Open Access Method Article

3D Geological Models in Ground Investigation: Examples from the United Kingdom

I. M. Umar, N. A. Yelwa, Babangida Jibrin

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/20516

Ground investigation is currently undergoing a major transition due to changes in legislations relating to liability for damages caused during invasive investigation and code of practice and the need to reduce cost have led to the adoption of modern developments in the form of 3D geological models. This paper reviews the increased feasibility of developing 3D spatial models of shallow subsurface owing to rapid development in information technology. This digitization has increasingly brought about the understanding of spatial distribution in relation to rock and soil material. The paper also reviews their application to ground investigation citing examples from the UK and how 3D models have helped reduced construction risk as well as ensured financial savings during the projects. This has led to the adoption of modern developments in the form of 3D geological models. It further analyses the limitations of these models taking into account other methodologies designed to overcome these limitations.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Detailed Model for Simulation of Hydrodynamic Processes in Hydraulic Braking System with ABS on Motor Vehicles

Filipovic Ivan, Pikula Boran, Prelcec Davor

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/20630

Aims: Vehicle braking system represents the most important active security system of modern vehicles. For proper functioning of additional equipment on systems such as ABS, TCS, ESP etc, it is necessary to know the changes in pressure in the entire braking installation.

Study Design: The work presents a model for calculating parameters in a braking installation with hydraulic signal transfer. Simulation of hydrodynamic parameters in the brake installation with ABS covered a realistic compressible fluid (braking fluid) and the transfer of signal through the fluid in a form of wave motion.

Place and Duration of Study: Faculty of Mechanical Engineering University of Sarajevo, Department for IC Engines and Vehicles leads the researching, while beta runway of International Airport Mostar was used for the measurements. Duration of study: 6 months during 2014 and 2015.

Methodology: The method of characteristics is used for calculating hydrodynamic parameters in the pipes of braking installation, and for solving the mass conservation equations, where the compressibility of a fluid is present, the Runge-Kutta forth order method with a variable time step is used. This way it is enabled to define a response of a system for every wheel separately, having in account that the pipes of the braking installation are of different lengths.

Results: Numerical results are experimentally proofed, which affirms the use of this method of determining hydraulic parameters in the braking installation and it allows an analysis of realistic conditions of braking of a vehicle under all environmental conditions.

Conclusion: A good model for simulation of complete vehicle hydraulic brake system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Income and Constraints to Chilli Pepper Production in Kaduna State, Nigeria

B. Mohammed

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/20460

The study determines the contribution of chilli pepper to household farm income and constraints associated with its production. The study was carried out in three local government areas in Kaduna state, Nigeria between August and November 2014 cropping season. Purposive and random sampling techniques were used for data collection and descriptive statistics was used. The results showed that 53% of chilli pepper farmers had formal education; the majority of the farmers (72%) do not participate in any chilli pepper related cooperative association. The 98.5% of chilli pepper farmers financed their production from personal savings and that 58.5% are visited by extension agents. The findings of the study showed that chilli pepper has the highest contribution to household farm income and production is yet to be maximized since several constraints still limit its production. The most severe problems included price fluctuation and high cost of farm inputs while pest and diseases and inadequate capital followed respectively. Chilli pepper production was declining and this is attributed to the speculative activities of middlemen that cause price fluctuations and high cost of farm inputs. It is therefore, recommended that chilli pepper farmers should join cooperative societies to enable them procure farm inputs at the subsidized rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Production and Effectiveness of Amorphous Silica Fertilizer from Rice Husks Using a Sustainable Local Energy System

Masafumi Tateda

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/21825

Aims: In rice-producing countries, rice husk has long been considered a waste material. This research aimed to establish a sustainable local energy system by combustion of the rice husk, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of the rice husk ash as silica fertilizer.

Study Design: The amorphous silica in the rice husk ash was produced in an actual size (plant-scale) boiler, and the ash was used in pot and field experiments to assess its effectiveness as fertilizer for plant growth.

Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted over a period of four years (2011–2014) at the rice-processing center of a local agriculture association in the Toyama Prefecture, Japan.

Methodology: The rice husk was combusted in a boiler under the conditions: 1) burning the rice husk as is, 2) incinerating in an oxygen rich atmosphere, and 3) incinerating at low temperatures of approximately 500–900°C, for heat production and the effectiveness of the rice husk ash as silica fertilizer was evaluated.

Results: This study investigated the use of rice husk ash as a silica fertilizer for rice crops, and established a boiler system for rice husk combustion. As the estimated income (97,176 USD) derived from our proposed boiler system is expected to exceed the estimated expenses (81,600 USD), the system could be considered sustainable. An ideal agriculture system is proposed in this study, i.e., the rice harvest is sent to a rice-processing center for milling and the rice husk is combusted in a boiler to produce hot water. The hot water is used in the rice drying process and is piped to greenhouses for heating. Furthermore, the ash generated by the combustion of the rice husk is used effectively in the rice paddies as fertilizer. In the rice fields, the rice plants absorb the silica for growth to produce the rice crop for the next season. Consequently, this farming cycle could be expected to continue indefinitely.

Conclusion: The system described in this study could be applied wherever rice is cultivated, to the considerable advantage of the producers.

Open Access Original Research Article

A New Method to Evaluate Effect of Body Mass Index and Gender Factors on Maximal Aerobic Power

Ramtin Nazerian, Ehsan Shakeri, Nasim Sadegh, Mustapha D. Ibrahim, Mehrdad Roudini, Orhan Korhan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/19882

Maximal aerobic power is a valuable, meaningful and motivational physiological measurement which fitness professionals and coaches use in order to the track progress of their clients. Variety of effective factors on maximal aerobic power makes it slightly unspecified to measure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of body mass index and gender factors on maximal aerobic power using a new method of measurement. 32 male and female university students were randomly selected for this purpose. An F-test has been done to check the mean equality of each level of the factors and their interactions. For the multiple comparisons, the Fisher least significant difference method has been used and by using operating characteristic curve the correct sample size was estimated. The results shows a significant effect of body mass index (p=0.001) however, there is no powerful evidence of gender effect on the study (p=0.851) and on the same hand the interaction of factors was found insignificant (p=0.429). Multiple comparisons presented a very significant reduction of maximal aerobic power on the obese participants, although, other levels display insignificant difference. Four numbers of replications were enough for the sample size. Compared to previous researches, gender factor does not affect the result of our study, however, the multi-nationality of the participants may prompt a different outcome.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimal Performance Characteristics and Reinforcement Combinations of Coconut Fibre Reinforced High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) Polymer Matrixes

Christopher Chukwutoo Ihueze, Maduabuchi Kingsley Achike, C. E. Okafor

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/20385

This paper investigated the performance of coconut fibre particles as a filler material and high-density polyethylene as matrix in polymer matrix composites (PMC). Three different particle sizes of the filler material were used in formulating the composite samples and the concentration of the filler material varied up to 40% by volume. The composite samples were prepared by injection moulding and kept at room temperature for 48 hours prior to testing in order to promote relaxation of stresses. The test specimens were prepared and tested in accordance with ASTM standards D638, D790, D256, and D785 for tensile strength, elastic modulus, flexural strength, impact strength and Rockwell hardness respectively. At optimum condition of volume fractions and particle sizes of coconut fibre-filler, the coconut fibre reinforced HDPE (CFRP) has 28.6 MPa, 800 MPa, 22.3 MPa, 55.0 J/m and 54.0 HR as optimum value for tensile strength, elastic modulus, flexural strength, impact strength and hardness. It can be concluded from the results obtained that the Coconut fibre reinforced HDPE showed improved performance for applications of HDPE.

Open Access Original Research Article

Outbreak of Cholera, Greater Accra Region, Ghana, 2014

Emmanuel Dzotsi, John Kofi Odoom, Joseph K. L. Opare, Bernard B. K. Davies-Teye

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/21461

Aims: In 2014, a cholera outbreak occurred in Greater Accra region, affecting more than 1733 people, and 20 individuals died. We investigated to verify the diagnosis, identify risk factors and recommended control measures.

Study Design: The study was both descriptive and un-matched community-based 1:2 case control study.

Place and duration of study: The investigations were done between 24th July and 3rd August 2014 in the Greater Accra region of Ghana.

Methods: We conducted a descriptive investigation, active case-search and conducted risk factor assessment of the cases and environmental assessment of the communities. Standardized questionnaire was used to collect demographic, clinical and exposure history from the cases and controls and described the outbreak by place, age and sex. Rectal swabs from patients admitted in the Cholera Treatment Centres at health facilities were collected and tested by culture and antimicrobial sensitivity. Bivariate analysis was used to compare cases and controls and calculated odds ratio and 95% confidence interval.

Results: We found 1733 cases with 20 deaths (CFR=1.2%) with an overall attack rate of approximately 25 per 100,000 population with sex specific attack rates of 31.2% and 19.6% for males and females respectively. The most affected districts were Osu Klottey Sub-Metropolis of the Accra Metropolis with an attack rate of 111 per 100,000 and La Dadekotopon with an attack rate of 76 per 100,000. Ninety stool samples yielded V. cholera O1 Ogawa with Ciprofloxacin and Tetracycline being sensitive to the cholera strains. Epidemiologic data suggested that the outbreak was due to drinking of vended sachet water [odds ratio = 6; 95 confidence interval: 1.7-20.9, p-value: 0.00].

Conclusion: The lack of personal hygiene, safe drinking water, open defecation, poor sanitation and consumption of street vended sachet water and food were some of the causes of the recent cholera outbreak in Greater Accra. We recommend the Ministries of Local Government and Rural Development, Works and Housing and Water Resources to ensure proper liquid and solid waste disposal systems and provide adequate potable water to the populace.

Open Access Review Article

Analysis of Steganography Techniques using Least Significant Bit in Grayscale Images and its Extension to Colour Images

Aqsa Rashid, Malik Muhammad Saad Missen, Nadeem Salamat

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/19518

Image steganography conceals the furtive information into images in such a way that perceptually images are impossible to differentiate and visual features remains similar, but statistical features have some alteration. This method are developed for the secure communication over the internet. In this paper, the sequential Least Significant Bit (LSB) substitution method for every possible location in pixel is analyzed. The statistical measures compute the image quality. These measures show that message substituted in the eighth bit (Least bit) has the fewer visual and statistical effects on the image quality.