Open Access Case study

Soil Contamination from Non-sanitary Waste Landfill in Langat Water Catchment Area, Malaysia

Sharifah Norkhadijah Syed Ismail, Che Fauziah Ishak, Mohd. Armi Abu Samah, Erneeza Mohd. Hatta, Aini Syuhaida Abdul Wahab

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 480-493
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15102

Soil is a complex matrix and a major reservoir of contamination. It has the ability to bind many potential toxic elements such as heavy metals and they can exist in various forms. Leachate triggered soil contamination in waste landfill through sorption and migration process. This study determined heavy metals contamination in the soil of non-sanitary landfills in Langat river water catchment area in Selangor. Topsoil samples were collected from four landfill sites and three non-landfill sites for comparison. Soil type, soil pH, organic matter and exchangeable cations were determined using specified method. Available heavy metals in soil samples were determined using Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The distribution of heavy metals across landfill sites were performed using ArcGIS. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) statistical software was used to analyse the finding. The overall findings have indicated that Al (2340±575 mg/kg), Fe (2110±330 mg/kg), Cu (65.1±29.6 mg/kg) and Cd (4.99±1.3 mg/kg) were very high in the agriculture soil. Al and Fe also were high in the residential area soils with the mean ± SD of 2760±128 mg/kg and 1620±710 mg/kg respectively. Other elements such as Mn, Zn and Pb were highly detected in waste landfills. The highest Mn and Zn were detected in landfill site B with the mean ± SD of 76.5±13.9 mg/kg and 17.8±24.0 mg/kg respectively. High concentration of Pb was detected in landfill site D (37.9±37.8 mg/kg) and site B (37.5±24.3 mg/kg) while Cd was high in landfill site A (4.61±0.6 mg/kg) and site D (4.39±1.0 mg/kg). Ni was commonly detected as low in all sites. The highest Ni concentration was determined in landfill site B (1.55±3.06 mg/kg). In conclusion, all heavy metals in the studied soils were within the soil standard except for Cd and Cu. Most of heavy metals were retained at the boundary of the landfills. The mobility of heavy metals in the soil was possibly associated with the acidic-pH soils environment, high organic matter and clay content. In conclusion, the soil contamination occurred in both landfills and non-landfill sites where Cu contamination was found in agriculture soil, residential area and landfill site A while Cd contamination was present in all study sites.

Open Access Short Research Article

Comparison of Radiation Exposure in the Practice of Anesthesia in Orthopedic Operating Theaters

Pelin Tanır Yayla, Derya Gökçinar, Nermin Göğüş, Güneş Tanır

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 438-442
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17594

Aim: The doses received by anesthesiologists and technicians from x-ray devices used in orthopedic operating theaters were measured and calculated in compliance with international standards.
Methodology: Ten personal thermoluminescence dosimeters were given to ten anesthesia operators and they wore the TLD dosimeters for 60 days. The TLD dosimeters were read by the Turkish Atomic Energy Agency.
Results: The measured doses of ionizing radiation received by anesthesiologists and technicians were found to be 0.07 – 0.18 mSv over two months and the calculated doses were found as 0.63-1.26 mSv per two month. The absorbed doses from ionizing radiation were found to be within the safe limits. However the calculated dose values in the scattered field were found to be important for medical staff.
Conclusion: The surgical team should keep away from the radiation exposure as much as possible. They should always wear the lead vest.

Open Access Original Research Article

Environmental Quality in Communities around Warri Refining and Petrochemical Company (WRPC), Niger Delta Region, Nigeria

G. O. Igile, F. E. Uboh, U. O. Luke, S. U. Ufot, A. E. Robert, P. E. Ebong

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 400-412
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/13627

Petroleum refining is accompanied by the release of toxicants into the environment, including suspended particulate matter (SPM), poisonous gaseous oxides of carbon (COx), nitrogen (NOx), and sulphur (SOx) and hydrogen sulphide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals such as Pb, As, Hg, Cd, Cr and Fe. These atmospheric acid rain precursor emissions contribute significantly (p<0.05) to environmental degradation and toxicity to humans, aquatic and terrestrial life forms. The aim of this study was to assess the environmental quality in communities around the Warri Refining and Petrochemical Company (WRPC). The study design involved choosing a circumference of 10 km around the WRPC and dividing into distances of 10 km (control), 3.55 km (Ubeji), 2 km (Ijala), 500 m (Ifie-Kporo and Aja-Etan), and 0 km (Gas flaring tower base) from the refinery plant. Air quality parameters were measured in these locations in the wet and dry seasons using standard air quality measuring kits, at wind speed of 2.60±1.22 m/s; wind direction NE, temperature 30±2.50°C, and relative humidity of 68±1.20%. Negligible concentrations of oxides of NO2, SO2 and CO, and H2S, NH3, VOC and SPM were detected in the air at the control location (10 km) from the refinery. Significant levels (p<0.05) of emissions were detected in the air as the distances got closer to the refinery. At Ubeji (3.55 km) from the refinery, mean levels detected were CO (2.60±0.22 ppm), NO2 (10±2.1 ppm), SO2 (24±1.5 ppm), H2S (0.40±0.01 ppm), NH3 (0.11±0.01 ppm), VOC (63±1.25 ppm), and SPM (184±2.5 ppm) respectively. Significant (p<0.05) levels of SPM were detected at between 2 km and 500 m from the refinery. The mean SPM levels recorded in the communities around the WRPC were Ifie-kporo and Ajala (194±4.12 ppm), Aja-Etan (188±3.0 ppm) and the base of the gas flaring tower (186±2.5 ppm). Ifie-kporo and Ajala communities (2 km) recorded significantly (p<0.05) highest values of toxic substances, including CO (3±0.42 ppm), NO2 (23.40±0.50 ppm), SO2 (83±1.4 ppm), H2S (0.60±0.11 ppm), VOC (116.80±5.4 ppm) and SPM (194±3.9) respectively. Mean noise levels of 60.75±0.50 dbA and 61.25±2.70 dbA were recorded for the wet and dry seasons respectively. Hg and Cr exceeded EPA limits, while Cd and Pb fell within EPA limits. It was concluded that some of the parameters in the gaseous emissions exceeded EPA limits and may therefore be classified as hazardous to the ecosystem and populations living around the refinery and may elicit endocrine disruption in humans and animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Relation between the Meaning in Life and the Sensitivity of Conscience in the Life of Polish Students with Different Levels of Experience of God's Presence

Stanisław Głaz

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 413-425
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17535

Aims: The aims of the research was to define the level of meaning in life and the level of conscience sensitivity in groups of students with a high and low level of religious experience of God's presence, and to examine the relationship between these variables.
Methodology: The study was conducted in Kraków among university students. All the respondents claimed to belong to the Roman-Catholic Church. 235 sets of correctly completed questionnaires were used for the results analysis. In the research the following methods were applied: The Scale of Religious Experience (SRE) by GÅ‚az, The Purpose in Life Test (PLT) by Crumbaugh and Maholick, and The Scale of Conscience Sensitivity (SCS) by Buksik.
Results: Students with a high level of experience of God's presence appear to have a higher level of meaning in life and conscience sensitivity than students with a lower level of the experience. Moreover, in a group of students with a high level of experience of God's presence, meaning in life is more strongly related with conscience sensitivity than in a group of students with a low level of it.
Conclusion: The findings of the author's study of the problem make an empirical contribution to increasing the understanding of religious experience concerning meaning in life and conscience sensitivity in the development of the psychology of religion.

Open Access Original Research Article

Does the Method of Instruction Matter in Middle Basic Pupils’ Science Process Skill Acquisition? An Examination of Field-Based Inquiry and Conventional Strategies

Emmanuel E. Achor, Victoria M. Shikaan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 426-437
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18261

Aims: This study investigated the extent to which the field-based, inquiry method of instruction (FBIMI) will be effective in impacting middle basic (5th grader) pupils’ science process skill acquisition as compared to the conventional strategy.
Study Design: The study adopted a quasi-experimental design particularly a non-equivalent control group type.
Place and Duration of Study: The study was in Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria. The duration for the study was January to March in 2012.
Methodology: The sample for the study consisted of three hundred and twenty-nine pupils from six schools selected by random sampling. Acquisition of Science Process Skills Test (ASPST) was the instrument used in this study. The reliability estimate for ASPST was found to be 0.95.
Results: It was found that teaching method, FBIMI is an important factor in science process skill acquisition of learners and the students exposed to FBIMI acquired process skill significantly higher than those exposed to conventional strategy. The experimental group showed a higher aptitude than the control group. Gender was found to have no significant effect in the acquisition of science process skills in the experimental group.
Conclusion and Recommendation: FBIMI is found to be suitable for instruction of pupils of primary school age, therefore; Basic Science and Technology Curriculum by Nigeria Education Research and Development Centre (NERDC) should include the use of outdoor, field-based experiences among its teaching and learning materials. Also, school supervisors should ensure that teachers use FBIMI as teaching strategy for basic science and technology.

Open Access Original Research Article

Image Enhancement Combining with View Morphing Technology Applying on Wireless Sensor Network

Duong Van Hoan, Ta Duc Giang, Tran Ngoc Hoan, Phat Nguyen Huu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 443-454
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17896

Recently image-based rendering techniques have received much attention as a powerful method to build up 3D world for virtual reality systems. The paper describes one of the new techniques which allow a user to metamorphose a digital image into other image. The approach gives the high level control of the visual effect by proving natural feature-based on specification and interaction of image. The new method was extended to design the motion images applying for movie/cartoon and traditional filmmaking techniques. We are exploring the three-step interpolation algorithm view morphing which allows interpolating between two images of an object taken from two different viewpoints. The proposed method uses correspondence points of the images and epipolar geometry to interpolate camera positions instead of interpolating shape and color in the other papers. Besides, view morphing combined with several methods of image enhancement to pre-process two input images to bring about better quality of output image. The results of consumed energy are also performed with this algorithm before applying on wireless sensor networks (WSNs).

Open Access Original Research Article

The Use of Galena as Weighting Material in Drilling Mud

U. Akpabio Julius, I. Akpanika Offiong, O. Etim Idorenyin

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 455-465
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15095

A successful oil well drilling depends largely on a good mud Program. During drilling, mud provides sufficient hydrostatic pressure, removes drill cuttings and cools drill bits. Mud additives are always required to provide sufficient hydrostatic pressure to ensure borehole stability. Barium Sulphate (BaSO4) also known as barite is the prevalent weighting material but there is need to develop local materials to augment the use of Barite. This study was aimed at assessing the suitability of galena, a lead sulfide (PbS), as an alternative weighting material in drilling fluids.
Two mud samples A and B were prepared which comprised fresh water, caustic soda, bentonite and weighting material. The weighting materials were added to the mud separately to form the required mud weight ranges between 9.0 ppg and 15.0 ppg. Sample A was water-based mud with commercial barite while Sample B was water-based mud with local galena. These samples were analyzed and the density, rheological properties and solid contents were investigated.
At 9.0 ppg, the yield point of galena was 20.0 lb/100ft2 and barite 22.0 lb/100ft2 while the 10 second gel strength of galena was 5.0 lb/100ft2 and 8.0 lb/100ft2 for barite. Similarly, little difference was observed in plastic and apparent viscosities. At 9.0 ppg, the plastic and apparent viscosities of galena was 13.0 cp and 23.0 cp while barite was 10.0 cp and 20.0 cp.
The result show that galena mud sample gave a little higher yield point and gel strength than barite mud sample. Therefore, galena has the potential to be used as weighting material in drilling mud in place of Barite thereby enhancing the local content initiative of the government. When Galena is sourced locally and used it will reduce overall mud and drilling costs.

Open Access Original Research Article

What Effects Do Cognitive Reasoning Ability and Prior Exposure to Content have on Upper Basic Two Students’ Retention in Basic Science?

Emmanuel E. Achor, Ayuba P. Duguryil

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 466-479
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18260

Aims: This study addressed the effects of cognitive reasoning ability and prior exposure to content on Upper Basic two (8th grader) students’ retention in Basic Science. This focus was necessitated by the persistent poor performance in science generally and inability to meet up with the 60:40 ratio in students’ admission into tertiary institutions in Nigeria.
Study Design: The study utilized a pre-test post-test quasi-experimental design; it was a non equivalent control group type.
Place and Duration of Study: Plateau state of Nigeria between April and June, 2012.
Methodology: The instruments that were used to collect data were Basic Science Achievement Test (BSAT) and Science Reasoning Tasks (SRT). The reliability of BSAT was determined using the Kuder Richardson 21(K-R21) formula and found to be 0.89 while that of SRT II using test retest approach was found to be 0.81.
Results: It was found that prior exposure of students to contents of basic science significantly improved retention. Similarly, knowledge retention of high and low reasoning ability level students significantly differed in favour of high ability students. The study also found that male and female basic science students exposed to content prior to instruction do not differ significantly in their knowledge retention. However, there was a significant interaction effect of method, sex and reasoning ability on students’ retention in basic science.
Conclusion and Recommendation: It can be concluded that prior exposure to content enhanced students’ retention and that high ability students retained more of science learnt compared to low ability student. Prior exposure to content favoured both male and female students’ retention. It is recommended that authors of methodology text books should include and explain carefully how prior knowledge of content can be used to enhance retention of learnt materials. Basic science teachers should be made to be aware of the relationship that exists between reasoning pattern of learners, conceptual demand of the school subject and the methods of teaching that will facilitate retention, among others.