Open Access Case study

Identification of Rare Pulmonary Alveolar Microlithiasis in Maharashtra, India

Sunita Bamanikar, Ruchir Patel, Tushar Kamble, K. Sushen Kumar, Arvind Bamanikar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17560

Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare diffuse lung disease characterized by intra-alveolar deposition of calcium and phosphate. Clinically, the disease may remain static in some patients while it may progress to pulmonary fibrosis, marked hypoxemia and cor pulmonale in others. We report a case of a 44-year-old male, tailor by occupation, nonsmoker, presented with shortness of breath on exertion for three years. His chest radiograph showed bilateral diffuse calcifications and high-resolution computerized tomography (HRCT) scan showed “crazy paving pattern” involving diffuse bilateral lung parenchyma. Histopathology of lung biopsy with use of special stains confirmed the diagnosis of pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis. Patient refused any further intervention or lung transplant and lost to follow up after a year.

Open Access Opinion Article

Human Dignity Stance of Umunna Solidarity in Igbo Traditional Society: A Challenge to African Christianity

Clement I. Osunwokeh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16898

The fulcrum of social justice is the respect of human dignity. Before the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) saw the light of the day in 1948, the pre-colonial Igbo people of Eastern Nigeria have already defined what constitutes the foundation of peaceable society. They invested the norms of human dignity on the umunna solidarity. Umunna is the assemblage of brethren born within an androgynous linage. In this social arrangement, individuals are lost as persons without the community, hence their popular cliché, “umunna is power.” This social arrangement protects the individuals from being dehumanized. Here everyone who belongs to the umunna receives a uniform treatment, the king and the subjects alike. It is in this context that human rights and dignity become community property. However, this pristine social arrangement has been lost consequent upon the contact and interaction of Igbo people with Western Christianity. The overwhelming consequences have become individualism of persons resulting to the vitiation of human rights and dignity of persons. Thus after a critical considerations of the entire vista, this paper notices that Christianity, despite its long contact with the Igbo people, has not taken any deep root and as such may not be consulted in serious matters in Igbo life and existence. It, therefore, proffers African Christianity, among other traditional values of human dignity, the community living and social solidarity of umunna of the Igbo people as major ways that Christianity can become relevant in Africa and among Africans.

Open Access Short communication

Evaluation of Hepatic Function in Foals with Rhodococcosis after Treatment with Azithromycin and Rifampin

Ali Hassanpour, Hamidreza Alipour Kheirkhah

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/16132

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of two antimicrobials, (azithromycin and rifampin), on Rhodococcosis, a foal disease caused by Rhodococcus equi and to evaluate potential effects of the treatment on foals’ hepatic function. This study was conducted on 17 infected 2-15 months old foals, while 18 healthy foals were kept as control. Rhodococcosis in foals was confirmed by clinical signs and laboratory findings. In order to assess hepatic function the following enzymes were measured in serum of foals: Gama Glutamine Transferase (GGT), Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanin Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkalin Phosphatase (ALP) and Bilirubin (BIL). For treatment, azithromycin in combination with rifampin orally once a day for 2 weeks were used. At the end of the treatment, clinical symptoms resolved; however, it was observed intestinal disorders in the 13 foals. Among infected foals, serum markers of liver damage increased. Mean serum activity of GGT, AST and ALT was (P<.05) significantly higher among infected foals before treatment than among control foals, while the infected foals and mean difference between control and infected after treatment was not significant (P>.05). Serum activity of ALP in the diseased foal had a significant increase and mean difference between all three groups was significant (P<.05). Though mean serum levels of total BIL among sick foals was significantly (P<.05) lower than before treatment, it was significantly (P<.05) higher than control, and despite decreased, after treatment compared to before treatment, but not to normal and mean difference between 3 groups was significant (P<.05).
The findings of this study indicate that azithromycin in combination with rifampin was effective in the treatment of foals with bronchopneumonia by R. equi. Additionally, no adverse effects were noticeable on hepatic function.

Open Access Original Research Article

Cross Evaluation of Detection Schemes for Sparse Signals

Sinduja Seethapathy, A. T. Burrell, P. Papantoni-Kazakos

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17629

We consider environments where sparse signals are embedded in additive white noise. We consider specific signal models and cross-evaluate previously derived parametrically optimal, robust and tree-search policies for the detection of signal presence, in terms of the a posteriori probabilities of correct detection they induce. We specifically present numerical results for the case of a constant signal embedded in additive white Gaussian noise and the signal presence per observation being generated independently by a Bernoulli variable, in both the presence and the absence of data outliers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development and Performance Evaluation of a Pedal Operated Hydraulic Jack

Mohammed Tiamiyu Ishola, Olugbade Temitope Olumide, Odesanmi Gbenga Abiodun

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18887

Aims: The paper developed an accessory that can be connected to the hydraulic jack to operate it by pedaling while standing upright at a convenient position. It is characterized by an adjustable rectangular frame that occupies less floor space, and wheels to facilitate easy positioning.
Study Design: Thorough design analysis of the member components were done to determine their actual dimensions and specifications required. The device has been designed for light weight automobile, car. Although the maximum weight of a car is not more than 2.5 tonnes, but the device was designed for a 3 tonne hydraulic jack, ensuring reasonable factor of safety.
Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between February 2014 and December 2014.
Methodology: An adjustable rectangular frame was incorporated. This occupied less floor space, and wheels to facilitate easy positioning. A low stiffness, 1.61 N/mm, tension spring was used to be the actuator of the hydraulic fluid pumping and thus enhances soft and easy pedaling for the user. The material used for the fabrication of the mechanism component was mild steel which was selected based on the design analysis result, availability and low cost for cost effectiveness.
Results: Performance evaluation of the fabrication, compared with that of hand operated hydraulic jack revealed similar characteristics for both jacks but greater efficiency for the designed pedal operated jack in terms of safety and ease of operation. The test results showed that this pedal operated hydraulic lifter for automobile workshops performed much more efficiently than the hand operated hydraulic lifter.
Conclusion: This design has really curbed the problems encountered by hydraulic jack users. It makes work easy for female users who cannot easily and conveniently bend or stoop down to jack up their vehicles for a purpose and old men who are too feeble to stoop low under their vehicle to jack it up.

Open Access Original Research Article

Mercurialism Determination in Fetuses Bone Remains from Toluquilla, Queretaro, Mexico

Elizabeth Mejía Pérez Campos, José Ma Mejía Pérez Campos, Alberto Herrera Muñoz

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18043

There are few mentions in Mexican archaeology for study of prehispanic underground mining to exploit the cinnabar, but there are lots of references about their use as pigment for different kind of artifacts in Mesoamerican archaeology. Our research settled at Sierra Gorda emphasized the ancient life form specialized in production and trade of mercury ore, and that includes specific analysis to the human remains gathered in the archaeological work to determination how many of their inhabitants were evolved at this economic activity.
The ancient mining was so intensive and extensive at this region pollutes their environment affecting to the ancient population in their health. We present a few rare and special cases with important medical implications about health condition of ancient pregnant women with a journey through toxicological issues and bioaccumulation of mercury in their bodies.
The archaeological excavation provides skeletal remains of 200 individuals. We presented 37 cases that represent the diversity of population composition with adults (men and woman), adolescents and infants and 4 rare cases of fetuses buried at Toluquilla archaeological zone. In each case a bone sample was taken for determination of heavy metals by spectrometric chemical techniques.
The measurement results for total mercury in bones lead us evaluate the medical implications about their individual health condition and propose a few lines concerning the ancient public health.

Open Access Original Research Article

Leadership: The Means to Ensure Efficiency and Effectiveness in Monitoring and Evaluation in the Public Sector in South Africa

Hendri Kroukamp

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17771

The purpose of any Public Service is to deliver effective services to citizens in order to improve their quality of life. Unfortunately this is not the case in South Africa as the performance of the public service to deliver quality services is often questioned against alleged financial irregularities, maladministration and corruption and mismanagement. 

To address the situation some form of performance measurement is thus inevitable. Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) can play an important role in this regard but with a need for active citizenry where two-way information gathering and sharing between citizens and government takes place.  M&E practices could enable citizens to communicate their grievances and seek redress at the point of delivery and thus provide on-going insights into service delivery. Although the benefits of using M&E include improvements in transparency, accountability, learning, feedback and productivity, should cognisance be taken of the danger of ignoring professional judgement and not seeking a nuanced understanding of the underlying reasons for good or poor performance. Unintended consequences can be the manipulation of results, ignoring non-targeted areas, alienation of professional staff, increase in bureaucracy and blocking innovation and learning.  It was, however, found that evaluation in government is still only applied sporadically and is not adequately informing planning, policy-making and budgeting. 

It is therefore important that on an institutional level M&E capacity development should involve providing technical support in the form of guidelines, advice, tools and frameworks related to improving M&E processes, structures, resources and infrastructure. This requires strong, ethical leadership and does citizen-based monitoring and participatory M&E approaches proved practical opportunities to build this leadership culture in society.  Ethical leadership is also responsible to ensure that M&E findings result in consequences where there is poor performance and no serious attempt at improvement.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Transfusion Practices in the Service of Medicine and Neonatal Resuscitation of Rabat, Morocco

Radouani Mohammed Amine, Kabiri Meryem, M. Mrabet, A. El Hassani, Barkat Amina

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14206

Blood transfusion is a common practice in neonatal but not without risk as well as immunological and infectious.

The Aim of Study: To determine the prevalence of transfusion, the number of transfusion episodes, age at first transfusion and the main indications for transfusion to critically evaluate our transfusion practice.

Materials and Methods: This is a prospective and analytical exaustive study conducted at the National Reference Center for Neonatology and Nutrition Children's Hospital of Rabat between July 1, 2011 and July 31, 2014.

Results: A total number of 7000 infants were admitted to the center during this period, 300 of them were transfused one or more times a prevalence of 4.2%; These infants had a gestational age (GA) through 35 weeks of amenorrhea (WA) and 4 days with extremes of 28 and SA 40 WA. 13% of newborns have a gestational age less than 32 weeks and 47% between 32 and 36 WA + 6 days. Their birth weights ranged between 890 g and 4050 g with an average of 2063 g. 36% of infants had a weight of less than 1500 g birth. The total number of transfusion episodes received by newborn, ranged between 1 and 4 transfusions with an average of 2.5±1.2. It was essentially isolated from red blood cells (RBC) transfusions (66% of transfusion acts). Seventy-five percent of cases were transfused in the first week of life. The main indication was anemia associated with infectious haemolysis. The hypoproteinemia with hypoalbuminemia had indicated the contribution of fresh frozen plasma (FFC). Platelet transfusion was required in a case of thrombocytopenia 4000 / mm3 with hemorrhagic syndrome. No newborn had submitted post-transfusion complications.

Conclusion: In our context, the use of erythrocyte transfusions especially is still very common in the population of preterm infants which prompts us to adopt certain strategies to prevent anemia of prematurity including streamlining of blood samples, the use of micro-methods and optimization of transfusion indications.