Open Access Case study

Accuracy of High Resolution Sonographic Evaluation of Painful Shoulder

Pankaj Sharma, Rajiv Ranjan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/17674

Painful shoulder is a very common condition that results from periarticular lesions involving the rotator cuff, the biceps tendon, and the subacromio-subdeltoid bursa. Ultrasonography [1] (USG) has advantage of offering a dynamic examination enabling an assessment of both the range of movement and muscular coordination.

Imaging Protocol and Correlation: All fifty patients (25 males and 25 females; range 26-67 years; mean symptoms duration 2.4 months) with symptomatic shoulder as case and asymptomatic shoulder as control were subjected to detailed clinical history, physical examination and sonographic study.

Results: Most rotator cuff lesions involved the “critical zone” (an area of relative avascularity 1 cm proximal to the point of insertion on the greater tuberosity) in the anterior aspect of tendons. Supraspinatus tendon most commonly showed abnormality on ultrasound (26%). Subscapularis (4%) and infraspinatus (4%) were the next common tendons to show abnormality. Teres minor was normal in all the patients. Partial thickness tears of supraspinatus tendon were more common than full thickness tears in the present study. Articular surface partial-thickness tear was most common type of partial-thickness tear in our study.

Conclusion: We can conclude that sonography is an attractive screening modality for the rotator cuff in patients with painful shoulder. In nut shell, a well performed ultrasound examination in most cases obviates the need for the more invasive arthrography and the more cumbersome and expensive MRI examination. Based on these results it appears that ultrasonography can be used as the initial imaging test for many patients with suspected abnormalities of the rotator cuff or biceps tendon.

Open Access Short Research Article

Modernization Technologies of Existing Thermal Power Plants in Nigeria

Kadiri Kamoru Oluwatoyin, Agbaje Michael Oluwasegun, A. O. Alabi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18874

Since power generation is one of the key factor in developing the country’s economy in Nigeria, the need to look at the way of reducing the negative impacts of these power plants are also required so as not to hinder the life of inhabitants of the country.  In this paper, emphasis is majorly placed on thermal power plants, since it’s the main generating method that is employed by Nigeria because the county is blessed with its materials such as natural gas and coal. But looking at this generating means, it has a lot of environmental impacts which can cause harms to the life of people in the country together with aquatic lives. These harmful effects include the release of greenhouse gases, water pollutions and so on.

Therefore, to reduce the harmful effects and improving the operation of these power stations, this paper suggested some modern technologies which can be employed by the power stations to reduce the harmful effects being caused by the power plants such as CO2 emission, NOx emission, particulate matter, SOx and so on. Also, it tells us the ways by which electricity is generated from the raw materials being used, their environmental impacts, ways of reducing these impacts and some of the difficulties encountered by thermal power stations in Nigeria.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Crossbreeding on Performance of Crossbred Dairy Cows and Indigenous Cattle Genetic Resources in the North Western Amhara, Ethiopia

Kefyalew Alemayehu, Damitie Kebede

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18508

In Ethiopia, crossbred cattle are mainly cross of zebu with Holstein-Friesian. The cattle have been used for milk production for decades. Therefore, the objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding on performance of crossbred dairy cows and indigenous cattle genetic resources. The study was conducted in three districts in 2013 namely, Farta, Gondar zuria and Bahir Dar zuria districts. Informal and formal field surveys were employed. Purposive sampling method was used giving due consideration of phenomic traits for cattle populations. Major ecological zones, the distribution of crossbred cattle populations and their socioeconomic importance were considered. The results revealed that the mean daily milk production for 50% Holstein Friesian and 50% indigenous cattle crosses in the Farta (9.14±4.32), Bahir Dar zuria (6.95±2.32) and Gondar zuria (6.27±2.75) districts differed significantly (P<0.001). The reproductive performances of the crossbreed cattle were also differed from district to district as well as from blood level to blood level. The age at first calving for 50% Holstein Friesian and 50% indigenous cattle crosses were found to be 1. 86±0.43, 2.16±0.40, 2.03±0.36 for Farta, Gondar Zuria and Bahir Dar Zuria Districts, respectively. Indiscriminate mating of indigenous cattle with exotic breeds, the existing production system, poorly designed crossbreeding and absence of herd registration and recoding systems are the major causes threatening diversity of indigenous cattle, with index value of 0.18, 0.12, 0.11 and 0.11, respectively. Crossbreeding results in inconsistent and rapid loss of genetic diversity by dilution of the autochthonous genetic makeup and poor heat detection/insemination, with 54.5, 43.6 and 66.34%, respectively. In this study, it was found that as the blood level increases the milk production decreased. The reproductive performance also had shown reduced performance. This can be due to gene segregation and management effects.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Integrated Nutrients on N and P Uptake and Biomass Production of Maize (Zea mays L.) in Mazimbu, Tanzania

U. K. Adamu, Yusuf B. Daraja, Jerome P. Mrema, J. J. Msaky

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/19688

A screen house soil culture experiments were conducted at Teaching and Research Farm, Mazimbu campus of Sokoine University of Agriculture Morogoro City, Tanzania in 2014 and 2015 to investigate the nutrients uptake (N and P) and biomass production (DMY) of maize grown with different levels of organic and inorganic fertilizers. The treatments used were nitrogen at three levels (0, 75 and 150 kgNha-1), phosphorus (0, 40 and 80 kgPha-1) and Farm Yard Manure (0, 5 and 10 tFYMha-1). The treatments were factorially combined and replicated three times using completely randomized design (CRD). DMY were assessed and the uptake of Nitrogen and phosphorus by maize were determined. Results of the experiments showed that, the combined rates of organic and inorganic fertilizers significantly increased Dry matter yield and N and P uptakes of maize when compared with most of the treatments and with the control. Root and shoot biomass ranged from 0.54 and 1.60 g pot-1 to 2.33 and 10.90 g pot-1 in 2014 and 3.59 and 11.52 g pot-1 to 9.28 and 24.43 g pot-1 in 2015 respectively. While the nutrient uptakes ranged from 1.04 and 0.089% to 2.94 and 0.37% for N and P in 2014 and 0.367 and 0.037% to 2.555 and 0.308% for N and P respectively in 2015. It was therefore concluded that the combined application of organic (FYM) and inorganic (N and P) fertilizers improved nutrients uptake and tissue nutrient contents of maize in the studied soils.

Open Access Original Research Article

Adaptation and Validation of the Problem Solving Scale for Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Patricia E. Miranda-Félix, Bertha Cecilia Salazar-González, Esther C. Gallegos-Cabriales, Patricia M. Valles-Ortiz, Rosario E. Ortiz- Fèlix

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/19351

Objective: To test the psychometric properties of the health problem solving scale (HPSS) adapted for adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Study Design: Cross sectional study, scale validation.

Methodology: 238 T2DM patients from 18 to 70 years of age (Mean =64.81 years, SD =11.186) participated in diabetes monitoring at the Mexican Diabetes Association in Monterrey Nuevo León. To validate the content of the scale, the Delphi method of consultation of experts was used. The construct validity was determined by confirmatory factor analysis.

Results: The adaptation of the Problem Solving in Diabetes Self-Management Scale consisted of a scale with 19 items distributed in three dimensions. Prior to factor analysis, the assumptions of normality, homoscedasticity, and linearity were made, and a sample size larger than 50 subjects was obtained. The measurement of sample adequacy was above the maximum acceptable value of 0.50, with a value of .853. Bartlett’s test of sphericity was significant (X2 =1301.040, gl =171, p <.001). In the confirmatory factor analysis by principal components with orthogonal method rotation of 19 items, three factors were found with eigenvalues greater than 1, which together explained 48.9% of the total variance. The first component explained 27.6% of the variance, the second component explained 13.3%, and the third component explained 7.9%.

Conclusion: The scale is brief and easy to apply and could be used in health and community institutions to understand how T2DM patients solve problems, either in an effective (positive) or a careless/avoidant or impulsive (negative) manner. It could also be useful to guide the design of strategies that can direct patients to cope with the problems that they face when caring for their diabetes.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Comparative Opinion of Dentists Working in the Private and Public on Advertising Ban in Healthcare Services

Aykut Ekiyor, E. Asuman Atilla

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/19605

Background: Medical institutions, just like other institutions, have promotion issues on marketing the services they produce in the ever increasing competition. Because the effect of promotion methods change from consumer to consumer and according to environmental conditions, the promotion concepts used by institutions providing healthcare services may demonstrate a different content.

Aim: In this research, it is aimed to reveal the opinions of dentists working in private and public sectors on the advertisement bans in the healthcare sector. In addition to this, the opinions of dentists working in the private and public sectors on advertisement bans will be analyzed in terms of their demographic characteristics and their positive and negative opinions on advertisement bans.

Methods: Literature has been scanned and a questionnaire consisting of two sections has been developed for the research in order to determine the opinions of dentists working in the private and public sectors on advertisement bans in the healthcare sector. The questionnaire has been conducted to 120 dentists, which 60 of the them working in the private sector and the other 60 working in the public sector, in Ankara. The analysis of the data obtained in the research has been evaluated with a statistical package program. In the research, ANOVA (Analysis of Variance), T-Test and LCD (Fisher's Least Significant Difference) tests have been conducted. In addition to this, frequency tables and descriptive statistics have also been used.

Results: According to the five hypotheses put forward in the study, four of these hypotheses were accepted, one hypothesis was refused. According to this, it has been determined that there is a statistically significant difference between the gender, level of education, level of income and whether these participant dentists work in the private or public sectors and their opinions on advertisement freedom. It has also been determined that this difference doesn’t exist in terms of age groups.

Conclusion: While it has been determined that dentists working in the private sector agree more with the statements related to introductory advertisements, informative advertisements and regulatory advertisements, the same group of dentists have agreed less with statements related to negative effects of advertisements and influence strength of advertisements.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trend Analysis of Hydro-meteorological Data for River Kaduna at Shiroro Dam Site, Niger State Nigeria

Kuti I. Abayomi, Animashaun I. Murtala, Olawale Babatunde, Abdullahi Suleiman

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18331

Variation in the hydro-climatic variables of River Kaduna at Shiroro Dam site, Nigeria is linked to a number of climate change activities around the river. In view of this, the paper aims at examining the trend of stream flow, rainfall, temperature and evaporation. Monthly discharge, rainfall, temperature and evaporation records were obtained for a period of Thirty Three (33) years (1980-2012). These variables were used to examine the trend of the area. Incremental/Reductional analysis was used to determine a positive and negative change with percentage hydro-climatic variables difference. Mann- Kendall test, Turning point test and Kendall’s Rank Correlation were also used to estimate the significance of the trend. The result of the Mann –Kendall shows that the month of September had a value of Zs equals -2.09 (greater than Z 0.025 ) which makes it statistically significant; the rainfall value has no trend on a long term basis; the month of February and October had values of Zs equal to -2.2 (greater than Z 0.025 ) which made it statistically significant; the month of October had a value of Zs equal to 2.2 (greater than Z 0.025 ) which makes it statistically significant. Turning Point and Kendall’s Rank correlation Tests indicated that the variables have negative trends. The incremental/reduction analysis indicated that the discharge, rainfall and evaporation have significant trend (10%, 90% and 35%) on the seasonal than the long term basis while the trend of temperature was significant on long term than the seasonal which has little or no trend (0.37%) in the area. The study shows that the trend pattern of stream flow, rainfall, temperature and evaporation from 2002 - 2012 was extremely high compared to 1980 - 1990 and 1991 – 2001. It is thus recommended that River Kaduna should be dredged and channelised so as to reduce depth of runoff during the full wet seasons. Also, deforestation and bush burning activities around the river at Shiroro Dam site should be prohibited.

Open Access Review Article

Recent Pharmacological Advances of Endangered Species of South India: Garcinia indica Choisy

Varsha Anil Parasharami, Geetika Gunapal Kunder, Neetin Desai

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/14550

Garcinia indica Choisy of the family Clusiaceae is a medicinally important polygamodioecious tree. It is widely distributed throughout Asia, Africa and Polynesia. In India it is found in Western Ghats of South India and North Eastern states. All the parts of the tree is being used since ancient times in food preparations and known for its medicinal importance in treating acidity, ulcer, weight loss, inflammation, etc. Hydroxy citric acid and Garcinol are two major phytochemical present in this plant responsible for its various medicinal property and contains a large number of other important phytochemicals. This review provides a summary of the recent pharmacological advances in the past six years using the various Garcinia indica plant parts extracts. This pharmacological activity includes cardio protective, antacid, anthelminthic, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer activity, etc. Thus the review provides a background for the hyper-production and isolation of bioactive compounds from this medicinally important plant for treating various ailments. Phytochemical analysis of the aqueous and methanol in vivo leaf extracts of Garcinia indica C. revealed the presence of many phytochemicals. When the total flavonoid content, total tannin content, total phenolic content and total phosphomolbednum reducing capacity was checked, flavanoid concentration in the methanol  leaf extracts was more than 35 mg/100 ml which was much higher than the  Garcinia cola seeds, Zingiber officinale stems, Gongronema latifolia leaves and Carica papaya leaves. Further studies will prove the bioactives responsible for curing different ailments. Hence, G. indica will be explored to understand the pathway, action and the compounds/bioactives responsible for different disease curing properties and its isolation and further pharmacological usage.