Open Access Case study

Self-reporting of Food Handlers in Food Production and Distribution Centers in Sanandaj City, Iran

Forough Samadnejad, Ramin Khoshniyat, Masoud Abdollahi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 483-489
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16370

One of the ways to get thorough knowledge to food handlers is self-reporting. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare self-reporting and routine inspection of Environmental Health Inspectors (EHIs) on elimination of health defects in food production and distribution centers. This was a case-control study in which a questionnaire checklist was designed based on Article 13, an Iranian law for inspecting the food production and distribution centers. The questionnaire consisted of five parts including personal, building, tools, transportation, and food hygiene. It was distributed among 45 case and control groups for six months. The case group included the food handlers filling up the checklists monthly according to their place conditions, whereas, the control group included EHIs. After data collection, it was analyzed by means of SPSS (Ver.19), K2 and Mann Whitney tests. Research found significant differences in mean of sanitation conditions in both groups with respect to the food centers with checklist at the end of program in personal hygiene (P=.011), food hygiene (P=.008) and transport hygiene of food (P=.050). Moreover, it was found that the mean differences in place sanitation conditions compliance with the questionnaire at the end of the study was statistically significant in both case and control groups except in the case of building hygiene and food hygiene. This research work proved that self-reporting of food handlers can promote different aspects of sanitation criteria in their workshops. However, it had no significant effect on building and food hygiene.

Open Access Short Research Article

Microstructure and Composition Design of Magnetic Ni-Mn-Sn Co-sputter Deposited Films

A. Quintana-Nedelcos, J. L. Sanchez-Llamazares, T. García-Fernández, S. Guvenc, M. Yumak, C. García

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 476-482
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16672

In this work, we study the effect of the substrate temperature (ST) during sputter-deposition as well as co-sputtering deposition on the fabrication of nanostructured Ni-Mn-Sn thin films. Sputtered films show Mn losses of around 10 at.% while the average grain size (<d>) increased from 30 nm to 105 nm with the increasing of ST. Mn losses compensation is proposed by co-sputtered deposition. With such a purpose a variable electrical power was applied to the radio frequency (RF) Mn cathode. By increasing the electrical power applied to the RF Mn cathode both Mn and Ni contents approach to the targeted nominal composition Ni:Mn:Sn = 50:37:13. Elemental chemical composition analyses show that the composition varied between Ni61.5Mn26.2Sn12.3 and Ni54.6Mn30.5Sn14.9 when the applied RF-power increased from 0 W to 30 W.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rainfall Variability over Northern Zambia

Libanda Brigadier, Nkolola Barbara, Musonda Bathsheba

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 416-425
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16189

Aims: The main aimwas to establish, if any, a trend in the amount and distribution of annual rainfall climatologyover Zambia.
Study Design: Diverse statistical methods representing approaches in long term rainfall climatology analysis were employed.
Place and Duration of Study: Zambia Meteorological Department, Kabwe, Zambia and School of Atmospheric Sciences, Nanjing University of Information, Science and Technology, Nanjing, China, between September 2014 and December 2014.
Methodology: In this paper, the amount and seasonal distribution of rainfall from 1960 to 2010 over Northern Zambia as observed by 7 Provincial Meteorological Stations scattered across the study area was studied. A relationship between the rainfall patterns and the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) was explored and found. Composite analysis was also employed.
Results: The results showed that during the peak of the rainy season (October – April), the northwestern parts of the study area particularly Ndola, experiences more rainfall than any other area over Northern Zambia while during rainy season off peaks (May – September) Isoka receives more rainfall. During warm (cool) ENSO events, dry (wet) conditions generally occur over much of the summer rainfall.
Conclusion: For agricultural tactical purposes, the start of the rain season has been identified as November with October being a transitional month while the end of the season is March and April being a month of transition. The strong link between ENSO and rainfall over Northern Zambia suggests that there is a practical usability in forecasting whenever it is established that an ENSO episode is in progress.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Pollen Spectrum of Apis mellifera Honey from Reconcavo of Bahia, Brazil

Andreia Santos do Nascimento, Carlos Alfredo Lopes de Carvalho, Geni da Silva Sodré

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 426-438
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16799

Background: The use of pollen grains to establish the geographical and botanical origin of honey samples, and for supplying information concerning to the floral class of a honey produced in a region, has been employed since 1895. Pollen analysis has relevant significance for the quality control of a honey that may include numerous pollen grains and elements of honeydew. The objective of this work was to determine the botanical origin of pollen from plants contributing in the composition of honey from the region of Reconcavo of Bahia, Brazil.
Methodology: Form each honey sample, a 10 g subsample was diluted in 20 mL of distilled warm water (40ºC) and centrifuged before the supernatant was drawn out. After centrifugation the pollen sediment was acetolysed following for better observation of the pollen grains. Subsequently, this sediment was mounted in microscopy slides with glycerin jelly for latter pollen grains counting and identification. The identification of the pollen grains found in the samples was determined by comparison with a reference collection from the Palynotheca of the Nucleus of Insect Studies from the Federal University of Reconcavo da Bahia and with descriptions obtained from specialized literature. A total of 70 honey samples of Apis mellifera L. were obtained from beekeepers of 17 counties in the Reconcavo of Bahia region, from March 2009 to February 2010, and palynologically analysed. Acetolyzed pollen were count and identified.
Results: One hundred and twelve pollen types were identified, distributed within 35 families. Among these pollen types, 67.00% occurred with low frequency (rare) within the samples analyzed. Inside abundance class, 63.00% occurred as minor pollen. Mimosaceae was the richest accounting for 13.00% of the pollen types. There was similarity among the sources of trophic resources used by A. mellifera in the counties studied, with the highest similarity index of trophic resources found between the counties of Cabaceiras do Paraguaçu and São Felipe (Cs = 0.68).
Conclusion: Pollen analysis demonstrated that honey produced by A. mellifera in the region of Reconcavo of Bahia, Brazil, is predominantly multifloral, with emphasis the Mimosaceae.

Open Access Original Research Article

Removal of Heavy Metals from Sewage Sludge Using Sugarcane Waste Extract

O. T. Okareh, O. D. Enesi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 439-450
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16967

Introduction: The disposal of Sewage Sludge (SS) or its application on farmlands is of public health concern, owing to the potentials of Heavy Metals (HMs) in SS to deteriorate soil, ground water quality and bioaccumulate in food chains. Conventional inorganic chelating agents used for removing HMs are mostly expensive and have negative environmental impacts.
Aim: This study, therefore, determined the efficacy of fermentation extracts from Sugarcane Wastes (SWs) in removing HMs from sewage sludge.
Methodology: An experimental design was adopted. Crude Fermentation Extract (CFE) and Fungus-specific Fermentation Extract (FFE) were used to remove Copper, Zinc, Chromium, Nickel, Cadmium and Lead from SS, and Commercial-grade Citric Acid (CCA) used as control. The experiment was carried out by adding 20 ml of the treatment (extracts and control) at various pH (3 – 6) to 1g of SS each. The mixture was centrifuged after a contact time of 1-5 days at 1000 rpm for 1hour. The filtrate was analysed for Heavy Metals Concentrations(HMCs) and compared with National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency (NESREA) permissible limits. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA at P=0.05.
Results: The HMCs (mg/Kg) in the SS were Cu (311.4±4.8), Zn (2081.0±30.0), Cr (10.8±1.3), Ni (31.5±1.4), Cd (2.5±0.1) and Pb (167.5±9.4). The concentrations were below the permissible limits (mg/Kg) set by NESREA for Cr (100.0), Ni (70.0) and Cd (3.0) but higher for Cu (100.0), Zn (421.0) and Pb (164.0). Optimum HMR was achieved on day 5 at pH 3 for Cu, Cr, Cd and Pb by CFE, FFE and CCA; and at varying pH (3-4) for Zn and Ni. The concentration of Cr, Ni and Pb removed by CFE was significantly higher than FFE, but showed no significant difference for Cu and Cd. Both extracts showed higher HMR compared with control, except for Cu and Pb; and reduced the concentrations of Zn and Pb to acceptable levels.
Conclusion: Crude fermentation extract of sugarcane wastes was most effective in removing the heavy metals except Copper from sewage sludge. Therefore, its use could be adopted and promoted for removing these heavy metals from sewage sludge to achieve safe disposal.

Open Access Original Research Article

Community Based Study of Cerebrovascular Risk Factors in Tripoli-Libya (North Africa)

Mohamed Kaled A. Shambesh, Taher Mohamed Emahbes, Zeinab Elmehdi Saleh, Ezzadin Areaf Franka, Omer Ibrahim Bosnena

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 451-460
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17128

A stroke is the leading cause of adult mortality and disability. It is the second most common cause of death globally and may soon become the first cause of death worldwide. Among the most important risk factors for stroke are advanced age, hypertension, diabetes, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack. Hypertension and diabetes are the most important and frequent modifiable risk factors of stroke.
Objectives: Estimate the most important risk factors associated with stroke in African population by using CHADS2 method.
Study Design: Was community based descriptive cross-section.
Place and Duration of Study: North Africa (North west of Libya), among Individuals living in Tripoli area the capital, Duration of the study, five years from 1/1/2010 in to 31/12/2014.
Methodology: Data collected among 7497 individuals do not have atrial fibrillation (52.8% males & 48.2% females) which contained detailed histories (present, past, medical, hospital admission), available investigations, discharge letters and medical reports. Medical examinations was performed when necessary.
Results: Among population screened (7497) over five years (from 2010 to 2014), the prevalence of diabetes was 39%, it was more among males than females (P=0.001). Hypertension was 38%, for most of age groups males have higher rate than females (P=0.041). Diabetes and hypertension increases with age groups over 40 (P<0.0001).
Congestive heart failure was 15.2% which increased with age (P<0.0001). Females have higher prevalence for 16-59 age groups and males dominated in over 60 years.
Transient ischemic attack (TIA) was 15%, males have higher TIA than females in all age groups (P <0.001) and increases with age (P<0.0001).
Prior Stroke (ischemic or hemorrhagic) prevalence was 9.7%, it was more among males than females (P=0.05) and increases with age over 40 (P<0.0001).
Conclusion: This Libyan study found stroke is a major public health problem in Africa, prevalence of stroke increases with age, and males are affected more than females for most of age groups. Diabetes, Hypertension, Congestive heart failure and previous history of embolic or transient ischemic attack are major risk factors that are associated with stroke.
Recommendation: To do another studies to measures stroke risk factors by using laboratory investigations, and other medical diagnostic procedures, consequently, to estimate the most accurate and true rates.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Carbonized Saw Dust on the Mechanical Properties of Polyolefin Plastics

M. N. Akanbi, F. N. Onuoha, I. N. Elele, S. C. Nwogu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 461-467
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15500

Carbonized particles of saw dust using maleic anhydride as coupling agent have been incorporated into high density polyethylene and polypropylene in the range of 10 – 50 wt % and injection moulded into rectangular sheets. The mechanical properties of the sheets were determined. The results obtained showed that certain properties (mechanical, bending strength as well as bending modulus and flexural) increased significantly in the narrow particle loading of range 0 -10 wt %.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analytical Solution for Normal Depth Problem in a Vertical U-shaped Open Channel Using the Rough Model Method

Bachir Achour

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 468-475
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16682

Normal depth plays a significant role in the design of open channels and in the analysis of the non-uniform flow as well. Currently there is no analytical method for calculating the normal depth in the open channels. Current methods are either iterative or approximate and consider, unreasonably, Chezy’ coefficient or Manning’s roughness coefficient as a given data of the problem. Yet, both of these coefficients depend in particular on the normal depth sought and it is therefore unjustified to fix them beforehand. To overcome this drawback, the rough model method (RMM) seems to be the most appropriate tool. The RMM takes into account, in particular, the effect of the absolute roughness which is a readily measurable parameter in practice. The method is based on known referential rough model characteristics used to deduce the normal depth by means of a non-dimensional correction factor.