Open Access Short communication

Synthesis and Crystal Structures of a Novel Nickel-Sodium Complex with Nitrilotriacetamides

Ran Jing-Wen, Pei Jun

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/20173

A novel complex with nitrilotriacetamides (abbreviation L) has been synthesized. Single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis determined the molecular formula as C12H28N8Na2NiO10. The crystal belongs to the triclinic system with P-1 space group. In this molecule, the L ion exhibits an infrequent coordination mode. The nickel center is hexa-coordinated to a slightly distorted octahedral configuration by six nitrogen atoms from two L ligands. The sodium ion is six-coordinated with three oxygen atoms of ligands and three oxygen atoms of water molecules. Two water molecules bridge two Na+ ions. 

Open Access Policy Article

Analyzing Waste Problems in Developing Countries: Lessons for Kathmandu, Nepal through Analysis of the Waste System in Tsukuba City, Japan

Rajeev Kumar Singh, Helmut Yabar, Noriko Nozaki, Randeep Rakwal

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/20346

Implementing an effective solid waste management program has become a difficult challenge in many developing countries. In most cases, local authorities lack the capacity to collect all the waste generated, let alone facilitate appropriate disposal. Street littering, illegal dumping and associated health and amenity impacts exacerbate these problems. On the other hand, developed countries have already overcome waste management problems in their cities by the introduction and implementation of proper laws and regulations, encouraging people to segregate household waste for recovery of materials, with financial support from central governments, to name a few. Many studies suggest that it is necessary to change not only the waste management capacity by local authorities but also residents’ perception regarding waste in developing countries. This article compares the waste system in Kathmandu, a typical city in a developing country, and Tsukuba city or Tsukuba Science City – as popularly known – in Ibaraki prefecture, Japan. The study argues that the segregation of waste at source and improvement of the waste collection system options for recovery of materials can not only help in managing waste problems but can also be a source of income if applied properly to Kathmandu city.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Alternative Mean Estimator for Ranked Set Sample

Özlem Ege Oruç

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/19675

Aims: We introduce a new estimator for population mean by using coefficient of variation as prior information in ranked set sampling (RSS). Then we compare it with the estimator of the mean in RSS, the estimator of the mean in simple random sampling (SRS) in the sense of mean square error (MSE). We conclude that the proposed RSS mean estimator is more efficient than the aforementioned estimators.

Study Design: This was rank set sampling, improved estimation study.

Place and Duration of Study: Dokuz Eylul University Department of Statistics between December 2014 and June 2015.

Methodology: In this study, We introduce a new estimator for population mean by using coefficient of variation as prior information in Ranked Set Sampling (RSS). The performance of this estimator is compared in the sense of mean square error (MSE).

Results: When we compared the improved RSS mean estimator, SRS mean estimator and traditional RSS mean estimator in the sense of mean square error. We conclude that the proposed RSS mean estimator is more efficient than the aforementioned estimators.

Conclusion: We have shown that a biased estimator with a smaller MSE can be obtained by using a priori information which is the coefficient of variation. To compare the efficiencies of the mean estimators with each other, we evaluate the relative efficiencies of each estimator using MSE. It is shown that the proposed mean estimator for RSS is more efficient than the conventional estimators. In particular the better efficiencies are obtained for small sample sizes.

Open Access Original Research Article

New Approach for the Calculation of Critical Depth in a U-Shaped Channel

Bachir Achour, Mohamed Lakhdar Nebbar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/20056

The U-Shaped channel is a high performance structure widely used in practice. Currently, the problem of the critical depth in such profile does not have a direct solution. Current methods of calculation are based on complex mathematical procedures or optimal fitting methods, often generating unacceptable errors in practice, knowing that the calculation of the critical depth requires a high accuracy. The complexity of the problem stems from the fact that the flow governing equations are complicated due to the shape of the profile. In this study, the form of the flow equation is simple through the intake of the properties of the triangle. Furthermore, even if the equation is implicit, its resolution is possible by applying the fixed-point method with an initial value judiciously chosen. The process converges after the seventh step of calculating only and leads to an almost exact solution. A calculation example is presented that highlights the simplicity of the calculation procedure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Yield and Storage Characteristics of White Yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poir) as Influenced by Fertilizer Application and Time of Harvesting in Forest Zone of Ghana

Y. Asieku, E. Otoo, E. Asare

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/5522

A field trial was conducted at the CSIR-Crops Research Institute (CRI) experimental fields to evaluate the effects of organic and inorganic fertilizers, and time of harvesting on the yield and quality of white yam (Dioscorea rotundata). The experiment was a 4x3 factorial arranged in a Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications. The treatments consisted of four fertilizer rates [(i) No fertilizer (ii) 4t poultry manure (PM) per hectare (iii) 300 kg NPK 15:15:15/ha (iv) 2 t poultry manure + 150 kg NPK 15:15:15/ha and three harvesting times [(i) milking at 20 weeks after planting (WAP) (ii) milking at 24 WAP and (iii) harvesting at 32 WAP]. The combined application of organic and inorganic fertilizer gave significantly higher (P=.05) total yield of yam than their sole applications. All treated plots had higher (P=.05) yields than the control. The combination of PM+NPK gave higher number of tubers of 2.12 per stand. Tuber length of 37.9 cm was significantly higher (P=.05) in PM treatment than 29.23 cm for the PM+NPK amended treatment. The study also revealed significant tuber weight loss of 23.8%, 19.0% and 16.7% for PM, PM+NPK and the control respectively, over a three month storage period. Tuber weight was 36% and 41% higher at 32 WAP than at 24 and 20 WAP, respectively. Higher rotting rates were recorded under PM+NPK amended treatments compared to the other amended treatments and the control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decolourization and Degradation of Azo Dyes Blood Red and Turquoise Blue by Selected Soil Bacteria

D. Selvaraj, R. Leena, T. Latha

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/19993

Two soil bacterial isolates (Bacillus sp. and Staphylococcus sp.) were isolated from agricultural soil and used in the decolourization and degradation of two synthetic textile azo dyes blood red and turquoise blue. Of the two bacterial species employed, the isolate b (Staphylococcus sp.) caused better decolourization of blood red (72.40%) and turquoise blue (66.63%) than isolate a (Bacillus sp.). The bacterial consortium gave better decolourization (67.77%) for turquoise blue than with individual culture. Difference in the number of HPLC peaks between the intact dyes and the bacteria treated dyes confirms the bacterial biodegradation of azo dyes blood red and turquoise blue.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Optimization of Hot Forging Process of Ti-6Al-4V for Non-isothermal Condition

F. Forouhandeh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/20398

Aims: Simulation and optimization of hot forging of Titanium alloys with validation.

Study Design: Modeling, simulation of the process using super forge package and analytical study

Place and Duration of Study: University of science and Technology and Islamic Azad University, Shahrood Branch.

Methodology: Hot forging of Titanium alloys for non-isothermal condition has been simulated. The process has been modeled for different conditions and parameters. The main objectives of simulation are optimization of die filling and perform design, load and material waste reduction and also providing a clear picture of material flow in the die cavity to avoid any defect. In the absence of experimental data, the calculated history of ideal work method has been compared with the available analytical results.

Results: Hot forging of Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) has been simulated using available finite volume software for non-isothermal condition. Appropriate condition has been found for the process. Analytical results have good agreement in comparison to simulation results.

Conclusion: Simulation, optimization of forging process along with validation using analytical study.

Open Access Review Article

Towards a Cognitive Gliascience: A Brief Conceptual Framework

Salvatore Spadaro

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/20247

Recent brain studies show the emerging importance of glia (and, in particular, of astroglia) in cognitive abilities like learning and memory. A new, hypothetical area of research is described to enriching the poverty of cognitive studies on glia. This methodology has been used because of its intedisciplinarity, and in particular for a possible foundation of a computational glia-neuroscience. The point of the paper is to raise awareness about a new perspective on these brain cells.