Open Access Clinical Practice Article

Perceptions, Expectations and Barriers of Physicians towards Working with Clinical Pharmacists in Saudi Arabia

Saja Almazrou, Lamya Alnaim, Hadeel Al-Kofide

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 404-415
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/11637

The purpose of this study was to investigate physicians’ perceptions and expectations regarding clinical pharmacists working in the healthcare team. In addition, to determining the barriers that impede clinical pharmacists’ contributions to the team, from the physician’s point.
A self- administered questionnaire was delivered to randomly selected physicians in Riyadh hospitals. The survey was pilot-tested on a small group of physicians to improve clarity and limit response bias. A total of 135 physicians were enrolled in this study. In terms of working with clinical pharmacists, 28% and 39% indicated they either never or rarely worked with a clinical pharmacist, respectively, while only 4% and 9% worked with a clinical pharmacist quite often or very often. Respondents agreed that clinical pharmacists were an integral part of the medical team (mean 4.4±0.72) and found them to be helpful in managing drug interactions and side effects, selecting appropriate drug therapies during pregnancy and educating other healthcare workers. Most respondents agreed that the specific responsibilities of a clinical pharmacist were not clearly defined (mean 3.83±0.98). Physicians seemed to be unaware of the potential benefits of having a clinical pharmacist on their teams, and some physicians had no prior experience working with clinical pharmacists.
Physicians in Riyadh were receptive to most statements regarding perceptions and expectations of clinical pharmacists. They considered them an integral part of the medical team, with a major role in educating other healthcare workers. The most frequently identified barrier was lack of role definition of clinical pharmacists.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Threshold Rules for a Normal Approximation to a Binomial Distribution

Steven T. Garren

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 329-339
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16653

A commonly used rule for determining if a Binomial(n, p) distribution may be reasonably approximated by a normal distribution is whether or not np and n(1 – p) are at least some constant, such as 10. Two competing rules, one based on the binomial variance and the other based on the coefficient of variation, are considered when constructing confidence intervals and performing hypothesis testing, both using and not using a continuity correction. Under one criterion the rule based on the coefficient of variation is found to be the best in terms of coverage probabilities, and under another criterion the rule based on the binomial variance is found to be the best.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stakeholder Views on Waste and Its Management in Tamale Metropolis, Ghana

Raymond Adongo, Conrad-J. Wuleka Kuuder, Esther E. Amoako, Wilhemina Asare, Abudu Ballu Duwiejuah, Vida Arthur

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 340-349
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15283

Management of waste in Ghana is primarily the responsibility of District, Municipal and Metropolitan Assemblies in partnership with private waste management companies. The main objective of this study was to assess stakeholder views on waste and its management in Tamale Metropolis. Purposive sampling was used to interview a total of 11 stakeholders from both private and public sectors to solicit their views on the problem of waste generation and its management in the Tamale Metropolis. The study revealed that 100% of the stakeholders considered waste and its management as a serious problem in the Tamale Metropolis. The stakeholders considered improper waste disposal as the major problem in the Metropolis. It is therefore eminent that the fastest growing city in West Africa in recent years is gradually becoming a slum despite being adjudged the cleanest city in Ghana on three occasions. Out of the 11 respondents, 91% of them believed there is consultation and collaboration among waste stakeholders in the Metropolis whilst only 9% disagreed. The study also revealed that 91% of the stakeholders participated in waste management decision making whilst 9% have never participated in waste management decision-making in the Metropolis. This infers that there is a comprehensive collaboration between stakeholders in the management of waste in the Metropolis. The study revealed that waste management challenges in the Metropolis are as a result of deficiencies in technical, financial and institutional frameworks as well as social constraints.

Open Access Original Research Article

Positive and Negative Work-family Interaction: How Burnout is Related to Job Satisfaction

Marcel Lourel, Kamel Gana, Farida Mouda, Frédérique Gros, Ofélia Petric-Tatu, Raphaël Trouillet, Isabelle Fort

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 350-362
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15809

Aims: The main objective of this study was to test competitive path models describing the relationship between Work–Home Interference, job burnout and job satisfaction.
Study Design: Data was obtained from a sample of 95 dentists. A conceptual model in which burnout totally mediates the relationship between Work–Home Interference and job satisfaction was compared to another model in which this mediation was partial. The mediator role was demonstrated using the rationale and procedure suggested by Holmbeck [1]. The results were discussed in light of the literature dealing with burnout.
Sample: Data was obtained from a sample of 95 denstists.
Practical Implications: The research suggests the very importance of relationships between work and home life, and the mediator role of job burnout for current research in quality of work life balance and management.
Originality/Value: Previous results reported in this population are few. The attention aroused by the conciliation between private and working lives is important inasmuch as it can alter the psychological and physical health of individuals.

Open Access Original Research Article

Footedness-Related Differences in Dynamic Joint Stiffness and Leg Stiffness Measurements

Tiago Atalaia, João M. C. S. Abrantes, Alexandre Castro-Caldas

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 363-370
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15820

Aims: Single-leg triple jump for distance (SLTJD) is a common test used to assess footedness. Inter-limb differences in leg stiffness (KLEG), ankle dynamic joint stiffness (ADJS), and knee dynamic joint stiffness (KDJS) are expected to be present. The objective of the present study is to verify this.
Study Design: Comparative study.
Place and Duration of Study: MovLab/CICANT/Universidade Lusófona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, between November 2013 and June 2014
Methodology: A group of 31 participants (20 female and 11 male) presenting different footedness (right and left) was assessed. Six SLTJDs (three each side) were recorded using a 3D motion capture system and a force platform. KLEG was calculated for each of the trials recorded by each participant, and synchronised ankle sagittal moment of force and angular position were used to calculate ADJS and KDJS for the support phase of the last jump of the SLTJD, dividing it into two sub-phases: Controlled dorsiflexion and powered plantar flexion. A paired samples t-test was calculated to assess the influence of footedness on biomechanical variables.
Results: No significant differences were found between the dominant and non-dominant limb in the studied parameters.
Conclusion: Footedness does not seem to influence KLEG, ADJS, or KDJS in the SLTJD.

Open Access Original Research Article

Households Solid Waste Generation and Disposal in Some Selected Communities in Ejisu–Juaben Municipality, Ghana

W. Asare, A. Andrews, R. Asare

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 371-382
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15361

To reduce or curb solid waste management challenges in Ejisu–Juabeng Municipality of Ghana, it is incumbent to quantify the solid waste composition generated at source (household level) and current disposal methods. Kwamo, Ejisu and Fumesua were selected based on the premise of commercial activities, population and historical background. Data was collected through mix approach such as field investigation, survey, face-to-face interviews and the use of semi–structured questionnaire. The study observed high levels of putrescible waste in all the selected towns. The highest mean quantity of solid waste generated was observed in Ejisu, followed by Kwamo and Fumesua respectively. The mean per capita waste generations were 0.2 kg per day for Kwamo, 0.2 kg per day for Ejisu and 0.3 kg per day for Fumesua respectively that falls within the national average per capita waste generation of 0.5 kg per day. The influence of socio–economic factors and availability of communal waste receptacles on waste generation and disposal has been discussed. Workable integrated solid waste management within the Municipality has been proposed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Modeling an N – warehouse Stock Allocation via Dynamic Programming Technique

C. E. Emenonye, C. R. Chikwendu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 383-393
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14135

Stock allocation is a system used to ensure that goods and services reach the ultimate users through efficient stocking in warehouses close to the consumers. The dire need for optimum distribution of goods to both retailers and consumers has caused a reasonable drift from ordinary allocation to developing a mathematical model that ensures efficient allocation of goods and services. Allocation of stock to warehouses is a complex problem that is broken down into simpler sub problems. Dynamic programming problem is a linear optimization method that obtains optimum solution of a multivariable problem by decomposing it into sub problems. A recursive equation links the different stages of the problem such that the optimum feasible solution of each stage is guaranteed to be the optimum feasible solution for the entire problem. This work will use the dynamic programming technique to develop a stock allocation model that would ensure optimum allocation of goods and services for maximum returns.
Relevant related literature are presented and reviewed with the aim of using this research to improve stock allocation processes. A manufacturing company that has at least six distribution outlets is used as a case study. The model is applied to data collected from the firm to obtain an enhanced stock allocation. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Total Protein, Superoxide Dismutase, Catalase Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Soil Macro-fauna (Earthworm) from Onitsha Municipal Open Waste Dump

J. C. Ifemeje, S. C. Udedi, A. U. Okechukwu, A. C. Nwaka, C. B. Lukong, I. N. Anene, C. Egbuna, I. C. Ezeude

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 394-403
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/12552

Aims: Oxidants are substances toxic in high concentration, but at low doses can stimulate biological activities of living organisms. The effect of oxidants on cells is modulated by multiple interacting antioxidant defence mechanism. The present study evaluated the individual role of interaction of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in estimating the level of toxicity of municipal solid waste on soil organisms, and the rate of lipid peroxidation by the action of reacting oxygen species.
Study Design: Earthworm samples were collected from four different locations grouped into A, B, C, and D.
Place and Duration of the Study: Analysis was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, Anambra State University, from March 2014 to May 2014.
Methodology: Total protein estimation was determined by Lowry method while superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), catalase activity (CAT) and lipid peroxidation concentration was determined spectrophotometrically using Shimadzu UV-160 spectrophotometer.
Results: A high increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activity as a result of corresponding increase in lipid peroxidation was observed in earthworms of groups C and D (21.22±0.54 and 23.74±0.51 respectively) compared to groups A and B (4.88±0.54 and 7.24±0.31 respectively). Based on the above observation, groups A and B can be classified as samples from the dormant portion while groups C and D can be classified as samples from the active portion of the site.
Conclusion: The increased level of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity may be a result of increased concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in waste dumps which can cause damage to soil organisms or even death and hence render the soil from the dump site unfit for agricultural purposes.