Open Access Short Research Article

Issues and Challenges of Ownership and Privatization of Power Stations in Nigeria'

Kadiri Kamoru Oluwatoyin, Agbaje Michael Oluwasegun, A. O. Alabi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18296

A lot of attempts being made by the Nigeria government at industrialization and advancement of economic growth have been hindered by energy infrastructures deficit gap. Constant and adequate power supply is an important condition for an advance economic growth and to boost industrialization in the country. Many efforts to close this gap are being made, one of which is privatization of the power stations. The privatization of the power stations is meant to tackle the problems facing power supply in Nigeria, which include limited access power, inadequate generation and usage of power capacity etc. This issue of privatization is now rampant among countries, this paper discusses the efforts being made to give a stable power supply before it was privatized and after it was privatized, also this paper discuss on the challenges being encountered in the power sector during the ownership by government and when it was privatized. If the issues and challenges raised are properly tackled, there would be an increase/development in industrialization and the country’s economy.

Open Access Opinion Article

Not to be Mentioned but Impossible to Keep Quiet About

Sonia Vieira

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18426

Many people find scientific publishing is immune to fraud, but unfortunately this is not true. This paper reports some cases of scientific fraud detected in Brazil. It has to be pointed out that there is no crisis of ethics in Brazilian science, but since cases of misconduct have been reported, the Brazilian National Council of Scientific and Technological Development formed on March 27th 2012 a Commission for Integrity in Scientific Activity. It is therefore expected that procedures for prevention and punishment of fraudulent activity in science are discussed in Brazil more openly.

Open Access Minireview Article

Exposure to Radon as a Public Health Issue- A Review

A. M. Asere, I. R. Ajayi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18779

Radon (222Rn) is a noble gas formed from the decay of radium (226Ra), which is a decay product of Uranium (238U). Radon is an inert noble gas, having a half-life of 3.8 days emanating from rocks and soils and tending to concentrate in enclosed spaces like underground mines or houses. Radon was classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 1988, a review of the major studies of underground miners exposed to radon that were available in the 1990s and case-control study of residential radon exposure confirmed radon as a carcinogen. This paper reviews the publications of the World Health Organization, the International Atomic Energy Agency and other relevant publications specifically on sources and historical perspectives of radon, the association between lung cancer and radon, health effects and radon risk communication. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil and Nutrient Losses under Cultivated Bush and Climbing Beans on Terraced Humid Highland Slopes of Southwestern Uganda

G. Gabiri, J. A. Obando, M. M. Tenywa, J. G. Majaliwa, C. L. Kizza, A. Zizinga, R. Buruchara

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18113

Highland regions characterized with terraced slopes in East Africa are faced with serious soil and nutrient losses that have affected agricultural productivity. However, limited studies have analysed the soil and nutrient losses on terraced slopes of these humid highland regions. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the effects of climbing beans over the traditional bush beans' cultivation on soil erosion control in Bufundi sub catchment, Kabale District, South-western Uganda. Runoff trap approach was employed to assess erosion and the sites were characterized for soil physico-chemical properties. Terraced slopes planted with climbing beans showed significantly lower (P<0.05) annual runoff and soil loss of 36 m3 ha-1yr-1 and 121 kg ha-1 yr-1 over bush beans, 248 m3 ha-1yr-1 and 548 kg ha-1yr-1, respectively. Annual soil nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium losses were significantly higher from bush beans (1.87 kg N ha-1 yr-1; 0.6 kg P ha-1 yr-1 and 0.12 kg K ha-1 yr-1) over climbing beans (0.49 kg N ha-1 yr-1; 0.1 kg P ha-1 yr-1; and 0.03 kg K  ha-1 yr-1). The total economic value of bush beans due to erosion was higher (75424 Ug shillings/ha) than that of climbing beans (15597 Ug shillings/ha). Generally, runoff, soil and nutrient losses were very low from both bean types. However, climbing beans were superior to bush beans in controlling runoff, soil and nutrient losses confirming their effectiveness in controlling erosion down the catchment.

Open Access Original Research Article

Inheritance of Resistance of Soybean for Meloidogyne incognita and Identification of Molecular Marker for Marker Assisted Selection

Leonardo Augusto De Oliveira, Patricia Vinholes, Tatiane Dalla Nora Montecelli, Fabiane Lazzari, Ivan Schuster

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18648

Aims: To study the inheritance of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in soybean cultivar CD 201, and identify molecular markers linked to resistance genes/QTLs in soybean.

Study Design: The phenotypic assay was a complete randomized design, and mendelian hypothesis was applied.

Place and Duration of Study: Biotechnology lab, Coodetec, BR 467, km98. Cascavel, PR, Brazil, between July 2012 to July 2013.

Methodology: The population was created by the crossing the cultivars CD 201 (resistant) and BRS 133 (susceptible). F2:3 families were phenotyped for resistance to M. incognita and microsatellite molecular markers were used to identify genes/QTLs associated with resistance. Inheritance hypothesis was tested by Chi square test.

Results: The resistance to M. incognita in soybean cultivar CD 201 is given by three epistatic additive genes, two dominant and one recessive. Among the markers, Satt358 is linked to a dominant gene/QTL of resistance explaining 9.9% of the variability in resistance in the evaluated population. The use of this marker allows increasing the frequency resistant or moderately resistant lines in soybean breeding programs. Sixty nine percent of F2:3 families that have at least one allele for resistance in marker Satt358 have resistant or moderately resistant phenotype, and no F2:3 families that is homozygous with the susceptible allele in this locus have resistant phenotype.

Conclusion: This finding can help soybean breeders to develop highly resistant cultivar to M. incognita, both, by phenotypic selection and marker assisted selection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Intercontinental Cultural Interchange on Crop Diversity

Eva Garcia-Vazquez, Alba Ardura, Eduardo Dopico

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/19476

This case study compares crop origin and diversity between two villages of similar size and contrasting conditions of human development: Acteal (Chiapas, Mexico) and Tuñon (Asturias, Spain). With an ethnographic approach, we found a significantly higher proportion of imported species and lower crop diversity in Acteal than in Tuñon, opposite to the expected from the respective natural diversity and conservation of local traditions in the two areas. The results are explained based on less priority given to natural resources than to social development in regions affected by conflicts and/or poverty. According to FAO directions, emphasizing the protection of local agricultural varieties in development plans is highly recommended.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Associated with Municipal Solid Waste Management in Hanoi City, Vietnam

Hoang Trung Thanh, Helmut Yabar, Yoshiro Higano, Takeshi Mizunoya

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17774

Vietnam is considered to be one of the most potentially affected countries by the effects of climate change due to its topography and socio-economic properties. In order to contribute to the global efforts in climate change mitigation the government has recently announced to strive for a low-carbon economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with municipal solid waste (MSW) management system are one of the critical concerns in this regard. This study applied Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) approach to estimate the total amount of emissions from current MSW management in the capital city of Vietnam; and explored the potential of reduction through various possible scenarios of MSW management system. All scenarios studied presented high potential for emission reduction through improving composting, anaerobic digestion (biogas production), installing landfill gas capture system; and reducing amount of waste disposed in landfill. Particularly, the integrated MSW management consisting different technology options has the greatest potential of reduction, and landfill gas recovery system has significant effective impacts on mitigating GHG emissions from waste sector. This study therefore suggests feasible alternatives to achieve targets of emission reduction in the waste sector for the city studied.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of a Waterless Toilet

Olawale Olanrewaju

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18461

Waterless toilets are decentralized compost toilet systems that process human wastes within its own confinement. The aim of this research was to assess the current status of a waterless toilet at the Federal University of Technology, Akure (FUTA) and to propose a solution to the identified problems. Data were collected using both informal and formal surveys. The informal survey was done via direct observation while the formal survey was undertaken by administering and analysis questionnaires. Direct observation was undertaken to access the physical state and sanitary condition of the toilet and its environment while questionnaires were administered to 50 respondents in order to corroborate the informal survey. The informal survey revealed the poor hygiene condition within the toilet facility due to lack of maintenance and non-provision of cleansing material. Also, outside the toilet facilities, the environment was littered with human waste. The result from the formal survey expressed the user’s fear of catching germs. Findings from the survey show that over 70% of respondents would be comfortable in using the toilet if it is well maintained. Some of the remedies recommended to improve the hygienic condition of the toilet include provision of instructional material to orientate users on the use of toilet, constant maintenance and provision of buckets of ash / wood shavings and scoopers to be applied to the faeces to act as a bulking agent and also to reduce unpleasant odour.