Open Access Commentary

Ubuntu Ideality: The Foundation of African Compassionate and Humane Living

N. Kingsley Okoro

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16982

The 21st Century humanity is at the cross-road on where to get peace and peaceful society, despite all the resources at her disposal to make her world a peaceful one. Our survey reveals that the confusion is an outgrowth of jettisoning her traditional humane values under the guise of modernity. This has resulted into a system failure that has affects both our individual and corporate existence adversely. Therefore we are attuned to searching for answer to this state of imbalance that is eclipsing our psycho-spiritual/moral personality. In our inquest for answer, we stumbled at the ‘Ubuntu’ Ideality. Our study reveals that Ubuntu resembles a somewhat ‘Holy-grail’ that binds traditional African people together in an inseparable manner. It defines African philosophy of social/ community living. The ideality takes different names under different African communities, however, in spite of the various names; the underling ideology is the same in all cultures. The central ideology is human-ness, cooperation, compassion and universal brotherhood of all mankind. Here Ubuntu ideality hinges on the basic truth that it is the community that defines the individual and gives people their worth-ness. Ubuntu reflects the deep spiritual truth that humanity share one indivisible essence-one spiritual essence, one planetary life system, one human race and one dependent human community. This paper therefore underscores that if the modern world will harness and adapt this pristine concept found in African traditional values, as a model of relationship that the crisis of the present order will be a history we will all remember with shame and regrets.

Open Access Short communication

Framework for Deciding Effective Impact of Publications

A. V. Adedayo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18448

In this specific study, a new procedure for computing the impact of articles / authors / journals is made. Identification of importance of impact evaluations in general is presented. The inadequacies of the methodologies presently used to evaluate impact of published research are also identified. Inadequacies of the present impact metrics is used as justification to develop new impact metrics which are citation based metric tools. The new metric tools are article level metrics. Frequencies of citation of a reference within an article were used to determine the imaginary and the real impacts of the cited reference. The development of the new impact metrics is based on the opinion that not all citations made in an article should have a positive count in the computation of the impact of a cited publication.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Linear Programming Knowledge and Skills to Real Life Contexts by Secondary School Students in Kenya

Shikuku Beatrice Nakhanu, William Wanjala Toili, Kennedy Nyongesa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18300

Linear programming is a specific class of mathematical problems, in which a linear function is maximized (or minimized) subject to given linear constraints. Linear programming can be used in a variety of business problems including: transportation and distribution, production scheduling, financial and tax plan, human resource planning, facility planning and fleet scheduling [1,2]. Yet many Kenyan secondary schools hardly teach this topic. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether using the origin test and extreme points technique can encourage and improve students’ learning of linear programming. Students’ performance on an achievement test, and application of linear programming skills were monitored. The study adopted the pre-test, post-test non-equivalent groups experimental design. The experimental group was taught the topic using the origin test and extreme points technique, a version of Problem Based Learning. The control group was taught using conventional methods. A mathematics achievement pre-test and a post-test were given to both groups to ascertain their respective entry and final performance abilities. In the pre-test, the experimental group had a mean score of 63.05%, while the control group had a mean score of 65.73%. An independent samples t-test gave a significance of 0.280 which is greater than 0.05, and a t value of 1.103 which is less than the table value of 2.37. This implied that the two groups had statistically similar entry behavior. Analysis of the post-test results gave a mean score of 58.07% for the experimental group, and 34.97% for the control group. A paired samples t-test gave a significance of 0.000 and a t value 20.13, implying a significant difference in performance between the two groups. In addition, the marks scored in item 3, and item 5 of the post-test, were used to determine the level of students’ application of linear programming skills. The mean score for these two items was 60.80 for the experimental group and 34.53 for the control group. A paired samples t-test gave a significance of 0.000 and a t value of 22.456, implying the experimental group was able to apply the linear programming skills significantly better than the control group. Two schools in Kakamega County were used to pilot the study. The face and content validity of the research instruments were determined with the help of mathematics educators and experienced secondary school mathematics teachers. The split half method was utilized in determining the instruments’ reliability. Pearson's coefficient (r) obtained for MAT 1 and MAT 2 in the two schools was above 0.88. Stratified Random Sampling was used to select ten each of form four boys, girls, and co-educational schools for the study. In total 1,502 form four respondents participated in the study.

Open Access Original Research Article

Susceptibility Pattern of Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamase (ESBL) Producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp. to Ciprofloxacin, Amikacin and Imipenem

Jogendra Nath Sarker, Sheikh Muhammad Abu Bakar, Ripon Barua, Hafiza Sultana, Shaheda Anwar, Ahmed Abu Saleh, Sharmin Afroza Sultana

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16933

This study was carried out to determine the susceptibility pattern of Extended-Spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp. to ciprofloxacin, amikacin and imipenem. A total of 100 ESBL producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp. were studied and identified by double disc synergy test (DDST) and were confirmed phenotypically as ESBL producer by phenotypic confirmatory disc diffusion test (PCDDT). Minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin, amikacin and imipenem among ESBL-producing strains were determined using agar dilution method. Out of 75 DDST positive ESBL-producing E. coli, 71 (94.67%) were also positive by PCDDT. All DDST positive Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp. were also positive by PCDDT. All ESBL-producing E. coli, Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp. were 100% susceptible to imipenem by both agar dilution and disc diffusion method. About 7.04% Escherichia coli, 21.05% Klebsiella spp. were resistant but 100% Enterobacter spp. were susceptible to amikacin by both methods. About 85.92% ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, 73.68% Klebsiella spp. and 33.33% Enterobacter spp. were resistant to ciprofloxacin by agar dilution method but 87.32% Escherichia coli, 78.95% Klebsiella spp. and 50% Enterobacter spp. were resistant to ciprofloxacin by disc diffusion method. ESBL-producing Escherichia coli, Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp. showed high resistance to ciprofloxacin. Imipenem and amikacin were most effective against ESBL positive strains.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Heat Pipes with Forced Convective Heat Transfer in Cooling of Electronic Equipments

Mohammad Reza Tavakoli, Reza Zaghian, Ali Mohammadi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18420

Heat pipes are widely used as a cooling system in various equipments such as air conditioning systems, electronic boards, etc. To enhance the heat transfer, these pipes can be finned, or increased the air velocity by using a fan. This study aimed at examining the cooling effect of a finned Capillary-Driven heat pipe with forced convective heat transfer on an electronic board with known heat flux. Also, the effects of size and number of fins on the heat transferred from the electronic board were studied for different power inputs. The values of transferred heat were compared to and validated by the various heat transfer empirical equations available in the literature. To obtain the correct arrangement of the fins and to study the heat transfer, the motion of air through the fins was simulated in 2-D, and the segment of the fins effective in the heat transfer process was determined. The results obtained from changing the fin dimensions showed that the fin width (W) is the critical dimension so that when air velocity and other dimensions are kept constant. The rate of heat transfer also increases with increasing fin length (L), but the effect of increase is less than that of fin width (W).

Open Access Original Research Article

Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics and Economic Aspects of Butter Oil (samin) Produced from Whey

Mohamed Osman Mohamed Abdalla, Siham Abdalla Rahamtalla, Fatima Awadalla Mohamed

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17868

Aims: This investigation was conducted to manufacture butter oil (samin) from whey and evaluate the product physicochemically and microbiologically during the storage period as well as to study the profitability of it.
Methodology: Butter oil (samin) was manufactured from whey left after the manufacture of mozzarella cheese. The fat layer was removed from the whey (ripened for 3 days at 25°C), heated at 140°C for 50 min, stored at 5°C and 25°C and subjected to physicochemical analysis (acid value and peroxide value at days 1 and 45) and microbiological examination (total viable bacteria count (TVBC), coliform bacteria, thermophilic bacteria, thermoduric bacteria and yeasts and moulds counts) at 1, 15, 30 and 45 day-intervals.
Results: The results showed that acid value decreased during storage at both temperatures, while peroxide value increased. Microbiological examination revealed that TVBC and thermoduric bacteria count decreased towards the end of storage period at 5°C and 25°C, while thermophilic bacteria, coliform bacteria and yeasts and moulds counts were not detected during the manufacture and subsequent storage at both temperatures. Economic analysis showed that the net profit from manufacture of 1.5 kg butter oil (samin) was SDG 8.0 ($ 1.33), and monthly profit was SDG 240 ($ 39.9).
Conclusion: Manufacturing butter oil from whey is highly recommended as a new source of income in the field of traditional dairy industry in Sudan with good microbiological quality during storage under refrigeration and/or room temperature.

Open Access Original Research Article

Thermal Diffusion Effect on Convective Heat and Mass Transfer of High Speed MHD Flow over a Stretching Sheet

Md. Mohidul Haque, Ujjal Kumar Sarder

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18075

A numerical study of thermal diffusion effect on a mixed convective heat and mass transfer transient flow along a stretching sheet with constant heat and mass fluxes is completed under the action of a uniform magnetic field. A mathematical model related to the problem is developed from the basis of studying magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). Some dimensionless quantities have been used to transform the model to a non-dimensional system of equations. Study of chief physical interest of the flow as shear stress, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are also noted here. The system of momentum, energy and concentration equation is solved numerically by an explicit procedure of the finite difference technique. The stability criteria and convergence conditions are obtained for this problem. The collected numerical values of flow variables are illustrated in graphs for different values of associated parameters. The physical aspects of the problem are discussed in detail from the graphical representation. Last of all, some important findings of the present problem are concluded in this work.

Open Access Review Article

Cancer, Molecular Basis and Nutrition: A Review

Adegbusi Halid Sheriff

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/15564

This article reports some eating habits that should be avoided and those to be encouraged in order to preventing the development of cancers. Cancers are multifactorial in origin but the likelihood of their development are predisposed by some such risk factors as tobacco smoking, high salt intake, excessive consumption of saturated fats, refined foods and sugar, alcohol, red meat and processed red meat, prolong exposure to ultraviolet radiation, such chemicals as lead, benzene, and to infections of human papillomavirus and hepatitis virus. There are more than 100 types of cancer which vary in occurrence by sex, region, socio-economy and race. Mutation of DNA that results in cancer is a multistep involving oncogenes, mutated tumour suppressor genes, genes that regulate apoptosis, inappropriately-activated telomerase and epigenetic perturbations. Cancerous cells experience increased replication, transcription and glycolysis, reduced requirement for growth factors and other changes. About 30-40 per cent of cancer cases are preventable by such good dietary means as regular consumption of fruits including apple, berries, grapes; vegetable including carrots, tomatoes, cruciferous vegetables and garlics; unprocessed or whole grains and flax seeds because they contain vitamins, minerals, phytochemicals and antioxidants that serve as anti-cancers and protection against DNA damage. These can also be complemented with enzyme supplements. Understanding the molecular basis of cancer can give an insight into the protocol for aggregate prevention, treatment or/and curing of cancer. It is inter-alia recommended that about 5-6 or more serving a day of such vegetables as cruciferous, carrots, tomatoes, dark green vegetables, spinach etc., five or more serving a day of such fruits as apple, berries, grape etc. should be eaten; legumes such as beans, soya beans, peas, etc. and whole grain such as millet, sorghum, wheat, oats etc. should be regularly consumed; daily consumption of red meat and processed red meat should not be more than 40 g and be spiced up with a regular drinking of green tea.