Open Access Original Research Article

Health Promotion Models to Reduce Childhood Obesity in Elementary School: A Comparison Study between Indonesia and Australia

Oktia Woro Kasmini Handayani, Tandiyo Rahayu, Irwan Budiono, Rudatin Windraswara, Lukman Fauzi, Nur Siyam, Doune Macdonald, Louise Mc Cuaig

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17050

Aims: There were concrete experience and efforts from Australian and Indonesian government in reducing cases of obesity in society. Cases of obesity among school children in Indonesia have increased with its serious impact. The aim of this research is to compare health promotion models in elementary schools in Indonesia and Australia to reduce obesity prevalence.
Study Design: This study used was qualitative approach, with research focus are health promotion models related to efforts to reduce childhood obesity prevalence in Indonesia and Australia.
Place and Duration of Study: Place of study was in elementary schools in Semarang City, Indonesia and Queensland, Australia, between July and December 2014.
Methodology: Data used in this research were secondary data, from previous studies, while supporting data were primary data regarding to focus group discussion (FGD) results and Angelo. Instruments used were observation guide, charging sheet data, as well as focus group discussion, and Angelo. Data were analyzed with the model from Miles and Huber man.
Results: Health promotion model in elementary schools in Indonesia was called school health activity (in bahasa called Usaha Kesehatan Sekolah-UKS). This program could not be applied properly because of limited and un-competence human resources in the field of health, limited infrastructure, and lack of coordination among relevant stakeholder. Health promotion model in elementary schools in Australia, in line with those in Indonesia, known as the Australian Curriculum, Assessment, and Reporting Authority (ACARA), that was integrated into the school curriculum. This program was supported by the Smart Choice program, Smart Moves, and Stepanie Nation Alexander Kitchen Garden program. Not all schools have implemented the program well, because either state or school had its own regulation.
Conclusion: Alternative models recommended were UKS with high commitment, an integrated health education, and local potential based UKS.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prolonged Exposure to Simulated Teaching and the Academic Performance of Education Students

Janet Presnilla-Espada

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 11-22
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16871

Research on superior performance has shown that important characteristics of students’ achievement and the acquisition of cognitive skills are acquired through practice and appropriate use of teaching methods [1].
Aim: This study examined the effect of using simulated teaching in learning a college content course.
Methodology: A total of 88 third year college education students went through a pretest-posttest experimental study with 44 participants in each of the control or reporting group and the simulated teaching or experimental group, respectively. It was assumed that prolonged exposure to simulated teaching would enhance education students ‘academic performance in a specified academic subject. The data were analysed using means, standard deviation, T-Test for Paired Samples and T-Test for Independent Samples.
Results: Findings revealed a highly significant difference between the mean gain of the control and experimental groups (p-value=.000) indicating that the level of academic performance of students who had more exposure to simulated teaching was significantly higher than students who stopped using the method. The result suggests that the students who had prolonged exposure to simulated teaching performed better in learning a content subject than those who had less exposure to the method.
Conclusion: The study concludes that prolonged exposure to simulated teaching results in a higher academic performance. It further strengthens the notion that ‘when we teach, we learn twice’.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Climate Change Adaptation and Coping Practices for Agricultural Productivity in the Mountain Areas of South Western Uganda

A. Zizinga, M. M. Tenywa, J. G. M. Majaliwa, M. Mugarura, P. Ababo, A. Achom, G. Gabiri, Y. Bamutaze, L. Kizza, E. Adipala

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 23-41
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16351

Agricultural productivity in Rwenzori mountain area is declining and undermining food security in the region. This trend has been accelerated in recent years due to rapid changes in climatic conditions. Climate change adaptation and coping practices are critical to identifying vulnerable entities and developing practical, well targeted adaptation practices and policies to improve agriculture productivity. However, it is currently poorly understood and not clear how to categorise and implement climate change adaptation practices. Little information is available on their potential impact and viability. This study was conducted to establish the viability and effectiveness of climate change coping and adaptation practices at different landscape positions in Rwenzori mountain areas of south western Uganda. Household data were collected at three landscape positions on farm households and soil samples were collected from 0-15 cm and 15-30 cm depth under major crops (banana, coffee, cotton and maize). Major adaptation practices were categorized using a developed field ranking approach. Data analysis was done using Genstat software discovery version 13 for soil and yield information and SPSS version 17.0 for socio-economic data. All climate change adaptation practices identified in the study area were at different landscape positions but their responses differed significantly between locations (P>0.05). The relationship between landscape position and climate change adaptation practices, largely depending on the type of livelihood emphasized in each location and the predominant crop enterprises grown.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Risk Factors and Prevalence of Infection of Helicobacter pylori in Nigeria

F. O. Olufemi, Quadri Remi, P. A. Akinduti, S. A. Bamiro

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 42-48
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16014

Aim: Potential risk factors and prevalence associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in apparently healthy children in Nigeria were studied.
Study Design: To investigate the current potential risk factors associated with recent prevalence of H. pylori in apparently healthy children in Nigeria.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in two Local Government Areas, Alimosho and Ajeromi, of Lagos State, Nigeria between March and September 2014.
Methodology: Seroprevalence status of 185 asymptomatic children made up of 93 males and 92 females, aged between 2-16 years were selected by randomized stratified sampling with descriptive questionnaire. Serum immunoglobulin G H. pylori antibody of the individual subjects was determined using DiaSpot H. pylori kit while fecal samples of same group were analysed for HpSAg using immunoassay test kit of Helicobacter pylori Stool Antigen (HpSAg).
Results: Of 185 children tested for H. pylori antigen, 134 (68.7%) and 51(26.2%) were classified as seropositive and fecal HpSA positive respectively. Highest rate of 40.0% and 34.6% of the children weighing between 21 and 40 kg were positive while 29.2% and 32.5% children of parents that were traders were positive to serum H. pylori antigen and fecal HpSA respectively. Only 12.4% and 14.1% children from artisan parents were positive but different age group have no association with the infectivity or prevalence of fecal H. pylori antigen (OR=0.67, CI=0.142-0.152). Significant higher percentage of seropositivity of 59.0% and fecal positivity of 55.7% was recorded among children from 5-8 people in a room (p>0.05), while Households with regular potable water supply have lower H. pylori seropositivity and fecal positivity of 11.9% and 7.6% compared with households that sometimes have water supply. The Households that never had water supply had highest number of seropositivity of 40.0% and 18.4%, respectively. Sewage nearness to kitchen indicates 30.8% and 28.7% H. pylori seropositive and fecal positivity rate among children.
Conclusion: Paediatric H. pylori prevalence is highly associated with water borne infection and poor sanitary practices. There is need for achievable interventions and improvement in environmental sanitation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Taguchi Experimental Design Method for Optimization the COD Removal Process in Upflow Anaerobic Filter

Ahmed M. Osman Khairalla, Lu-Xiwu .

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 49-57
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17459

In this study, two stages of upflow anaerobic filters (UAF) were used to investigate their performance based on the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal from the rural domestic wastewater. Several factors were considered during the design and operation of an anaerobic process for successful treatment of the wastewater. Furthermore, Taguchi method was applied to investigate and evaluate the effect of selected factors on the performance efficiency of the UAF reactor. The experimental factors were optimized by L9 (34) orthogonal array design, which includes four factors with three levels using statistical analysis. The four factors involve the water acidity (pH), temperature (T), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and organic loading rate (OLR). The results revealed that all factors had a significant influence on the COD removal efficiency. The results demonstrated that the optimum conditions for achieving maximum COD removal efficiency were: initial pH of 7, temperature of 25°C, HRT of 1.5 day and OLR of 0.166 Kg. COD/ Moreover, the results showed that the HRT had highest percentage contribution in the COD removal process with 39.92%, followed by temperature of 33.78%, OLR of 13.75% and the pH of 9.18%. Confirmatory experiments conducted at the optimized conditions and compared with the predicted result show a good agreement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Ex-vivo Cardioprotective and Anti-inflammatory Investigation of Bangladeshi Plants Extract

Mustafe Khalid Mohamed, Anaytulla ., Prawej Ansari, Md. Mizanur Rahman, Tarun Kumar Malik, Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Abul Kalam Azad

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 58-66
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17258

Background: The phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of Dalbergia stipulacea and Hymendictyon excelsum has indicated the presence of steroid, flavonoid and glycoside like anti-oxidative and cardioprotective compounds.
Methods: Since these compounds are of pharmacological interest, we got curious to check D. stipulacea and H. excelsum for their possible anti-inflammatory activity by HRBC (Human Red Blood Cell) membrane stabilization method, anti-arthritic activity by the inhibition of protein denaturation method and anti-thrombotic activity.
Results: The methanolic extracts of these plants exhibited notable anti-inflammatory activity and remarkable anti-arthritic, anti-thrombotic action. The maximum membrane stabilization of D. stipulacea and H. excelsum was found to be 72.33±2.52% and 69.33±2.52% at a dose of 1000 µg and that of protein denaturation was found to be 73.50±1.32% and 70.17±3.01% at the same dose, correspondingly. On the other hand when compared to Streptokinase for their anti-thrombotic activity, it was found that they were close to standard with p<0.0001 (from paired t-test), D. stipulacea and H. excelsum results 46.79±2.43% and 39.01±2.24%, respectively.
Conclusion: Therefore, our studies support the isolation and the use of active constituents from D. stipulacea and H. excelsum in treating inflammations and rheumatism as well as we should check for reason of its thrombolytic activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Vegetable Oil Blends as Fish Oil Alternatives in the Diets of Heterobranchus longifilis Fingerlings

T. O. Babalola, D. F. Apata, I. O. Adejumo, S. A. Bolu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 67-74
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16759

This study was undertaken to determine the suitability of vegetable oil blends as a major source of lipid in place of fish oil in the diet of Heterobranchus longifilis fingerlings. The fish were fed one of the six experimental diets twice daily to satiation for twelve weeks. The test diets were identical in composition, except for the source of supplemental lipid which was either fish oil (FO), palm oil (PO), soybean oil (SO), equal blend of FO and PO (FOPO), equal blend of PO and SO (POSO) or equal blend of FO, PO and SO (FOPOSO). The growth parameters were significantly different (P<0.05) among dietary treatments. However, the apparent digestibilities were not significantly different (P>0.05). Malic enzyme activities in the liver were not significantly different among dietary groups. On the other hand, the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly different and over six-fold higher malic enzyme. Results indicated that FO may be replaced with either PO, SO and their blends in H. longifilis diets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Work Overload, Work-Family Conflicts and Negative Affectivity on Job Embeddedness and Emotional Exhaustion: The Moderating Role of Coworker Support (Case of Health Management)

Sarah Qaiser, Amir Gulzar, Waqar Hussain, Hassan Shabbir

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 75-85
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16654

The aim of this paper was to investigate the impacts of work overload, work-family conflict, family-work conflict and negative affectivity on job emotional exhaustion job embeddedness among medical specialists. Study further investigated the moderating role of coworker support. The study assessed the previously stated connections using simple, multiple and moderating regression. For the analysis of the study a total of 250 specialists were chosen from different hospitals in Pakistan. Results demonstrated substantial influences of work overload, work family-conflict, family-work conflict and negative affectivity towards job embeddedness and emotional exhaustion. Support of coworker moderates relationships of negative affectivity, work overload, work-family conflict and family-work conflict on emotional exhaustion. Notably, employees who have intense workloads and not able to make a harmony between work (family) and family (work) parts are candidly depleted. Such employees thus are less installed in their occupations and showcase poor execution in the service delivery process.