Open Access Case study

Role of Ultrasound in Eye Diseases in Indian Population

Pankaj Sharma, Rajiv Ranjan, Reena Gupta, Amar Dev

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17930

Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate the patients of eye disease by B scan ultrasound and to correlate ultrasonographic findings clinically in patients with ocular diseases.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Department of Radiodiagnosis in association with Department of Ophthalmology at Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital, Delhi over a one year period. A total of 50 patients from both inpatient and outpatient department were included in study. 

Results: A total of 50 patients with various ocular and orbital abnormalities in the age group from 8 months to 80 years of age were examined. In our series, B scan ultrasound (USG) achieved a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 89.47%.

Conclusion: The overall reliability of B scan ultrasonography, and the indisputable value of the information provided, makes B scan evaluation of the eyes with opaque media an essential diagnostic test.

Open Access Original Research Article

Quantification of Etravirine in Rat Plasma by LC-MS/MS and Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study

Khagga Bhavyasri, V. Murali Balaram, R. Nageswarao, D. Rambabu, M. Ajitha, B. R. Challa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/12219

A rapid, rugged and reproducible, higher in sensitivity bio-analytical method was developed for quantification of Etravirine (EV) in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS. Etravirine15N2, 13C1 (EVIS) used as an internal standard (IS). Chromatography was performed with ZORBAX Eclipse Plus Phenyl-Hexyl  (50 mm × 2.1 mm × 3.5 mm) analytical column. Mobile phase was composed with 0.1% formic acid: acetonitrile (45:55 v/v), at a flow rate of 0.3 ml/min. Product ions of EV (163.1) and EVIS (166.1) were formed from the parent ion of EV (436.1) and EVIS (440.1). The drug and the IS were extracted from Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method. The calibration range is 5.0–750.0 ng/ml with a coefficient of determination (R2) is greater than 0.9950. This method demonstrated intra and inter day precision within 1.38 – 2.26% and 1.32–2.75%, and an accuracy within 99.77 – 100.80%, and 99.50 – 102.15%. Stability of EV in rat plasma was proved for freeze-thaw cycles, benchtop, and long term and Autosampler conditions. Pharmacokinetics study was studied in 6 healthy rats.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Different Processing Methods of False Yam (Icacina oliviformis) Seeds on Growth Performance of Albino Rats

Abdul-Rahaman Saibu Salifu, Augustus Dery Ninfaa, Kenneth Anama, Peter Tindukin Birteeb

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18333

Aims: The experiment was conducted to determine the response of albino rats to diets containing three differently processed false yam seed meals. 

Study Design:  Completely Randomized Design (CRD) was used for the study.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agricultural Engineering, Bolgatanga Polytechnic, Bolgatanga. The experiment lasted for four weeks.

Methodology: Sixteen individually-housed, albino rats (8 males and 8 females) were allotted to four dietary treatments labelled, Control (Maize-based diet), Boiled False Yam Seed Meal (BFSM), Roasted False Yam Seed Meal (RFSM) and Soaked False Yam Seed Meal (SFSM). Each treatment was replicated four times, with a rat representing a replicate. Feed and water were offered ad-libitum and growth performance was monitored for four weeks. The data were analyzed using the General Analysis of Variance with Duncan Multiple Range Test used to separate treatment means.

Results: The average total feed intake values were significant (P =.05). The values obtained were 340.00, 240.00, 242.00 and 341.00 g for Control, BFSM, RFSM and SFSM diets respectively. The rats fed the Control and SFSM diets significantly performed better than their counterparts fed the other diets (BFSM and RSFM) in terms of average daily feed intake and average daily weight gain. The final weight values were 141.30 g (Control), 105.00 g (BFSM), 89.30 g (RSFM) and 139.00 g (SFSM). The mean weights of the full stomach (Control=2.30, BFSM=2.69, RSFM=2.58 and SFSM=3.33 g), empty stomach (Control=0.95, BFSM=0.92, RSFM=1.12 and SFSM=1.17 g), full GIT (Control=16.00, BFSM=13.30, RSFM=11.40 and SFSM=15.20 g)  empty GIT (Control=6.67, BFSM=4.94, RSFM=4.33 and SFSM=5.21 g), heart (Control=0.58, BFSM=0.44, RSFM=0.38 and SFSM=0.59 g), spleen (Control=0.61, BFSM=0.50, RSFM=0.44 and SFSM=0.61 g) and viscera (Control=24.50, BFSM=19.70, RSFM=15.50 and SFSM=20.90 g) were not significantly influenced by the dietary treatments. However, the weights of kidney and the liver were statistically different (P=.05) as rats on Control recorded the heaviest kidney (1.25 g) and liver (5.38 g), while rats on RFSM recorded the lightest kidney (0.83 g) and liver (3.31 g). 

Conclusion: It was concluded that soaking is an effective method of processing false yam seeds and that, farmers could use false yam seeds as an alternative and cheaper feedstuff in diets of monogastric animals.

Open Access Original Research Article

n-Normal and n-Quasi-normal Composite Multiplication Operator on L2 -Spaces

S. Senthil, P. Thangaraju, D. C. Kumar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18661

An operator A is called n-normal operator if AnA* =A*An and n-quasi-normal operator if AnA*A =A*AAn . In this paper we characterize the essential isometry, essential co-isometry n-normal and n-quasi-normal composite multiplication operator on L2 -Spaces under certain conditions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Farmers’ Perceptions of Socio - Economic Biosafety Considerations Regarding Adoption and Use of Biotechnology: A Case Study of Sithobeleni and Lesibovu Communities in Swaziland

A. M. Dlamini, C. Malima, Z. Hlandze

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18610

Agriculture plays a great role in the economy of Swaziland. It is also important for food production. Over 70% of the agriculture is practiced in the rural sector where mainly food crops are produced under subsistence farming systems characterized by large hectares cultivated with corn and a high cattle population producing low yields. Biotechnology has potential to improve agricultural production. Biosafety procedures have been developed to ensure safe handling of products of modern biotechnology. The aim of this study was to determine socio economic considerations for risk assessment when products of modern biotechnology are introduced into the environment. Information was obtained from key informants and focus discussion groups of cotton, maize and cattle farmers from Lesibovu and Sithobeleni communities. Key biotechnologies already practiced in the communities included production and use F1 hybrid maize seeds as well as artificial insemination in dairy cattle. The major socio economic factors that should be considered when new technologies are introduced include consideration of community norms and values such as seed sharing and seed saving, considerations of cultural and religious beliefs such as objection to eating of some animal species, and acceptability of products of modern biotechnology by markets. Major constraints limiting implementation of technologies in the communities include difficulties with acquisition of inputs, drought and shortage of advisory services. It was observed that farmers were willing to adopt modern biotechnology provided that it was safe to public health, animal health and the environment. The technology should be legally acceptable in the country and be approved for use elsewhere. It was concluded that there is need to ensure that socio-economic factors form part of the risk assessment protocol when applications are considered for the release of products of modern biotechnology to the environment. Socio economic considerations should also form part of public awareness campaigns and training prior to the introduction of modern biotechnology into communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Meteorological Factors in Dispersion Modelling of SO2 and NO2 in Baia Mare, Romania

Cioruța Bogdan, Coman Mirela

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17871

Atmospheric dispersion characterizes the evolution in time and space of an ensemble of pollutants (aerosols, gases, dust) emitted into the atmosphere. Atmospheric dispersion phenomenon is influenced by atmospheric conditions, soil parameters and emission values. The atmospheric dispersion model is the mathematical simulation of how air pollutants disperse. Such models are used to estimate the concentration of air pollutants emitted from industrial activity, domestic, rural and difuse sources.

The paper presents the variety of atmospheric dispersion models on concentrations of SO2 and NO2 made according to the time variation of meteorological parameters (atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, rainfall, wind speed and solar radiation) specific to the Baia Mare urban area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Testing the Transition Probabilities in Square Contingency Tables

Serpil Aktaş

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/19642

Repeated responses may be obtained from different time points in longitudinal studies. When modelling such data, transition models like Markov type models concentrate on changes between the consecutive time points. Markov model consists of all possible states of a randomly changing system where it is assumed that next states depend only on the current state. For categorical data, Markov models help us to summarize the data and parameter estimation in contingency table form. Square contingency tables having the same row and column categories occur for the repeated observations on the response variable. In this paper, a computer program written in C# is developed to test whether the stationary probabilities are constant for several square contingency tables. It is also shown that if the transition probabilities are the same for each time interval, a single transition matrix may be estimated from the aggregrated tables. Limiting behavior of Markov chains as n→∞ is also calculated.

Open Access Original Research Article

On the Physico-chemistry and Nutrient Profile in the Lagos Harbour

Fabunmi Idera, Falilu Adekunbi, Uyimadu John Paul, Popoola Samuel, Oyatola Opeyemi, Nwoko Chidinma

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/19690

Physico-chemical and nutrient distribution control lagoon biological productivity, however, focus has been on studies on surface and bottom distribution with little on the vertical profiling of nutrients. Yet it is important to validate physico-chemical properties with nutrients to successfully determine the biological variability and trend of the Lagos harbour. Here, the study was carried out during the rainy season in the months of August, September and October 2014 at surface, 2.6 m and 5.2 m depth to demonstrate quantitatively that variability of nutrients within the Lagos harbour is correlated with physic chemical parameters and depth. Water temperature (°C), pH, Conductivity (µS/cm} and salinity (‰) were measured in-situ. Dissolved oxygen, alkalinity, calcium and magnesium concentration were determined in the laboratory by titremetry, while chloride, sulphate, silicate, nitrate, nitrite and phosphate were determined by colorimetry. The result shows that temperature (23-27°C), pH (7.91-8.68) and dissolved oxygen (6.37-11.20 mg/l) were relatively constant as a result of mixing and the relatively shallow water. Conductivity and salinity were seen to increase down the depth across the months studied. The month of September had the highest physico-chemical and nutrient concentrations reflecting impact of decomposition of introduced macrophytes and high tides. Though nutrient variability as a function of depth was shown to have no significant difference p>0.05, variations down the depth in the months studied were attributed to factors such as tidal influence, chemical precipitation and decomposition. The result indicated that the dynamic in physical and chemical processes are probably the main variables that determine the instantaneous distribution of nutrients. However, subsequent studies are recommended in deeper areas of the harbour to understand and provide information on biological productivity of Lagoons.