Open Access Data Article

Contour Maps of Gross Alpha and Beta Radioactivity Distribution in Surface Water Supply Within the Naraguta Sheet 168, Plateau State, Nigeria

W. E. Mangset, E. E. Ike, F. B. Masok, S. P. Mallam, E. A. Adetona

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/18932

Formal mining started in Plateau State as far back as 1902 with Tin and Columbite as major targets. The occurrence of these minerals brought about intense mining activities in the state. The early growth and development of the areas covered by the Naraguta Topographical Sheet 168 are closely related to commercial tin mining activities in the area and Plateau State at large. This has left behind a post mining environment scattered by numerous mine ponds and dams surrounded by heaps of mine spoils (dumps/overburden), mine tailings containing radioactive minerals that are washed in the water supply and a devastated landscape. A survey of gross alpha and beta radioactivity in Surface water supply from tin mining areas of Plateau State was carried out. Forty eight (48) Surface water samples (25 mine ponds and 23 streams) were drawn randomly. Each sample was drawn in two litres plastic container and about 10 ml of Nitric acid was immediately added for preservation and to avoid adsorption of radionuclides onto the walls of the containers. The samples were later evaporated to dryness and the residues were transferred into Planchets. They were then counted for gross alpha and beta activity using a Proportional Counter (MPC-2000-DP). The results obtained showed that the range of alpha activity varied from (0.05±0.01– 6.64±0.03)Bq/l with a geometric mean of 0.41Bq/l for mine pond samples and (0.14±0.01– 4.310±0.01)Bq/l with a geometric mean of 0.64Bq/l for stream water samples. While the range of beta activity varied between (0.01±0.001–6.68±0.04)Bq/l with geometric mean of 0.14Bq/l and (0.04±0.01-1.17±0.02)Bq/l with geometric mean of 0.25Bq/l for mine ponds and stream water samples respectively. The experimental results obtained show that gross alpha and gross beta activities in most locations of surface water are above the World Health Organization recommended guideline value of 0.5Bq/L for alpha activity and 1.0Bq/L for beta activity. This may constitute radiological hazards to the consumers of the water over a long period of time. Superimposing the contour maps of activity concentrations over the geology of the area showed higher activities within the Younger Granites areas compared to the Basement rocks and the Newer Basalts.

Open Access Short Research Article

A Practical Robust Direct Model Anti-windup Design

Wei Wu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/19655

This paper considers the synthesis of robust anti-windup compensators using direct models for stable multivariable linear time invariant uncertain plants. An internal model control antiwindup compensator as a special case of the direct model, preserves the robust stability of the unconstrained linear closed-loop system. The proposed direct model antiwindup aims to improve the performance of the constrained closed-loop system while guaranteeing robust stability. Robust stability and performance are achieved by shaping two closed-loop transfer functions based on a decoupled representation of the constrained closed-loop. Trade offs between robust stability and robust performance are provided by adjusting performance and stability weights. The direct model synthesis is cast into a H optimization or a μ synthesis problem, where the anti-windup objectives are robust stability and rapid recovery of the linear response. Two simulation examples, one single input single output(SISO), one multi-input multi-output(MIMO), demonstrate the design process and effectiveness of the proposed scheme.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Liquid and Solid Fermentation on Mineral and Amino Acid Contents of Kersting’s Groundnut (Macrotyloma geocarpum)

C. Abiola, V. O. Oyetayo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/19980

Aim: The research aimed to reveal the effect of liquid and solid fermentation on the mineral and amino acid contents of Kersting’s groundnut (Macrotyloma geocarpum).

Design of the Study: A comparative effect of liquid and solid fermentation on the mineral and amino acid contents was evaluated.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology and Central Science Laboratory, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria from June 2013 to April 2014.

Methodology: The seed of Kersting’s groundnut were de-husked and subjected to liquid and solid fermentation using standard methods. The titratable acidity (TTA), Mineral and Amino acid contents (essential and non-essential) of the fermenting samples were accessed every 24hrs during fermentation.

Results: TTA decreased (P=.05) from 0.035 at 0hr to 0.025 mg lactic acid/g at 72hrs of both liquid and solid fermentation. TTA decreased significantly (P=.05) as the fermentation time increased. Potassium (K) content decrease significantly (P=.05) from 300.83±0.11 mg/100 g at 0hr to 217.60±0.07 and 289.26±0.15 mg/100 g at 72hrs of liquid and solid fermentation respectively. Magnesium content reduced significantly (P=.05) from 18.65±0.03 mg/100 g at 0hr to 6.93±0.01 and 7.32±0.04 mg/100 g after 24hrs of liquid and solid fermentation respectively. The value was observed to increase significantly (P=.05) to 15.24±0.60 mg/100 g and 24.27±0.03 mg/100 g after 72hrs of both liquid and solid fermentation respectively. Copper was observed to be absent in the groundnut. A total of 17 amino acids were analysed in the groundnut. Leucine was found to be the most abundant essential amino acid with a value of 7.19±0.00 g/100g protein while Glutamic was the most abundant non-essential amino acid with a value of 15.84±0.01 g/100 g protein. The total essential amino acid (TEAA) ranges from 46.39% to 46.85% of the total amino acid (%TAA).

Conclusion: The study revealed variation in the mineral contents has the fermentation time increased. Amino acid content was observed to increase significantly after 24 and 48hrs of liquid and solid fermentation respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Knowledge, Attitudes and Lifestyle Practices of Hypertensive Patients in the Cape Coast Metropolis-Ghana

Francesca Anowie, Sarah Darkwa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/19891

Aims: To investigate the knowledge, attitudes and lifestyle practices of hypertensive patients to help educate them to properly manage the condition and help reduce incidence among the populace.   

Study Design: A cross-sectional descriptive survey.

Place and Duration of Study: The Central Regional Hospital (Pedu), the Cape Coast Metropolitan Hospital (OLA) and the University of Cape Coast Hospital (UCC), between August 2014 and December 2014.  

Methodology: We included 400 patients (158 males, 242 females; age range 20-89 years) with hypertension. Patients BMI’s were determined as well as information on their knowledge of hypertension, attitudes towards exercise and dietary practices. Barriers to maintaining healthy lifestyles were also identified.    

Results: Out of the 400 patients, 282 (71%) were overweight and obese. The following barriers countered participants’ efforts to maintain healthy life styles; “lack of education”, “fear”, “financial constraint,” and “lack of commitment.” Logistic regression showed that participants’ occupation significantly influenced their knowledge levels positively with P=.012 at α-level of 0.05.

Conclusion: More than 95% (n=383) of the study participants showed a poor level of knowledge in the causes, signs and symptoms, risk factors, prevention and treatment of hypertension. Participants’ who had occupations and worked were more knowledgeable about the condition than those who had no occupation and no regular jobs. Hypertension’s association with low levels of awareness, drug treatment, and blood pressure control identified in past studies still exist within current hypertension populations. Population-based prevention strategies, such as reduction in salt intake and integration of hypertension care into primary care need to be reviewed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Empirical Assessment of Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Practices in a Semi-Urban Setting: A Socio-Economic and Cultural Mirror

David O. Olukanni, Uchechukwu E. Okorie

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/19998

Insufficient water, weak sanitation and poor hygiene practices create a serious burden of diseases in low-income regions and is affecting susceptible groups such as the poor. Although water and sanitation programs have been initiated in many local communities; Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WaSH) promotion still receives little attention and funding. This study focuses on the socio-economic and cultural factors influencing Ota residents, a semi-urban town in South West Nigeria on WaSH services. The study uses structured questionnaire as one of the major research instruments. The method of data analysis utilized descriptive analysis with illustrative data representations. Analysis of the data reveals that literacy level and age group play a significant role in housing settlements while source of water and quality significantly affect health, and its quantity affects sanitation practices. The evidence from the study confirmed that cultural practices and access to water sources had no direct relationship. Hence, the problem of good water supply was seen to be more of economic and financial challenges that require timely government intervention. Financially, the economic context does not permit the implementation of a real water management policy. In most houses, income does not favor the subscription of some households to water distribution network. Therefore it is recommended that a concerted effort on the part of the government be focused on maximizing welfare policy programmes that would ameliorate the sufferings in the communities as it relates to access to clean water sources and other basic social infrastructure that could enhance people’s living standard.

Open Access Original Research Article

Hypogonadism in Males Exposed to Mixed Chemicals in a Mechanic Village in Bodija, Ibadan

S. U. Okoli, M. A. Charles-Davies, A. A. Onifade, S. Adekola

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/19790

Africa has great intensity of chemical exposure and high level of infertility. Functional disorders of the male germ cell and endocrinopathies have been attributed to exposure to mixed chemicals. Data on the mixed chemical exposure on reproductive hormones are sparse in Nigeria. This study was designed to evaluate male reproductive hormones and determinants of occupational exposure to mixed chemicals in a mechanic village in Ibadan.

Forty-three males, auto mechanics aged 18-60 years occupationally exposed to mixed chemicals (MCG) at their work place in Bodija mechanic village with mean±SEM duration of 21.2±1.9 years were age matched with 40 unexposed males (controls) from the University College Hospital, Ibadan and environs. Demography, anthropometry, blood pressure and sexual history were obtained by standard methods. Blood (10 ml) was obtained from each participant for estimation of reproductive hormones by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay while total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was determined spectrophotometrically. Testosterone/oestradiol ratio (TE ratio) was calculated. The MCG were classified based on their reproductive hormone levels into 4 subgroups as eugonadic, hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism, sub-optimal hypogonadism and compensated hypogonadism. P<0.05 was regarded as significant.

There were significantly raised oestradiol levels, diastolic blood pressure, waist circumference and waist to hip ratio and significantly lower TAC and TE ratio in the MCG than the controls (P<0.01). Exposed hypogonadic males exhibited significantly lower LH, FSH, testosterone, prolactin, TAC levels and TE ratio than exposed eugonadic males (P<0.05).

Hypogonadism in the males exposed to mixed chemicals may be associated with reduced TE ratio resulting from increased adipose mass as well as oxidative stress associated with the mixed chemical exposure.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Acid Mixtures Using Conventional Wet Digestion Methods for Determination of Heavy Metals in Fish Tissues

Fabunmi Idera, Olumodeji Omotola, Adeleye Adedayo, Uyimadu John Paul

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/19717

Sample preparation is an important step of any analytical procedure. Considering low budget and limited unsophisticated technology available in small laboratories, it is necessary to carefully evaluate and optimise the efficiency of the conventional wet digestion method. The study focuses on comparison of different acid mixtures for fish tissue pre-treatment. Four of the most commonly used acid mixtures: nitric/peroxide (NO), nitric/perchloric (NP), aqua regia (NH) and sulphuric/perchloric/nitric (SPN) acid mixtures were evaluated for accurate determination of Pb, Zn, Cd, Cu, Cr and Fe in tuna fish homogenate standard reference material (SRM) and fish tissues by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. SPN mixture was found to be the most suitable for determination Pb, Cd, Cr and Fe in fish tissue. NO and NH gave good extraction for Zn and Cu while NH showed the least extraction capacity for determination of all the metals in fish tissue. Highest recovery efficiency of the methods were Zn(98%) and Cu(97%) for NP; Cr(101%) and Fe(102%) for SPN and Cd(101%) for NH. On the basis of this, the two preferred acid mixtures are NP and SPN. Application of method SPN is recommended for both extraction and recovery analysis of fish tissue. However, to avoid potential hazards with the use of perchloric acid, it should be added gradually at the later stage of the digestion process.

Open Access Original Research Article

On a Mathematical Model for Co-infection (with HCV/HIV)

B. D. Aggarwala

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2015/19921

In many developing countries, with very high population densities, co-infection with both HIV and HCV is fairly common [1-3]. This is perhaps because, in such situations, people live in close proximity and generally, are not well cared for. Medical facilities are minimal, so that infections spread easily and persist. Also, people who are already infected with HIV or HCV, are likely to share common "risky" behavior (risk factors for both HIV and HCV are the same) so that contacts are fairly common (sexual, social, sharing needles and other). Considering all this, one may assume that a certain fraction of people suffering from HIV are also suffering from HCV and vice versa. We present a mathematical model which describes the development of co-infection with HCV and HIV, in such situations. We assume that, while susceptible people become infected with HIV and/or HCV through physical contact (sexual, sharing needles, and so on), co-infection occurs simply because they live in close proximity to each other. Accordingly, we assume that a certain percentage of people who are infected with HCV in a densely populated environment are also infected with HIV, and vice versa. We give several illustrative examples. These examples are to show how the model works and are not necessarily disease specific. We prove the important result that our model has AT MOST one solution other than the disease free one. Most infection models share this property [4-6]. We also calculate the Basic Reproduction Number of the model in two different ways and give an example to show that these two ways are “equivalent”. If either number is less than one, then so is the other and there is no infection, and if either number is greater than one, then so is the other, and the infection is endemic. It should also be pointed out that this is simply a model for coinfection, and it should work for other similar coinfections as well.