Open Access Original Research Article

Almost Periodic Solution of a Discrete Multispecies Type Competition-predator System

Hui Zhang, Feng Feng, Xiaofeng Fang, Jing Wang

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 490-503
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16779

In this paper, we consider a discrete multispecies Gilpin-Ayala type competition-predator system. Firstly, permanence of the system is studied. Assume that the coefficients in the system are almost periodic sequences, we obtain the sufficient conditions for the existence of a unique almost periodic solution which is globally attractive by the almost periodicity. Two examples together with numerical simulation indicate the feasibility of the main results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Xenopus laevis RECK and Its Relationship to Other Vertebrate RECK Sequences

Jessica A. Willson, Michelle A. Nieuwesteeg, Mario Cepeda, Sashko Damjanovski

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 504-513
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17044

Aims: Reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs (RECK) is a membrane-anchored protein that regulates cell migration by both inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases and modulating cellular pathways. Our study is the first to clone and examine the expression pattern of reck during early Xenopus laevis development.
Study Design: Expression and sequence analysis.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biology, University of Western Ontario, 2 years.
Methodology: Xenopus laevis RECK cDNA was sequenced and used to make probes to analyze RECK temporal and spatial expression using PCR and in situ hybridization respectively. The X. laevis sequence was also compared to a breadth of vertebrate and a few invertebrate RECK amino acid sequences to ascertain conserved regions and domains that may be present in all vertebrate and other animal species.
Results: Semi-quantitative PCR, whole mount in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry were used to examine the expression pattern of reck during early X. laevis development. reck expression is low during gastrulation but increases during neurulation and throughout organogenesis. RECK is also present in neural and vascular structures of the X. laevis embryo, consistent with its role in other vertebrates. The predicted full-length X. laevis RECK amino acid sequence was found to be highly conserved with other RECK proteins. All RECK proteins are found to have 3 inhibitory Kazal motifs, where the first is the most conserved in all animals. Furthermore, all RECK proteins contain 6 conserved cysteines in each of 5 knot motifs, with the 3rdknot being the most highly conserved. Knot domains were more conserved amongst birds, than amongst herptiles and mammalians.
Conclusion: The conservation of expression and sequence suggest that RECK has a very conserved function in vertebrates and possibly all animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Gongronema latifolium Leaf Extract on Blood Biochemical Assay in Diabetic Rats

Effiong Grace Sylvester, Eshiet Unyime Israel, Ajibola Dorcas Olajumoke

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 514-522
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15891

Gongronema latifolium (GL) is used extensively in the indigenous system of medicine as an anti-diabetic agent. Hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities of Gongronema latifolium extract in Type 2 diabetic rat models were evaluated using standard analytical methods while Blood was collected on every 3 days through the rat’s tail vein for glucose estimation using One Touch Glucometer. Blood glucose in the diabetic animals decreased significantly (P=.05) from initial by 66.34% upon treatment with Gongronema latifolium. Diabetes induction caused significant increases (P=.05) in total cholesterol (TC) with 54.42% and low density lipoprotein (LDL) with 55.0% compared to the normal control (NC), while treatment with extracts of Gongronema latifolium significantly decreased (P=.05) these by (58.70% TC) and (71.70% LDL) respectively. Also the amino transferases (ALT and AST) parameters activities which increased by 66.83% and 72.87% in the diabetic control (DC) rats became reduced upon treatment with Gongronema latifolium. Thus the plant extract was capable of ameliorating hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and could be a potential source for isolation of new orally active agent(s) for anti-diabetic therapy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Human Activities on the Ecosystem of Areas Surrounding Lake Elementaita Naivasha Sub County Kenya

Edward Mwendwa, F. K. Lelo, S. T. Kariuki, A. A. Shitandi, Nemwel N. Aming’a

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 523-531
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16074

Aims: The paper aims at identifying human activities that cause environmental degradation around Lake Elementaita. This study focused on the potential role of local communities in addressing ecological problems around Lake Elementaita ecosystem.
Study Design: This study was a survey research design.
Place and Duration of the Study: The study was carried out from April to August 2011 around Lake Elementaita in Kenya.
Methodology: A structured questionnaire was administered to 183 households that were randomly selected. This data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Descriptive statistics was used to determine the mean and standard deviations, inferential statistics was used to determine the relationship among variables and between dependent and independent variables. A focus group discussion was conducted for different stakeholders who included: local community leaders, ranchers, conservation groups, community based organizations and Kenya Wildlife Services to share the research findings.
Results: The results from this research showed that rapid population growth, overstocking, poor farming practices and unsustainable resource exploitation practices resulted in increased soil erosion, pollution, loss of habitats and biodiversity around Lake Elementaita riparian zone. There was no significant association in the perceptions on conservation of the residents in the three sites (X2 =5.881, ‘‘d’’.f=4, p=.208).Implying similar perception amongst residents in the study sites. Results also revealed that it was only perception about importance of firewood that was significantly associated with the site of residence of the respondents with chi square results of 10.414 and p value of .034.
Conclusion: Rapid population growth, overstocking, poor farming practices and unsustainable resource exploitation practices resulted in increased soil erosion, pollution, loss of habitats and biodiversity around Lake Elementaita. It was noted that there is an urgent need for the government together with all stakeholders to come up with a comprehensive participatory management wetland policy. This would strengthen coordination among government and non-government agencies operating within this riparian zone. Alternative sources of livelihood should be provided for the communities living around Lake Elementaita.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Distribution of Some Heavy Metal Dynamics in Bay of Bengal (from Kakinada to Kalingapatnam, Andhra Pradesh), India

T. C. Diana, C. Manjulatha

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 532-539
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16488

The present study was carried out to determine the concentrations of selected heavy metals Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb in four stations of east coast of Bay of Bengal waters. A total number of 60 samples were collected from offshore of Kakinada, Visakhapatnam, Bheemili and Kalingapatnam at different depths ranging from 0 to 40 meters. The heavy metals were estimated by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS), and statistical analysis was performed by One way ANOVA. The order of dissolved concentrations of these metals was found to be as follows: Zn>Ni>Pb>Mn>Cr>Cu>Cd. Metal enrichments observed close to major urban areas of Visakhapatnam and Kakinada waters are associated with industrialized activities rich in zinc and lead concentrations. The levels of these trace metals were found to be moderately high in Bheemili waters and relatively low in Kalingapatnam, which signify negligible pollution at this location. These results indicate the impact of anthropogenic inputs on distribution of these metals in sea waters.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effective Earth Radius Factor Prediction and Mapping for Ondo State, South Western Nigeria

A. O. Atijosan, R. A. Badru, K. H. Muibi, S. A. Ogunyemi, A. T. Alaga

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 540-548
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16160

Accurate prediction and determination of the effective earth radius factor (k-factor) is critical for optimal performance in the design and planning of terrestrial line of sight communication links. In this work an artificial neural network (ANN) model is developed and used to predict k-factor values for four towns in Ondo State using satellite derived data. The towns are Okitipupa (6.5ºN, 4.78ºE), Ondo (7.11ºN, 4.83ºE), Akure (7.25ºN, 5.2ºE) and Ikare (7.52ºN, 5.75ºE). A feed forward back propagation ANN was implemented, thereafter trained, validated and tested using satellite derived data for the period from 1984 to 2002. Mean absolute error (MAE) was used to evaluate the performance of the ANN. The MAE values obtained were 0.0024, 0.0014, 0.002 and 0.003 for Okitipupa, Akure, Ikare and Ondo towns respectively. Contour map showing the predicted k-factor values interpolated over the map of Ondo state was plotted using Geographical Information System (GIS) techniques. The study concluded that ANN presents an effective means of predicting the average k-factor values over a geographical location.

Open Access Original Research Article

Combining a Continuous Search Algorithm with a Discrete Search Algorithm for Solving Non-linear Bi-level Programming Problem

Eghbal Hosseini, Isa Nakhai Kamalabadi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 549-559
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15831

The multi-level programming problems, have received much interest from researchers because of their application in several areas such as economic, traffic, finance, management, transportation and so on. Among these, the bi-level programming problem (BLPP) is an appropriate tool to model these real problems. It has been proven that the general BLPP is an NP-hard problem, so it is a practical and complicated problem therefore solving this problem would be significant. However the literature shows several algorithms to solve different forms of the bi-level programming problems (BLPP), but there is no any hybrid approach of combining of two meta-heuristic algorithms. In this paper, the authors combine particle swarm optimization (PSO), which is a continuous approach, with a proposed modified genetic algorithm (MGA), which is a discrete algorithm, using a heuristic function and constructing an effective hybrid approaches (PSOMGA). Using the Karush-Kuhn-Tucker conditions the BLPP is converted to a non-smooth single level problem, and then it is smoothed by a new heuristic method for using PSOMGA. The smoothed problem is solved using PSOMGA which is a fast approximate method for solving the non-linear BLPP. The presented approach achieves an efficient and feasible solution in an appropriate time, as justified by comparison with test problems.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Evaluation for a Population in the Middle East for General Awareness of the Benefits and Hazards of Different Types of Radiation

B. Z. Shakhreet, E. M. Barnawi, J. A. Khusaifan, S. E. Muqeem

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 560-570
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15300

Many people lack awareness and good knowledge about radiation and its uses in medicine as it has been figured out that significant segments of the public society have a wrong idea and abnormal fear from unwarranted irradiation. For these reasons, a population in the Middle East was surveyed by means of a short questionnaire that was designed to assess the level of general knowledge of radiation and focus on the most important reasons behind their fear from dealing with radiation in order to improve their point of view about medical diagnostic and therapeutic radiology alike. The questionnaire is built upon the foundations and rules of scientific court as it was divided into two essential specialized classifications to describe different criteria, apart from other personal questions, and survey the objectives of the questionnaire to a specific sample. This questionnaire was distributed among native Arabic-speaking people only in the Arab world at the age of 18 years old at least. Finally, the sample was collected randomly as the percentage of females was 74% while the percentage of males was about 26% and then applied the appropriate statistical analyses to compare the results.
The findings of the study showed that there is a variation in the concept of radiation and its effects in the population that was surveyed. It was mostly 80% with the conviction that the concept of radiation is related directly to the medical diagnosis only. As for the radiation risks, 70% of them thought that radiation damages diverse depending on the type of radiation and the nature of which was not anticipated at the beginning of the study. On the other hand, the results of the evaluation and the study of how knowledge of the types and uses of radiation in medicine showed that 85% has good knowledge in the following areas: X-ray, Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Ultrasound (US), while 15% of them only has a good knowledge in the following areas: Fluoroscopy and Angiography.
Despite these results, 80% of people are reluctant to allow their families to study or work in the field of radiology as most of them fear from the exposure to radiation or handling with it in order to avoid any future genetic mutations to their children themselves or other diseases including cancer.
In conclusion, the outcome of this survey underscores the need for awareness and knowledge in most areas of radiation sciences and its applications as well as making them aware of the consequences. To achieve this, there must be some training and educational workshops to the public in order to make them aware of the various areas of radiology, uses, and methods of prevention; in addition to relentless visits to the centers & institutions specialized in the areas of radiation sciences.