Open Access Case study

Comparative Study of Ultrasound Guided Foam Sclerotherapy and Surgical Management for the Treatment of Varicose Veins

Pankaj Sharma, Ashwani Mishra, Rajiv Ranjan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/17932

Objective: Varicose veins of the lower limb are being treated with a number of modalities, mostly by surgical methods. Present study was conducted to compare foam sclerotherapy with surgical treatment of varicose veins.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital, Delhi on total of 60 patients randomized into two groups of 30 patients each. Both the groups were comparable in terms of preprocedural clinical parameters. After the completion of the study the patients were followed for mean period of more than one year by clinical examination and Doppler study.

Results: The symptomatic and clinical outcomes achieved in both the groups were similar. Foam sclerotherapy was easily administered, well tolerated, safe procedure which was done without risks of anaesthesia and surgery; moreover no hospitalization was needed. Patients returned to their activities the very next day.

Conclusion: Ultrasound guided foam sclerotherapy was found to be effective and durable method of treatment of varicose veins and the associated complications. As alternative to subfascial endoscopic perforator surgery along with stripping, foam sclerotherapy may lead to fewer skin and wound healing complications. It also results in no loss of daily activities because of hospitalization, a factor of great importance in our patient group.

Open Access Case study

Solid Waste Management through Neibhourhood Cooperative Society in Onitsha, Nigeria

Onugu Charles Uchenna, Taiwo Abdulahi Olabisi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/16382

Urban waste management, collection and disposal have always been a universal problem. Extant literatures have documented the importance of solid waste management to the urban environment. Yet the performance of the authorities charged with the responsibility of solid waste management in this respect leaves much to be desired. This paper therefore examined the possibilities of neighborhood cooperatives in urban waste management in Onitsha metropolis of Anambra state. Based on convenience and high concentration of solid waste disposal, the researchers used judgmental method to select sample size clusters of 3-3; Odoakpu; Fegge and Awada, The researchers also used simple random technique to randomly distribute twenty-five (25) questionnaires each to 25 households (One hundred (100) respondents) in the study area. Data were analyzed using simple percentage and mean, under the modified four point likert scale. From the result of the investigation, the following findings are drawn: that the various types of waste produced in Onitsha metropolis include, degradable wastes, non degradable wastes, combustible waste as well as non-degradable and non combustible wastes and average of 6146.12 tones of these wastes are produced weekly. That the challenge which such practice pose in waste disposal management in Onitsha stem from location of dumping sites from residential homes; ignorance on the part of the people; poor funding by the government and local authorities. The study therefore recommend among other things that, the Anambra state government should encourage the residents of Onitsha metropolis to form functional neighborhood cooperative societies in charge of waste disposal management in the area and subsequently extend this practice to every other part of the state.

Open Access Original Research Article

Climate Change and Green Hotel Efforts: Evaluating Successful Green Hotel Interior Design

Yen-Cheng Chen, Hsin-I Chen, Pei-Ling Tsui, Ching-Sung Lee

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/20106

The recent development of green building and green operations have reached hotel industry, that more and more travelers demand hotels to make green policies. In response, hoteliers devoted their resources into making hotels greener. This study intends to provide an FAHP evaluation model for hoteliers while designing green hotel interiors. Delphi method was applied before FAHP to build the hierarchy. FAHP calculated criteria priorities which can be directly interpreted as the priorities when designing. The result of this study will help hoteliers make their decision under limited budgets and resources. At the same time, we wish to call more attention to green hotel efforts.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decision Tree Classifiers Based on Granular Computing

Hongbing Liu, Fan Zhang, Chang-An Wu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/19523

Bottle-up and top-down are two main computing models in granular computing (GrC). The bottle-up granular computing is used to form decision tree classifiers, or DTCGrC for short. Algorithm DTCGrC constructs a framework of granular computing by the bottle-up join operation which maps all the training data into the granule set, and the achieved granule set is used to form the decision tree classifiers. We compare the performance of DTCGrC with decision tree classifiers, for a number of two-class problems and multiclass problems. Our computational experiments showed that DTCGrC improves the generalization abilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceptions and Truism of Climate Variability within Smallholder Farming Communities in Meru County, Kenya

Mwoga Muthee, Joy Obando, Fuchaka Waswa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/20239

Aims: To assess actual and perceived climate variability within smallholder communities in Meru county.

Study Design: A cross-section survey to obtain data on farmers’ perceptions and using Long term hydro-climatic records.

Place and Duration of the Study: Targeted smallholder farmers in the seven major sub-agro ecological zones of Meru County. Rainfall and stream flow records ranging between 1976 and 2011 were used. Household survey and focused groups discussions were conducted in August 2010.

Methodology: A stratified random sampling was used in 7 sub agroecological zones, each zone representing a stratum. Structured questionnaire was administered to 275 household heads. Focus group discussions were undertaken to understand the community perspective on climate variability. Data was analysed employing descriptive statistics. Using rainfall data from 3 stations and 1 river gauge, seasonal rainfall and stream flow anomalies were computed. ANOVA was used to determine significant mean differences across represented sub-agroecological zone. 

Results: The key indicator of climate variability was variations in rainfall. In the low highland 1, coefficient of variability in rainfall amount for first season was 0.43 and 0.26 for second season. For the upper midland 2 and in the transition zone with upper midland 3 the coefficient of variability for first season was 0.36 and 0.37 respectively. As such the first season was the main determinant of annual agricultural productivity in both upper midland and low highland agro-ecological zones. February and September had highest (0.44) Stream flow coefficient of variability. Majority (91.6%) of respondents concurred that there was climate variability, an indication of the awareness level.

Conclusion: Responses were pegged on perceived forms of climate variability. There was divergence in observed and perceived climate variability parameters necessitating integration of farmers’ and scientific approaches in mitigation against effects of climate variability. Planning for effective agricultural productivity needs to be seasonal and agro-ecological zone specific to counter temporal and spatial variations.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Appraisal of the Vicarious Liability of Juristic Persons (Minister of Police) in the Law of Delict with a Constitutional Developmental Imprint of K. v Minister of Safety and Security

Nico P. Swartz, Eric Ozoo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/19190

The common-law principles of vicarious liability hold an employer liable for the delicts committed by its employees, where the employees are acting in the course and scope of their duty as employees. The principle of vicarious liability ascribes liability to an employer where its employees have committed a wrong but where the employer is not at fault. There is also a countervailing principle too, which is that damages should not be borne by employers in all circumstances, but only in those circumstances in which it is fair to require them to do so. It means a person in authority, like the Ministry of Police, will be held liable to a third party for injuries caused by a person under its authority. It is alleged that in the subject matter of this study in case law, K v Minister of Safety and Security, that constitutional issues are not raised.  It is averred that the case concerns the application of the principle of vicarious liability only. But the highest court in South Africa, the Constitutional Court, exerted that it is necessary to move beyond vicarious liability and implicate the state/Ministry of Police with direct liability. In K v Minister of Safety and Security direct liability was not dealt with because it was not argued. The research stresses that there is no reason why direct liability should not be an option.  With both causes of action, the pure application of the principles of the law of delict will prevent unfair results. This why the time is right to develop K v Minister of Safety and Security to bring vicarious liability and other delictual principles, such as wrongfulness, negligence, intent and direct liability in line with constitutional developments and demands of the time. The Constitutional Court of South Africa held that the common-law principle of vicarious liability be adapted so that it grows in harmony with the objective normative system found in the Constitution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of End Step Shape in the Performance of Stilling Basins Downstream Radial Gates

Gamal H. Elsaeed, Abdelazim M. Ali, Neveen B. Abdelmageed, Ahmed M. Ibrahim

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/21452

Stilling basins are in common use when designing heading-up hydraulic structures such as barrages, dams, weirs …etc. This research paper investigates the effect of stilling basin shapes with different heights of end step on the characteristics of submerged hydraulic jump and the energy dissipation downstream the radial gate. Generally, this research investigate the main characteristics and parameters of the submerged hydraulic jump such as; the vertical velocity distribution, the near bed velocity decay along stilling basin, and the stability of bed protection downstream the stilling basin. In the present research paper, these characteristics will be tested in a pool-type stilling basin with end steps downstream (DS) the radial gate of new spillway of Assuit Barrages. The experimental program was conducted on a re-circulating flume with 1.0 m wide, 26.0 m long and 1.2 m deep, with discharges range from 40 to 190 l/s. Statistical equation was developed to correlate the length of submerged jump with the other independent parameters. Finally, clear matching of results from the length of jump and velocity analysis was obtained.

Open Access Original Research Article

Commonly Used Plants for Various Health Conditions in Mlangali Ward, Ludewa District, Tanzania

Edmund J. Kayombo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/10081

Background: Although most rural communities in developing countries (DCs) use medicinal plants (MPs) for various health conditions, not enough studies have been conducted to ascertain their vernacular and scientific names, and their specific indications.

Aim: The present study aimed to ascertain the vernacular and scientific names; and the specific indications for plants used in healthcare at Mlangali ward, Tanzania.

Methodology: A structured interview format was used to sample and obtain vital data on plants used in healthcare in the area under study. The specimens collected were then compared with “similar or the same” plants described in pertinent literature. In all cases, both the vernacular and scientific names of the commonly used medicinal plants (CUMPs) were confirmed by a botanist at the Institute of Traditional Medicine, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences.

Results: A total of 30 plants with their names and uses were obtained. Of these, 13 plants (43.3%) were confirmed by 9 (60%) respondents to be the CUMPs in the area under study. No previous documentation on these CUMPs were found in the community.

Conclusions: All the 30 plants sampled were used in health care in Mlangali ward, but it seemed that because the 13 CUMPs were being commonly used, this has resulted in them being overharvested, with no application of good agricultural practice (GAP) and other conservationist policies. Many of the 13 plants were commonly and similarly used in many developing countries as in the study area. Some had different uses in different cultures and countries; but most had multiple uses in countries where these CUMP were being used. Based on the foregoing, the study recommended that necessary effort be summoned and exerted to document the medicinal uses of the 30 plants, especially the CUMPs, as a forerunner to programs aimed at sustainable conservation of these plants for future uses, including the search for and development of new drugs.