Open Access Commentary

The Coupled GRACE/GIA Evaluation of the Antarctic Ice Mass Loss is Unreliable

A. Parker

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 240-246
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17619

GRACE does not measure any ice sheet thickness but only gravity. Similarly to the computation of the global mean sea level (GMSL), the computation of the ice sheet thickness, follows a large number of assumptions. As a result, the actual inaccuracy of the Antarctic ice sheet thickness computation is much larger than any trend proposed. In other words, you can manufacture almost any result you want by using the noisy raw GRACE signal and selected corrections. It is however the further Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) correction that ultimately produces the reducing Antarctic ice sheet thickness, similarly to the rising Global Mean Sea Level (GMSL). This result is contradicted by other more reliable experimental results as the expanding sea ice extension and the cooling surface air temperature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Walking and Running on the Heel bone: the Adventist Health Study-2

Vichuda Lousuebsakul-Matthews, Donna Thorpe, Raymond Knutsen, W. Larry Beeson, Gary E. Fraser, Synnove F. Knutsen

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 165-177
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17962

Aims: Physical activity is well recognized for its bone health benefit. We examined the benefit of walk/run/jog on bone health using broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) of the calcaneus.
Methodology: Caucasian and African American males (n=593) and females (n=1,106) had their calcaneal BUA measured two years later after enrollment into the AHS-2. The association between calcaneal BUA (dB/Mhz) and the distance of walk/run/ jog level per week (miles) was assessed using multiple linear regression.
Results: In a multivariable model adjusted for important covariates, BUA was positively associated with BMI (P < .001), total calcium intake (P =0.31), total protein intake (P =0.38) and inversely associated with age (P < .001) and smoking (P < .05). Compared to women who did not walk/ run/ jog, women walking 10 or more miles per week had an increase in BUA by 4.08 (dB/Mhz) (P trend=0.03). Similarly, compared to men who did not walk/ run/ jog, men walking 10 or more miles per week had an increase in BUA by 5.97 (dB/Mhz) (P trend=0.01).
Conclusions: We concluded that BUA is positively associated with walk/ run/jog after accounting for age, BMI, smoking status, calcium intake, protein intake and estrogen usage.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Ginger Extract on the Acceptability and Storability of a Non-alcoholic Beverage (Sorghum Stem Sheath Drink) in Nigeria

B. I. O. Ade-Omowaye, T. O. Adedeji, I. B. Oluwalana

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 178-184
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/10634

Aims: This study investigated the acceptability and preservative influence of ginger extract on sorghum stem sheath drink.
Study Design: Factorial design was used for this study.
Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Food Processing, Sensory and Microbiology Laboratories in the Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State between September 2010 and December, 2010.
Methodology: The sorghum stem sheath was dry cleaned, pulverized and packed in air tight containers until utilized. The stem sheath flour was soaked, boiled and filtered. The filtrate was sweetened with food grade sucrose to a brix level of 10° before dispensing into previously sterilized bottles and pasteurized at 75°C for 30 mins. The dry crude extract of Zingiber officinale was weighed differently and prepared with distilled water at 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%, 2.0% and 2.5% concentrations. The drink was treated respectively with different concentrations. Changes in quality of ginger (Zingiber officinale) spiced poporo during accelerated storage at 50°C were evaluated for 4 weeks.
Results: The sensory evaluation revealed over 80% preference for the 0.5% ginger extract inclusion by the panelists. The microbiological analysis showed that Coliform and total viable bacteria were found to be completely absent in the pasteurized samples. Bacteria was also absent in spiced samples stored for 2 weeks (14 days). The microbial load increased from 4-8 x102 cfu/ml to 7-15 x102 cfu/ml in the spiced beverage from week 3 to 4, depending on the concentration of the spice, whereas the control sample showed considerable bacteria growth (2-20 x 102 cfu/ml) from week 1 to week 4 but both spiced and control samples showed no Coliform growth throughout the storage period. The pH in the control and spiced samples decreased gradually from 7.00-5.20 while the titratable acidity increased from 0.040-0.076% lactic acid with increase in ginger concentrations from 0.5 to 2.5% in the spiced samples. Decrease in vitamin C from 232.64-138.60 mg/100ml throughout the storage period followed similar trends.
Conclusion: The anti-microbial activity of the spice was established with the microbial profile of the spiced beverages during storage at an elevated temperature of 50°C in which the total viable bacteria count was absent for two weeks (14days) and Coliform bacteria was completely absent in all samples throughout storage period. The result of this study reveals that nutritious and relatively shelf stable non- alcoholic beverage could be produced from sorghum stem sheath and local spices without the use of chemical preservatives.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinant of Rural Household Poverty Nexus Fuel Consumption among Fisherfolks in Kwara State, Nigeria

Y. U. Oladimejl, Z. Abdulsalam, A. M. Ajao, S. A. Adepoju

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 185-194
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17360

The study examined rural households’ fuel consumption pattern in Kwara State, Nigeria. Primary data using a structured questionnaire and interview were administered to select randomly 110 rural farming households. The result revealed a link between forests, agricultural production and poverty as about 79% of sampled respondents titled towards using biomass for their energy sources. About three-fifth (63%) of the rural fishery households could be considered to have a low energy expenditure pattern because they fell below energy poverty line of ₦640 ($4.05) per adult equivalent per month. Result also estimated the log-likelihood ratio to be Ë—28.7, the adjusted R-2 of 0.557 implies that the explanatory variables were collectively able to explain about 56% of the total variation in energy consumption pattern among the rural households. The study recommend designing more economical, efficient and less pollutants cooking stoves and lighting equipments that uses local bio-fuels (renewable) and harnessing modern energy source to supplement the use of biomass for rural farming households to reduce energy poverty level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Whole-Wheat Biscuits Incorporated with Moringa oleifera Leaves and Cocoa Powder

Comfort Funmilayo Ajibola, Victoria Olubukola Oyerinde, Olakunle Stephen Adeniyan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 195-206
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18070

Aims: To investigate the effect of Moringa oleifera leave and cocoa powder on the quality characteristics and antioxidant properties of biscuits.
Study Design: Two-way ANOVA.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Food Science and Technology, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between March 2014 and December 2014.
Methodology: Biscuits were prepared from different blends of whole-wheat flour, Moringa oleifera leaves (MLP) and cocoa powder (CCP) in the ratios of 100:0:0, 95:5:0, 90:10:0, 90:5:5 and 85:10:5 w/w respectively. The choice of these levels was made on the initial acceptability trials of the baked product. The effect of MLP and CCP on the physical, nutritional and antioxidant properties of the biscuits were evaluated.
Results: The replacement of whole wheat flour with increasing level of MLP from 0 to 10% decreased the spread ratio of biscuits (from 9.83 to 7.35) while addition of 5% CCP to the moringa-supplemented biscuit increased the spread ratio of the biscuits (from 7.35 to 9.91). The protein content ranged from 10.99 to 14.73% while the fat content varied from 13.19 to 14 .46%. The ash, fibre and carbohydrate contents ranged from 2.23 to 2.63%; 2.45 to 4.35% and 64.77 to 69.86% respectively. The iron and calcium contents ranged from 1.57 mg% to 6.23 mg% and 29.17 mg% to 52.47 mg% respectively. The protein, crude fibre, iron, and calcium of the biscuits increased with increasing quantity of MLP and CCP. Sensory evaluation showed that biscuits incorporated with 10% MLP were acceptable and addition of 5% CCP to the moringa-supplemented biscuit produced biscuits with more acceptable colour and taste. Antioxidant properties of biscuits increased with increasing quantity of MLP and CCP.
Conclusion: The results have shown the possibility of incorporating 10% Moringa oleifera leaves and 5% cocoa powder in biscuits production in order to improve the nutritional and antioxidant properties of biscuits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Using Python to Solve the Navier-Stokes Equations-Applications in the Preconditioned Iterative Methods

Jia Liu, Lina Wu, Xingang Fang

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 207-217
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17346

This article describes a new numerical solver for the Navier-Stokes equations. The proposed solver is written in Python which is a newly developed language. The Python packages are built to solve the Navier-Stokes equations with existing libraries. We have created discretized coefficient matrices from systems of the Navier-Stokes equations by the finite difference method. In addition we focus on the preconditioned Krylov subspace iterative methods in the linearized systems. Numerical results of performances for the Preconditioned iterative methods are demonstrated. The comparison between Python and Matlab is discussed at the end of the paper.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Analysis of Academia Perceptions of Effects of Mainstreaming E-learning on Gender/Socio-Cultural Minorities in Zimbabwean Universities

Chrispen Chiome, Andrew Chindanya

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 218-227
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16674

The cumulative advances and innovations in digital technologies, coupled with the evidence that learners entering tertiary education today have changed fundamentally in their learning needs/styles have awakened us to the realities of new learning landscapes which are emerging around us [1]. E-learning system promises a new way of delivering education. However, the need to ensure e-learning system success becomes imperative. After 65% of the students failed to voluntarily register for an e-learning blended programme, in three universities, this research set out to find the challenges of mainstreaming e-learning in the Zimbabwean context. This was a survey of a purposive sample of 60 students and 54 university lecturers from three universities who are part-time tutors of the Zimbabwe Open University. The study found out that the divisive vectors of race and inequality appear to re-emerge via technology which is at best stagnating and at worst putting gender/socio-cultural minorities at the margins owing to the dilapidated infrastructure, the digital divide that characterize students in the universities under study, lack of teacher competencies and challenges of accessing electronic materials. In such instance, e-learning was seen as the monster under the bed and technology adoption acceptance is grossly affected. The study argues that historical, technological, social, political and economic challenges appeared to be inextricably linked and appear in a different form. Thus, the research recommend the need to enable the technological possibility for students to be masters of their own destiny by changing the way they live, work, organise, communicate and interact.

Open Access Original Research Article

Recommendations through a Complete Study on Healthcare Solid Waste Management Practices of Government Hospitals in Colombo, Sri Lanka

Bandunee C. L. Athapattu, A. P. Priyantha, Masafumi Tateda

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 228-239
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16828

Eighteen hospitals in Colombo, Sri Lanka were investigated in terms of understanding the current situation of healthcare management in the capital city of Sri Lanka. Questionnaires and investigations involving direct visit were done to obtain more concrete data. The study was carried out during January 2012 to December 2013. Out of studied hospitals, ten hospitals are being administrated by central government and the rest by the provincial governments. The focus of this study were the general information such as names and types of hospital selected for investigation, amount of waste generated, numbers of beds, etc.; waste types; sources of waste generated; segregation of healthcare waste; waste storage, transportation, and disposal; and adherence to regulations stipulated by the central government. The results of this study revealed that most of the hospitals investigated were neither satisfactory in terms of World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for waste disposal, nor on environmental grounds. Several recommendations were made based on information obtained through this study including healthcare waste management plan, training, and education in each hospital with respect to waste minimization, efficiency from waste segregation up to disposal, minimization of health risks and environmental pollution.