Open Access Method Article

Online Arsenic Species Separation and Analysis of Arsenite, Arsenate, Monomethylarsenate, Dimethylarsonate and Arsenocholine Using Liquid Chromatography and Hydride Generation Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry

Jinling Guo, Xiaoping Yu, Yafei Guo, Tianlong Deng

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 313-321
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16992

Aims: The purpose of this research was to establish a five-arsenic-species separation and analysis method including arsenite [As(III)], arsenate [As(V)], monomethylarsonate (MMA), dimethylarsonate (DMA) and arsenocholine (AsC) in water sample by liquid chromatography with hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (LC-HG-AFS).
Study Design: The Successful separation and detection for the five arsenic species can be achieved through changing the chromatographic columns and adjusting the compositions of mobile phase.
Place and Duration of Study: Study in the laboratory of College of Marine Science and Engineering at Tianjin University of Science & Technology between March 2014 and September 2014.
Methodology: Firstly the effect of anion exchange chromatography was compared with that of reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography for separating the five arsenic species. Then reversed-phase ion-pair chromatography was selected in the next step because of its universality for separating these arsenic species by adjusting mobile phase.
Results: Effective separation was achieved within 10 min for all the five arsenic species by a single reversed-phase ion-pair chromatographic column eluted with 1 mmol/L diammonium hydrogen phosphate buffer [(NH4)2HPO4] (pH=6.00) + 1% (v/v) CH3OH + 5 mmol/L tetrabutyl ammonium bromide (TBAB). The concentration of arsenic compounds were determined by peak height. And the concentration of AsC, As(III), As(V), MMA, DMA were 250 μg/L, 100 μg/L, 100 μg/L, 100 μg/L, 100 μg/L respectively in this experiment.
Conclusion: The five arsenic species can be effectively separated and detected by hyphenated techniques (LC-HG-AFS).

Open Access Policy Article

Overcoming the Challenges of Implementing the 40% Cassava Bread Policy in Nigeria

Elijah I. Ohimain

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 305-312
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16706

Due to the combined effect of urbanization and changes in lifestyle, consumption of bread in Nigeria has increased significantly over the years. On 15 July 2012, the Federal Government of Nigeria (FGN) announced the cassava bread policy mandating flour mills and bakeries to include 40% cassava in bread. The policy was aimed at reducing the country’s food import bills, enhance the utilization of local crops, create opportunities for business and employment and genuinely boost the rural sector. Nigeria had previously implemented 5 -10% cassava inclusion policies that failed. Hence, this paper identified some of the challenges of implementing the 40% cassava bread policy and suggested ways of overcoming some of the challenges including policy inconsistencies, legal framework, feedstock challenge, environmental and waste management challenges, pricing challenge, logistical challenge, QA/QC and acceptability challenge, challenge of bread improvers, technological and electricity challenges.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sitting on the Cliff: Social Vulnerability as Pedagogy Subject-matter

Eduardo Dopico

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 247-256
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18344

The legally compulsory school does not finish for all students equally. In vulnerable neighbourhoods, adolescent dropouts face an uncertain future. If they belong to an ethnic minority, the problem is even more acute. Exploring the geographical expression of social exclusion within a city, it is described therein the situation of suburbs and patterns of life of adolescents in social vulnerability situations. We want to know what they do; how they spend their lives; what are their future prospects. The case study is focused on the period of schooling that they have lived and the contributions that institutionalized education has provided to them. To do that we interviewed 150 young Roma and non-Roma, distributed as minority culture and majority culture. The living space chosen were three districts of the city of Oviedo (Spain) where they live together. On the social portrait presented, we can find materials for discussion and educational reflection, also to improve teacher training.

Open Access Original Research Article

Statistical Software Packages (SSPs) Integration in Teaching and Learning of Statistics in Ghanaian Tertiary Institution

Yarhands Dissou Arthur, Samuel Asiedu Addo, Emmanuel Harris

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 257-265
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17470

AIM: To address the impact of statistical software package integration in the teaching and learning of statistics by examining the effect of training lecturers in the use of statistical software packages SSP(s) on their intension to use the packages.
Study Design: The research used multimode survey technique.
Place and Duration of Study: University of Education, Winneba, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University of Mines and Technology, University of Energy and Natural Resources, from January –February, 2015.
Methodology: In this study, quantitative research method was employed where 98 respondents made of lectures, demonstrators and teaching assistants were purposively selected from 4 public universities in Ghana. Data collected were subjected to Smart PLS second generation multivariate structural Equation Modeling (SEM) in the computation of relevant statistics.
Results: The results of the analysis indicate that there is a positive significant relationship between training programs university leadership organized for their lecturers in mathematics and statistical and the perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, attitude and assertiveness of the lecturers to uses the SSPs and lecturer’s intension to use SSPs.
Conclusion: The finding of this paper has confirmed the previous research output on the effectiveness of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) framework and has further extended the theory of TAM to help predict the lecturer’s intension to use statistical software packages in the teaching and learning of statistics.

Open Access Original Research Article

CHADS2 Stroke Risk Stratification in Atrial Fibrillation Patients; Community Based Comparison Study

Mohamed Kaled A. Shambesh, Taher Mohamed Emahbes, Zeinab Elmehdi Saleh, Mokhtar Mohamed Gusbi, Ezzadin Areaf Franka, Omer Ibrahim Bosnena

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 266-275
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17837

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is very common cardiovascular disorder and a major health problem in North Africa. AF associated with increase the risk of stroke and hospitalization.
Objectives: To compare stroke risk factors among community people who have atrial fibrillation and those who are not using both CHADS2 Score and Community Stroke Risk Classification (CSRC).
Methodology: This was community based descriptive cross-sectional comparison study.
Area: North Africa (north of Libya, the capital Tripoli).
Time: 2014, one year.
Population: Sampling was done from a large cohort of individuals living in the community. Two groups where selected, AF group, which consists of 519 patients who had AF, and control group (602 apparently healthy individuals) who does not have AF. The two groups were selected and matched having the same confounding characters. Both groups were interviewed and screened using CHADS2 Questionnaire as well a local Libyan classification of stroke risk factors called Community Stroke Risk Classification (CSRC).
Results: Among population screened (8016) over five years (from 2010 to 2014) the prevalence of AF was 7% (519 patients) and the main age of AF group was 61.2 years with range of 22->70 and SD±16.4. The main age of control group was younger than AF group with main age of 52 years (P<0.001). AF increased with age with more than 89.8% was over frothy years old with males domination over females (P<0.0001).
Comparison between AF group and control in stroke risk factors in CHADS2 score showed significant dominations of risk factors over AF group than control; CHF (46.4% versus 24.3% respectively) (P<0.0001). Hypertension (49% versus 34% respectively) (P<0.0001), DM (56% versus 38% respectively) (P<0.0001), TIA (43% versus 19.4% respectively) (P<0.0001) and finally stroke prevalence (Prior stroke) was significantly higher among AF group compared with control group (84% versus 0.9% respectively) (P<0.0001).
CHADS2 score was very high among AF group compared to control, with AF group 97.8% had risk points of stroke, where only 2.7% had no risk, where in control group; 66.8% had risk and 33.3% had no stroke risk. High CHADS2 score with ≥3 risk points were dominated with AF group compared with control (P<0.0001) (83.6% versus 66.8% respectively).
Community Stroke Risk Classification (CSRC) showed dominations of higher score of ≥3 risk factors among AF group compared with control (66.8% versus 23%) (P<0.0001). However in the intermediate score with 1-2 risk factors, control group was dominated (43.7%) over AF group (31.2%) (P <0.0001).
Conclusion: AF is a major risk factor of stroke among north African population (Libya). CHADS2 and CSRC classification scores are very useful tools to be used to evaluate the risk factors of stroke in community population having AF or not.

Open Access Original Research Article

Validation of Enclosure Fire Model in Integral form Using an Inverse Approach

Alexander A. Tachkov

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 276-293
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18212

This paper presents a new methodology of estimating the mass flow rate of gases flowing outward from room, the mass flow rate of the outer air entering a room and the rate of combustible material gasification in building based on solving the problem of inverse enclosure fire dynamics in an integral form and validation of this model. The approach is based on an approximation of dependence on the combustion completeness of the mass flow rate of the outer air entering room and of the rate of combustible material gasification and then on solving a quadratic equation with respect to the mass flow rate of the outer air entering a room. The simulation results of the problem of inverse fire dynamics in integral form are cited. As an example of the practical application of the proposed approach, the problem of identification of a combustible material is considered. The obtained results are an important step towards the development of fire reconnaissance systems, which, for example, are able to lead the robotic reconnaissance.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate and Major Essential Element Composition of Ipomoea batatas and Manihot esculenta Leaves

Y. A. Iyaka, L. O. Sulaiman, M. D. Yahya

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 294-298
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17184

Three varieties of Ipomoea batatas and two varieties of Manihot esculenta leaves were analysed for their proximate and major essential element (Magnesium, Calcium and Iron) contents using standard analytical methods. The nutritive values for all the samples were high ranging from 322.13 kcal/100 g for the leaves of white-delite (Ipomoea batatas) to 353.00 kcal/100 g for the leaves of Manihot esculenta with red stem. The obtained high moisture content ranged from 83.75-84.75% indicating that these leaves could be prone to deterioration, but the relatively highest ash contents of 10.25% and 9.25% revealed by white-delite and beauregard leaves respectively is a reflection of their mineral contents. Thus, Manihot esculenta leaves have the highest nutritive values, and Ipomoea batatas leaves have higher mineral composition in this study. Furthermore, these leaves are suitable for consumption as vegetables and they can contribute immensely as supplementary diets to the nutrient requirements of animals and humans.

Open Access Original Research Article

Recognition and Analyzing the Influence of Chaotic Oscillations on Markov Process Using Numerical Simulation Based on Qualitative Methods

Rami Matarneh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 299-304
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18233

This paper focuses on analyzing the influence of chaotic oscillations on Markov process using numerical simulation based on qualitative methods to detect different types of chaotic oscillations depending on Transition-Probability matrix of Markov process. The dissipative chaotic system whose evolution is given by set of ordinary differential equations had been considered and the results of limited probabilities of different types of chaotic processes had been calculated and verified.