Open Access Case study

Death Due to Assault with Coconut Scraper; Application of Locard’s Principle in Medico-legal Investigations

M. Vidanapathirana, P. R. Ruwanpura, D. S. K. Karunanayake, D. Ariyaratne

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 396-399
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18240

Introduction: The Locard's principle is based on the fact that “every contact leaves a trace”. This case highlights its application at the scene, autopsy, examination of assailant and weapon.
Case Report: A dead body of 33 years old woman was found inside the kitchen, lying in a pool of blood mainly around the head. A coconut scraper with blood stains was present nearby.
An autopsy revealed a split laceration situated on the occipital scalp with underlying depressed comminuted fracture accompanied by fresh bleeding. There were contusions and abrasions over both upper limbs. The cause of death was attributed to cranio-cerebral injuries due to blunt force impact. The examination of the alleged assailant showed patterned abrasion with serrations on the left and right palm.
Conclusion: Contusions of upper limb of the deceased were compatible with defensive injuries. The patterned injuries on the palms of the suspect suggest that he was holding a blade of the scraper with his left hand while supporting the shaft of the scraper with right hand.
The blood on the wooden part of the scrapper indicates the contact point of the scraper with the head.

Open Access Short communication

Prising De Solla Price’s Circumvent

A. V. Adedayo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 373-376
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18293

This study probed the foundations of the scientometric approach of citation metrics to evaluate research publications. The error made by Derek J. De Solla Price when he made a trivial modification of the contagion of success model is identified. De Solla Price’s Urn model was compared with the real time bibliometric and academic publishing processes. The validity of the assumption that probability of an author being selected for citation is proportional to the number of previous citations the paper already have was mathematically elucidated. The features of the Price’s model do not seem to correlate well when compared with the real time situations in bibliometric and academic publishing process. Except that Derek de Solla Price stated so, it is doubtful that the Price’s model is relevant and useful in real time bibliometric and academic publishing processes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimization of the Preparation of Hydrophobic Isotactic Polypropylene Flat Sheet Membrane by Response Surface Methodology Design

Sunarti Abdul Rahman, Wan Zulaisa Amira Wan Jusoh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 322-337
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17277

Membrane contactor (MC) is a cost effective solution that able to reduce the release carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.The membrane applies in a MC system are highly hydrophobic, high surface porosity, low mass transfer resistance and high resistance to chemicals in the feed streams.In this study, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) design consists of 2-Level Factorial and Centre Composite Design, which were performed for screening and optimization respectively, on the production of isotactic Polypropylene (iPP) microporous flat sheet. The results obtained from the analysis of variance of contact angle, showed that the impacts of drying temperature and drying time are much more important than polymer concentration and immersion time in methanol. The most optimum membranes prepared in this experiment were membranes with the contact angle value of 106.22° by the interacting factors of dry temperature and dry time, which are 54.96°C and 18.64 minutes respectively.The regression equation obtained from the 2-Level Factorial and Central Composite Design can be expected to apply in the preparation of iPP membranes using diphenyl ether (DPE) diluents and can reasonably predict and optimize the performance of the iPP membranes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Chezy’s Resistance Coefficient in a Rectangular Channel

Bachir Achour

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 338-347
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18385

The Chezy’s resistance coefficient plays an important role in the calculation of the normal depth in the open channels. When using the Chezy’s relationship for the calculation of the normal depth, the main unknown parameter of the problem is the Chezy’s coefficient. There is no explicit and complete relationship for the evaluation of the Chezy’s resistance coefficient. Current relations are either implicit or do not take into account all the parameters that influence the flow, such as channel slope or kinematic viscosity. Most of them do not apply to the whole domain of turbulent flow because the kinematic viscosity is not taken into account. For these reasons, one affects arbitrarily a constant value for Chezy's resistance coefficient as a given data of the problem, in most practical applications. This arbitrary choice is not physically justified because the Chezy’s resistance coefficient must be calculated according to the parameters that influence the flow, especially the normal depth sought. The purpose of this paper is to show how to calculate the Chezy’s resistance coefficient in a rectangular channel, using the minimum of practical data. In this article, it is expressed the dimensionless Chezy's coefficient in order to give it a general validity character. The expression of this dimensionless coefficient is deduced from the comparison between the Chezy’s relationship and the general formula of the discharge valid for all geometric profiles. The detailed study of this relationship gives interesting results. It is clearly demonstrated that the dimensionless Chezy’s resistance coefficient depends on the relative roughness, the aspect ratio of the wetted area and the modified Reynolds number. This allows concluding that the obtained relationship is applicable to the entire domain of turbulent flow. The graphical representation of this relationship shows that the dimensionless Chezy coefficient increases with the decrease of the aspect ratio of the wetted area, whatever the value of the modified Reynolds number. This is reflected in the increase of the Chezy’s coefficient when the normal depth increases. In addition, the obtained curves intersect the x-axis at points corresponding to the particular case of the narrow rectangular channel, for which the aspect ratio tends to zero. This corresponds to a rectangular channel of small width and large depth. For this particular case, the relationship expresses the dimensionless Chezy coefficient is established, showing the influence of both the relative roughness and the modified Reynolds number. The aspect ratio of the wetted area has no effect.
Through a detailed practical example, it is shown how to calculate the Chezy resistance coefficient in a rectangular channel, from practical data. This calculation depends on the value of the relative normal depth in a rough rectangular channel that is easily determined using the rough model method. A cubic equation is obtained whose resolution is facilitated by the hyperbolic and trigonometric functions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Stroke Risk Classification by Use of the CHADS2 Score in Community Population in Absence of Atrial Fibrillation

Mohamed Kaled A. Shambesh, Zeinab Elmehdi Saleh, Taher Mohamed Emahbes, Ezzadin Areaf Franka, Faisal Ismail, Malik Abdurrazag A. Elosta

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 348-358
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17691

Objectives: To use CHADS2 and Community Stroke Risk Classification (CSRC) scores to describe and classify the distribution of the risk factors of stroke in a population without known atrial fibrillation (AF).
Study Design: Was community, cross-sectional study.
Place and Duration of Study: North Africa, among individuals living in capital of Libya (Tripoli); study is done by the community & family medical department, faculty of medicine, University of Tripoli, from 1/1/2010 to 31/12/2014
Methodology: A total of 7497 individuals did not have AF (52.8%male & 48.2% female) who were interviewed by doctors using CHADS2 and CSRC scores.
Results: According to both CHADS2 scores and CSRC, about 64.2 %of the study population had at least one risk factor of stroke while 35.8% had no risk factors. Among people having CHADS2 risk score, the majority (41.3%) had an intermediate risk score (P<0.01), which corresponds to an intermediate or moderate stroke risk, and 22.9% have a high risk score which corresponds to a higher stroke risk. According to the CSRC score, the majority of people (44.6%) had intermediate score grades (P<0.001), and 19.6% had a high risk score with three risk factors or more. An intermediate score (1-2 Risk Factors) dominated in all study age groups in comparison to high scores (3-6 Risk Factors) (P<0.001); Hypertension and Diabetes are the major risk factors of stroke in all scores, especially those of intermediate (P<0.001). Finally, in comparison to females, males show a significant increase in all score grades especially in intermediate CHADS2 & CSRC score risk (P<0.004) and this could be related to a genetic-behavior difference.
Conclusion: Both the CHADS2 score and CSRC are simple tools that can be used for stroke risk description and assessment among communities of people who do not have atrial fibrillation. In addition, most communities of people have at least one risk factor for stroke, and this corresponds to intermediate scores; the highest risk factors contributing to the intermediate scores are hypertension, diabetes mellitus and being of an age of over forty years. Other risk factors of stroke like congestive heart failure, transient ischemic attack and history of prior stroke usually present among people who have high scores; this means it comes with or as result of other risk factors to form multiple risk factors associated with stroke forming higher scores of CHADS2 and CSRC

Open Access Original Research Article

Artificial Network for Predicting Water Uptake under Shallow Saline Ground Water Conditions

Houshang Ghamarnia, Zahra Jalili

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 359-372
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17870

Lysimetric experiments were conducted in order to determine the groundwater contributions by Black cumin. The plants were grown in 27 columns, each with a diameter of 0.40 m and packed with Silty clay soil. The factorial experiments were carried out using three replicates with randomized complete block designs and different treatment combinations. Nine treatments were applied during each experiment by maintaining groundwater with an EC of 1, 2 and 4 dS/m at three different water table depths (0.6, 0.8 and 1.1m). The groundwater contributions and plant root depths were measured by taking daily readings of water levels in Mariotte tubes and minirhizotron respectively. The four input neurons were total water use evapotranspiration (ETo), plant root depth (Zr), groundwater salinity (GS) and groundwater depth (Z). The output neuron gives maximum water uptake rate (Smax). The results showed that for different treatments, the best neural network was determined to be Multilayer Perceptron network (MLP) and the artificial neural network was very successful in terms of the prediction of a target dependent on a number of variables. This study indicates that the ANN-MLP model can be used successfully to determine groundwater observation by plant roots. Sensitivity analysis was undertaken which confirmed that variations in tide elevation are the most important factors in simulation of groundwater estimation in a semi-arid region. The results of this study showed that the estimation of plants groundwater contribution by ANN-MLP model is very useful for a quick decision on irrigation management to save a high volume of good surface water quality.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Practice of New Oral Language Structures by Learners in the Teaching of the English Language Curriculum in the Primary School Education in Kenya

Anne Syomwene, Peter L. Barasa, Jonah Nyaga Kindiki

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 377-385
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18299

Language is very important in our lives as it is the means by which people communicate. Effectiveness in language learning can greatly be achieved through the practice of new language structures. This paper is a report on a study that investigated the practice of new language structures by learners in the teaching of the English language curriculum. The study was undertaken in Nandi North district, Kenya in the year 2009. The study adopted Vygotsky’s [4] theory of social interaction. It utilized a qualitative research approach with a heuristic methodology. An exploratory research design was used. The research population consisted of primary school teachers teaching English in upper primary classes and standard six pupils. The data was collected using structured and focused group interviews and observations. This paper is a discussion of the findings, conclusions and recommendations of this study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rainfall Dynamics and Climate Change in Kano, Nigeria

Murtala U. Mohammed, A. Abdulhamid, M. M. Badamasi, M. Ahmed

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 386-395
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17098

This study examined the extent of climate change in Kano through rainfall data analysis. Rainfall data for one hundred years (1914-2013) of Aminu Kano International Airport synoptic meteorological station obtained from Nigerian Meteorological Agency (NIMET) was used in explaining the rainfall trend. Descriptions of monthly, annual and decadal rainfall averages were computed using Microsoft excel. The Normality of the data was tested using Shapiro- test for normality. Onsets, cessations and length of the rainy seasons were used to test variability of rainfall from time to time. The seasonality and standardize precipitation indices for ten year periods were performed. Trend lines and ten year moving averages were plotted. The findings revealed variability in both amount and length of raining season. The findings further revealed that drought and near drought conditions were experienced in the seventies and eighties. In the last two decades however there were improvements in moisture conditions. Trends of all the indices revealed an improvement in rainy condition except in the length of rainy season. The study concluded that even though changes were noticed in rainfall characteristics, it is difficult to ascertain climate change in the area on the basis of rainfall fluctuations. The research recommended the integration of other climatic variables and approaches as means for establishing changes or otherwise of climate in the study area.