Open Access Case study

Role of Colour Doppler Ultrasound Examination of Cavernosal Artery in Cases of Suspected Vasculogenic Cause of Erectile Dysfunction

Pankaj Sharma, Rajiv Ranjan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/17929

Objective: The aim of our study was to evaluate role of Color Doppler ultrasound in suspected vasculogenic cause of male impotence in both erect and flaccid state of penis.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in Department of Radiodiagnosis, Deen Dayal Upadhyay Hospital, Delhi. Fifty male patients > 18 years of age with complaint of impotence for at least 6 months duration were included in the study.

Results: Peak systolic velocity (PSV) less than 25 cm/sec (post-intracavernosal injection of papaverine) had sensitivity of 82%, specificity of 96%, positive predictive value of 93.3%, and negative predictive value of 91.4% for arterial insufficiency. End diastolic velocity more than 5 cm/sec (post-intracavernosal injection of papaverine) had sensitivity of 80%, specificity of 92.5%, positive predictive value of 72.7% and negative predictive value of 94.8% for venous insufficiency

Conclusion: Color Doppler Ultrasound is first line modality in diagnosis of vasogenic cause of Erectile dysfunction both with or without use of pharmacostimulant. Our study suggests that PSV less than 25 cm/sec (post-intracavernosal injection of papaverine) helps in identifying patients with arterial insufficiency with sufficient amount of confidence with its specificity being more than its sensitivity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge, Attitude and Use of Female Condoms among Female Undergraduate Students in University of Dar-Es-Salaam

Regina Mtayangulwa, Edmund J. Kayombo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/10891

Background: Women are vulnerable to HIV infections because of their biological make up and present means used for HIV and STIs prevention. At first was male condom of which women had no control as a strategy of HIV and AIDS prevention as well as prevention of unwanted pregnancy. This led to development and use of female condom of which women will have a full control for prevention.

Objective: To determine knowledge, attitude and use of female condom among female undergraduate students at the University of Dar-es- Salaam, Tanzania.

Methods: A descriptive cross sectional study was carried among female undergraduate students in Dar-es- Salaam University in 2009 to explore knowledge, attitude and use of female condom by using structured questionnaire.

Results: A total of 384 female students aged 21-25 years old were interviewed.  The findings showed 96.6% students had heard female condom. Of these 73% (371) heard from mass media and 15.4% from health workers. Out of 371 students who had heard of female condom, 4.31% admitted to have used at least ones, 38.3% were abstaining from sex and 12% did not like it. Of those who have ever used female condom, 26.7% preferred female condom as a means of HIV and STIs prevention. Those who had heard female condom 46% had positive attitude towards use of female condom when compared to male condom as means of HIV and STIs prevention as well as prevention against unwanted pregnancy.

Conclusion: Even though many students were aware of female condom, few have ever used as a method of HIV and STIs intervention and as well as prevention of unwanted pregnancy; and more than a half (54%) of the respondents had negative attitude as a method of HIV prevention which was on their own control. Mass media as a strategy for intervention is a one way communication and needs to be supplemented by other approaches that allow interpersonal communication and interaction that will lead to behavioral change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Land Use and Land Cover Change Detection in Rural Areas of River Lwiro Micro-catchment, Lake Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo

M. Bagalwa, J. G. M. Majaliwa, F. Kansiime, S. Bashwira, M. Tenywa, K. Karume, E. Adipala

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/15850

Land use and land cover change in River Lwiro micro-catchment was assessed for the period 1987-2010 using satellite imagery of Landsat 5 and 7. Images were clustered into four categories: forest, built-up areas, wetland and small scale farmland area; using unsupervised classification approach. The generated land-use and cover layers were ground truthed and the accuracy of classification determined. The results show that forest cover has declined by 23%, and wetland area increased by 2%, small scale farmland by less than 1% and the residential areas by 2.3%. The different trends of change indicated that the micro-catchment has been affected by political instability in the region. The possible environmental impacts resulting from these change need to be identified.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Ethnomathematics-based Instructional Approach on Primary School Pupils’ Achievement in Geometry

Patrick Obere Abiam, Okechukwu S. Abonyi, J. O. Ugama, Gabriel Okafor

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/19079

This study investigated the effects of Ethnomathematics-based instructional approach on pupils’ achievement in geometry. One research question and one null hypothesis, tested at 0.05 level of significance guided the study. The study adopted a quasi-experimental design. Specifically, a pre-test, post-test, non-equivalent control group was used for the study. A sample of four hundred and two primary 6 pupils comprising two hundred and two pupils for the treatment group and two hundred pupils for the control group were used. The instrument used for the study was Achievement Test in Geometry (ATG), which was developed and validated by the researchers. Two sets of instructional packages were prepared, one for the treatment group and the other for the control group. The treatment group was taught geometry using the Ethnomathematics-based instructional approach while the control group was taught using the conventional instruction approach. Adjusted mean and standard deviation were used to answer the research question, whereas analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypothesis. The results of the study revealed among others, that the Ethnomathematics-based instructional approach was superior to the conventional method in enhancing pupils’ achievement in geometry.

Open Access Original Research Article

Bed Configurations of Downstream Sharp Crested Weir with Orifices

M. M. Ibrahim

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/20256

Weirs are utilized for measuring of discharge, diminishing the water slope in canals and dissemination of water between canals for irrigation, etc. Classical sharp crested weir is associated with increases in turbulence and bed problems in downstream resulting in scouring activity that is considered one of unfavorable processes which dangers the general steadiness of the weir. Sharp crested weir with orifices along these lines introduces the same functions of the classical type but with has the capacity for minimizing changes in downstream bed configurations. An experimental study was conducted to predict and evaluate the geometry of bed configurations downstream of a sharp crested weir equipped with rounded orifices. Ninety nine (99) experimental runs were conducted. 11 weir models, 3 discharges, and 3 tail water depths. The utilized models referred to 11 scenarios for orifices schedules presented in terms of numbers and locations. 9 symmetrical orifices, 3 cm distance across each were made in the utilized weir to pass on much water in the downstream heading. The orifices were orchestrated in 3 equals spaced rows and 3 equal spaced columns. The study reach secured 4m length downstream the weir. Results were analyzed and graphically displayed. The geometry of bed configurations due to flow over the weir with orifices were contrasted with those of the classical sharp crested weir. Quantitative volumes assessments of local scour and silting utilizing the 11 scenarios were likewise introduced. Large contrasts between tested cases were reported.

Open Access Original Research Article

An Econometric Analysis of the Statistical Relationship between Carbon Dioxide Emissions and Infant Mortality in South Asia

Muhammad Iftikhar Ul Husnain, Azad Haider, Aneel Salman, Hafiz Muhammad Zahid, Muhammad Khan, Farzana Shaheen

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/20350

This study provides an econometric analysis of the link between infant mortality and carbon dioxide emissions in four south Asian countries-Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh- for the period 1978-2010 while controlling other variables, inflation, trade, remittance and rural population growth, socioeconomic characteristics of the household, that can potentially impact the number of infant deaths. Panel data technique Fixed Effect was preferred to Random Effect on the basis of Hausman test. The results show that high carbon emissions lead to higher rate of infant mortality and the link is indirect instead of direct. The different intercept show that the impact of carbon emission is higher in Bangladesh followed by India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka. Trade and remittances reduce mortality rates while rural population growth works in opposite direction. Inflation has a negative sign yet statistically not significant. The results suggest that carbon dioxide emissions must be reduced to improve infant health at least in the long run. Measures to check population growth are mandatory to overcome infant deaths. Trade and remittance increase should be ensured to improve health index of infants. However our results are suggestive and be taken with care as different other channels can reverse the results which require further research on this front.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Toxicity of Three Petroleum Products against Benthic Macroinvertebrate Clibanarius africanus of Lagos Lagoon

Abiodun Olushola Ayoola

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/19883

Comparative toxicity testing of three petroleum products (Kerosene, Petrol and Diesel) were evaluated against hermit crab, Clibanarius africanus (Aurivillus) from University of Lagos Lagoon front within the Lagos Lagoon was carried out in the ecotoxicological laboratory using semi-static toxicity testing technique. The resulting lethal concentration (LC50) for petrol was 22.08 ml/L; which was relatively more toxic compared to kerosene and diesel (33.50 ml/L and 36.08 ml/L) respectively. ANOVA analysis indicates that (P<0.05) was significant difference between the three petroleum products used throughout the acute toxicity test against C. africanus. Duncan test further divulged significant difference (p<0.05) in the mean mortality of the test organisms treated with the three petroleum products at all concentration including the control. The toxicity of the test chemicals increased with the period of exposure. Hence, deliberate or accidental discharges of petroleum products can cause serious hazard to the aquatic biota.

Open Access Original Research Article

Relationship between Seasonal Streamflow Variability and their Evolution through Time: A Case Study Over Avoca River Catchment

Saqib Ur Rehman, Kashif Saleem, Absar Ahmed, Muhammad Abdul Basit Khan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/20613

It has been widely documented that ENSO factors play vital rule in climate variability over many parts of the globe. In this study, used only high pressure centers and their location as a variable and found useful explanation in the variability of the Avoca River. It is clearly evident in this study that not only the magnitude of the pressure, but also the position of the center is important in studying the variability of the Avoca River. Analysis of the long term trends in the indices were computed, and found to have a significant increasing correlation with the pressure of the Indian Ocean while South Pacific did not show any significant increasing or decreasing trend. Streamflow data for the May- August (MJJA) data also showed an increasing trend in the streamflow, which shows that streamflow and Indian Ocean high pressure has significant correlation, which is confirmed by the correlation matrix. A multiple regression model has been constructed using Indian Ocean High pressure and longitude and South Pacific high longitude, which explains 22% of the variability of the streamflow in Avoca River.