salinity and it became constant.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme: Using Computer-assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) for Documentary Analysis

Christo Olatunji-Odeyemi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 255-266
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16042

The present study examines documentary submission by Air New Zealand (NZ) [1], Business NZ [2], Greenpeace NZ [3] and Oxfam NZ [4] to the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) Review Committee in 2009. In doing so, this paper consulted Lewins and Silver’s Computer Assisted Qualitative Data Analysis Software (CAQDAS) which seeks to familiarise researchers with CAQDAS software package [5]. But the continuously changing information technologies field suggests that the useful book is no substitute for an exploration of the specifics of NVivo 10 – released in 2012. Asking whether the NZ corporate businesses shares similar concerns on the issue of climate change, this article uses NVivo 10 to explore some ways in which CAQDAS can be used to simultaneously provide concise description of changes in relationships and in-depth documentary analysis. Two of the key themes that emerged from analysis are carbon market and internationalisation, whereas the main finding shows a consensus among the four organisations that the international community must act in unison so as to effectively address climate change issues. Cluster analysis shows that words can be broadly grouped into three where members of each group share common characteristics. Also, there is better relationship and more coherence between Greenpeace, Air NZ and Business NZ submissions than that of Oxfam. In addition to the fact that computer science was included in NZ high schools curriculum barely four years ago [6], the present paper is significant in that it would assist qualitative researchers who may be considering CAQDAS especially NVivo 10 as a qualitative method as well as facilitate public and corporate entities an avenue to express their opinions regarding climate change issues.

Open Access Original Research Article

Martyrdom: An Investigation into Issues of Religious Violence in North Africa

Nico P. Swartz

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 267-275
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14881

Aims: The paper aims to clarify the relationship of martyrdom between two religious organizational structures, the Donatists and the Catholic Church. It proposes modeling a social transformation process by stressing a homogeneity of martyrdom between these two realms.
Study Design: It is a theoretical construct based on historical data.
Place and Duration of Study: Although this paper is a modern day text (constructed from December 2012 till November 2014), its literature sources is historical by nature. Religious violence in North Africa dated back to 340 BCE and found its culmination in 429 CE.
Methodology: The research is based on a theoretical (desk top) and exploratory study. The data required are complemented by documentary analysis. This study poses a clear database which the author generated and on which he draws. This article is a serious inquiry based on original data and the writings are universal.
Results: This paper purports to enervate the polemical views of Catholic sentiments against the Donatists. Two prominent Catholic scholars, Optatus and Augustine have divulged that martyrdom status is only to be afforded to Catholics who have suffered and died for their faith. The outcome and implications of this paper is that there should be no indication of prejudice and enmity in a literary work and that the researcher should not be afraid to transcend cultural boundaries in search for the truth or to present the view of the “other” objectively. These ideas, in the context of North Africa, where almost all of the historical writings on martyrdom accounts have been produced by Catholic writers, have been challenged.
Conclusion: This study stresses the axiomatic notion that to be a martyr one has to suffer and eventually dies for your faith. It is true that both the Donatists and the Catholic Christians were subjected to martyrdom in North Africa and both of them have also conformed to the Gospel requirements for such a status. As such both religious groups can be afforded martyrdom status as per this study. Certain claims, for example by one of these religious sections that they are the “true” Church and the bringing about by the other section the method of exclusion that the other is not Christian, must be regarded as not important. The research wants to dwarf the polemical atmosphere that surrounds these two important groups and wants to elevate the concept of martyrdom they have forged in North Africa.

Open Access Original Research Article

Contamination and Health Risk Assessment of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) in Uyo, Niger Delta, Nigeria

E. A. Moses, U. B. Orok

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 276-286
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16296

Aims: This study was aimed to assess the level of particulate matter contamination and its associated health risks in Uyo, Niger Delta, Nigeria.
Study Design: The study involved sampling and analysis of suspended particulate matter and assessing the health risk associated with trace metal and anion content using mathematical models.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at the Uyo metropolis, Nigeria between October, 2012 and May, 2013.
Methodology: Particulate matter samples were collected from five selected locations in Uyo Metropolis and analysed for trace metals using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric technique and anions (SO42-, NO3-and PO43-) using UV-Visible Spectrometric technique. Metal Contamination indices were estimated using mathematical models for enrichment factor (EF) and contamination factor (CF). Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) was used to measure the health risk associated with the trace metals.
Results: The order of trace metal concentrations for the five locations were measured as Fe>Cu>Zn>Ni>Cr>Al>Pb>Co>Ti. Pearson correlation analysis indicated strong positive correlations for Fe/Co (r=0.89), Pb/Ni (0.88), Co/Cr (r=0.72), Al/Co (0.70) and Cu/Ti (r=0.60). Mean enrichment factor was highest for Cu (8.2) and lowest for Co (0.1) with moderate and minimal contamination indices of 0.93 and 0.02 respectively for all locations studied. Mean sulphate concentrations ranged between 911.5±1.49 and 1343.5±1.56 mg/kg, phosphates 15.9±2.64 and 98.8±1.52 mg/kg, while nitrate concentration was between 46.7±7.35 and 1371±19.6 mg/kg. Calculated THQ values were highest for Fe (2.30-2.43) and Cu (0.24-0.44).
Conclusion: Findings in the study indicated no significant contamination of particulate matter and no measurable health risk associated with the particulate matter at the time of study. However, there is need for continuous monitoring of these indices due to increased urbanisation and anthropogenic activities in the area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibitory Potential of Ethanol Extract of Detam 1 Soybean (Glycine max) Seed and Jati Belanda (Guazuma ulmifolia) Leaves on Adipogenesis and Obesity Models in 3T3-L1 Cell Line

Meilinah Hidayat, Sylvia Soeng, Sijani Prahastuti, Pande Putu Erawijantari, Wahyu Widowati

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 304-312
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16273

Background: Obesity is considered an emergency health problem through out the world and is characterized by an increase in the number and size of adipocytes in adipose tissue. Some phytochemical bioactive have been shown to inhibit adipocyte differentiation and induce adipocyte apoptosis.
The Objective: In this ex vivo study, we evaluated the cytotoxic effects, antiobesity and antidiapogenesis potential of ethanol extract of Detam 1 soybean seed (EEDS), Jati Belanda leaves (EEJB) and their combinations on 3T3-L1 cells.
Experimental Approach: The cytotoxic effect of EEDS and EEJB were assayed using MTS assay. Triglyceride (TG) level and inhibitory activity were assayed using a TG assay kit. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) activity and inhibitory activity were determined by using G6PDH assay kit. The cholesterol level was measured according to the Chol Kit Randox protocol.
Results: The lowest cytotoxic activity and safe substances on 3T3-L1 cell were EEDS and EEJB in 50 and 10 µg/ml of concentration. EEJB in the concentration of 50 µg/ml was the most active to inhibit G6PD, TG, and cholesterol activity with inhibition activities 47.30%, 37.93% and 73.91% respectively compared to the control (differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocyte).
Conclusion: Ethanol extract of Detam 1 soybean seed and Jati Belanda leaves posses the inhibitory potential on G6PD, triglyceride and cholesterol activities in 3T3-L1 cell line and the most active compound showed by ethanol extract of Jati Belanda leaves.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of an Oil Extraction Machine for Jatropha curcas Seeds

A. T. Salawu, M. Isiaka, M. L. Suleiman

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 313-328
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15148

Aim: This study aimed to solve one of the problems which Jatropha curcas seeds (JCS) oil extraction industry is facing in the Northern part of Nigeria; the lack of efficient small scale oil extraction machines. A small scale JCS oil extraction machine was therefore designed, developed, and evaluated for performance.
Study Design: The study was conducted using 3 × 3 × 3 Factorial Experimental Design. The results obtained were analysed using ANOVA while Least Significant Difference (LSD) test was used to separate the means.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agricultural Engineering, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria between January 2011 and April 2013.
Methodology: Base on design calculations, locally sourced materials with indigenous technology were used for the development of the machine. In evaluating the developed prototype machine, the effect of speed, feed-rate, and moisture content on throughput, extraction rate, and extraction efficiency were determined.
Results: The throughput, extraction rate and extraction efficiency of the machine were in the range of 27.86 to 54.96 kg/hr, 4.45 to 9.42 L/hr, and 27.86 to 65.17%, respectively. The best throughput, extraction rate and extraction efficiency of the machine were obtained at 40 rpm with a feed-rate of 48 kg/hr and moisture content of 7.0% on dry basis (db). The average throughput, extraction rate and extraction efficiency of the machine were 32.67 kg/hr, 7.76 L/hr, and 62.22%, respectively.
Conclusion: The seed-machine factors suggest that the machine should be operated at a speed of 40 rpm, feed-rate of 48 kg/hr and moisture content of 7.0% db to enhance its best performance.