Open Access Original Research Article

Dynamics of Household Energy and Cooking Stoves in Maroua, Far North Region of Cameroon

Viyoi Catherine Tidze, Manu Ibrahim, Tchouamou Issac

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/21548

Most developing countries depend on solid biomass for household cooking energy with daunting problems to the inhabitants and the environment. This is the case in Maroua where dwindling fuel wood supply has resulted to energy scarcity in residential households pushing them into hardship, untold sufferings, and rampant deforestation. The goal of this study was to critically examine the sources of household cooking energy, analyze the new energy efficient stoves technology introduced as a suitable alternative and make recommendations. Three hundred structured household questionnaires were administered to some groups representative of the population. Some formal semi-structured interviews were administered to some stake holders in this domain. The data was analyzed using the SPSS. Systematic sampling technique and ethnographic observations revealed that the most frequently used household energy sources are wood and charcoal, though 80% of households use more than one source. Because of the plight of these traditional energy sources, a switch to more energy efficient stoves as a suitable alternative is on-going. The study revealed that socio-cultural factors seriously affect the adoption of energy efficient technologies placed at the disposal of the villagers in the Far North Region of Cameroon. By analyzing the situation, the paper makes recommendations which when adopted will help resolve the household energy crisis.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effect of Light and Water on Schefflera Plant Electrical Properties

Kushagra Sinha, Massood Tabib-Azar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/19174

The electrical parameters of Schefflera arboricola as a function of time and plant water uptake were monitored and reported here. Electrodes clamped and attached to the plant leaf, stem and soil along with a temperature sensor, a light sensor and a 10 GHz microwave sensor were used to simultaneously measure the electromagnetic properties of the plant and relate it to water uptake, light level, and temperature. The data collected was correlated with light intensity, temperature and moisture content of the soil. The leaf capacitance periodically decreased by 51 pF/hr during the night and increased by 62.3 pF/hr during the day. The plant stem capacitance, on the other hand, decreased by 0.8 pF/hr at night and increased by 18 pF/hr during the day. Its resistance increased by 3.6 KΩ/hr at night and decreased by 92.3 KΩ/hr during the day. The microwave reflection also changed periodically during the night and day. These experiments were repeated over extended period of time (4 days) with watering and drought cycles. The wet and the dry phases for the measurements gave distinct signature data that can be used to devise a sensor to optimize watering of the plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Participation in Life Insurance Scheme by Artisanal Fishermen: A Case of Ghana

Hayford Agbekpornu, Doris Yeboah, Samuel Quaatey, Rosina Williams, Richard Yebaoh, Fuseina Issah

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/20600

Aims: This study investigates the determinants of participation in life insurance scheme by artisanal fishermen in Ghana.

Study Design: Cross-sectional study design was employed in this study. Field surveys, interviews, questionnaires (semi-structured mostly closed) were employed in the gathering of data on socio-economic characteristics, canoe characteristics, attitude at sea, assets, income, type of insurance, willingness to participate in insurance schemes, emergency coping mechanism and disasters encountered.

Location and Place of Study: The study was undertaken in some selected communities from four (4) Coastal regions (Great Accra, Volta, Central and Western) and the Inland areas bordering the Volta Lake (Yeji, Abotoase and Kpando). These areas are the major fishing areas in Ghana.

Methodology: The authors employed descriptive statistics and logit model to analyze the data. Three hundred and eighty-six (386) canoe owners and 164 crew from four (4) coastal regions and the Inland Lake Region were sampled.

Results and Discussion: The study observed that most canoe owners and crew members are willing to participate (WTP) in group life, personal life, family insurance, fishing gears and pension schemes. This is an indication that there is a potential for such scheme for the sector. The factors that most strongly affect WTP for group insurance of crew are family size, number of dependants, experience of fishing, listening to weather forecast before going fishing and ownership of a house.

Conclusion and Recommendation: It is evident from the study that majority of respondents are willing to participate in the various insurance schemes including group and life. Delay in payment of claims is a major reason why some canoe owners and fishermen will not enroll in the scheme. The logit model shows that family size, number of dependants, experience, weather and ownership of a house significantly influence willingness to participate in fishermen group life insurance scheme. The study recommends the intensification of awareness creation among the fishermen on the insurance scheme through meetings, workshops, conferences and seminars between the industries in the design of suitable insurance needs of the fishermen. Telecommunication service providers should be brought on board to develop insurance packages for the sector since a high number of the fishermen own mobile phones and pay for recharge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Earthworms Eudrilus eugeniae as Bio-indicators of Heavy Metal Contamination in Port Harcourt Dumpsites

Fabunmi Idera, Nwoko. J. Chidinma, Imhansoloeva. M. Titocan, Appia. Y. Juliano

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/20594

Heavy metal pollution of terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem through improper management of dumpsites and indiscriminate dumping of waste has been recognised as a serious environmental concern in the city of Port Harcourt. It is important to validate the extent of contamination of heavy metals in dumpsites to successfully validate the exposure of humans living around its environs. To investigate heavy metal concentrations in soils of dumpsites, earthworm Eudrilus eugeniae was used as bio indicators in dumpsites Wimpy, Mgbuoba and Rumuokwuta in Obio Akpor local government of Port Harcourt. Earthworm E. eugeniae and soil were sampled during the wet season (July 2006), digested using concentrated HNO3, and concentrations of Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni, Zn and Cr were analysed with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Correlation between earthworm E. eugeniae and soil shows that E. eugeniae are good bio indicators of available metal in soil. Concentration of heavy metals in soil samples from dumpsites were within the Canadian environmental guideline for contaminated site remediation and Toronto public health (TPH) guide for soil testing in urban gardens with the exception of Zn which requires remediation action. Bioavailability of metals in soil was shown to be low, suggesting the presence of complex species in soil which reduces mobility of heavy metals.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Compliance Evaluation of a Hybridized Semantic Similarity Measure for Ontology Matching

Iroju Olaronke, Ojerinde Oluwaseun

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/21593

Semantic similarity measures are used to compute the common shared information between two concepts in domain resources such as ontologies. These measures form the basis of all ontology matching algorithms because they measure the degree of semantic relatedness between matched ontologies. There are two basic categories of semantic similarity measures used in ontology matching process. These measures include the structure based measure and the information based measure. The structure based measures deal with the structure of the ontology, that is, the shortest path length between two concept nodes in the ontology while the information based measures use the Information Content (IC) of concept nodes in the ontology. Despite the importance of semantic similarity measures in ontology matching, their accuracy still remains a challenge.

Aims: Consequently, this paper proposes a hybridized semantic similarity measure which combines the features of both structure and information based measures. The paper also evaluates the proposed measure against existing measures using compliance measures.

Methodology: The proposed measure was implemented using a subset of the Gene Ontology (GO) as the domain specific ontology. This was with the aim of measuring the semantic similarities between muscular development terms and its hierarchies in the GO. The proposed measure was compared with Lin and Wu and Palmers’ measures and evaluated on twenty one (21) pairs of the GO terms using precision, recall rate and F-measure.

Results: The result of the compliance evaluation showed that the proposed measure had a precision rate of 0.86, a recall rate of 1.00 and an F-measure of 0.92 as opposed to the Lin measure and the Wu and Palmer semantic similarity measures which had precisions of 0.83 and 0.79, recall rate of 0.53 and 0.61 as well as F-measures of 0.56 and 0.69 respectively.

Conclusion: The result of the compliance evaluation showed that the proposed measure performed better than Lin measure and Wu and Palmers’ semantic similarity measure. However, the proposed measure needs to be evaluated using a larger data set in order to validate its reliability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of the Proximate and Mineral Compositions of Extruded African Breadfruit (Treculia africana) Mix with Some Commercial Pasta Products

Samaila James, T. U. Nwabueze, M. A. Usman, Ojo Samuel, Nwokocha Lilian, Yusuf James, Ibrahim A. Baba

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/21130

This study compared the proximate and mineral composition of extruded samples of African breadfruit flour mixtures with some commercial pasta products (whole wheat spaghetti, enriched macaroni and corn pasta). Sample A composed of African breadfruit, soybean and corn flours while sample B had the mixture of African breadfruit, defatted soybean and corn flours. The flours were blended at ratios 70:25:5 African breadfruit, soybean and corn respectively. The two samples were separately extruded in a Brabender single screw extruder at 21% moisture content, 140ºC barrel temperature and 140 rpm screw speed fitted with 2 mm die diameter. The results show that, the extrudates were significantly high in crude protein (23.90 to 24.50%), fat (3.16 to 7.60%), carbohydrate (54.10 to 54.60%) and energy values (376.06 to 382.80 kcal) than commercial pastas. However, commercial pastas were significantly (p<0.05) high in crude fibre (7.00 to 19.00%) than the extrudates (4.50 to 4.60%). Commercial pasta corn was significantly (p<0.05) high in magnesium (36.00 mg/100 g) but, the extrudates compared favourably in magnesium with whole wheat spaghetti. The extrudates were significantly (p<0.05) high in phosphorus (248.80 to 255.20 mg/100 g), iron (7.20 to 7.60 mg/100 g), zinc (6.80 mg/100 g) and manganese (8.30 to 9.20 mg/100 g) than the commercial pastas. This finding shows that the extrudates could be useful in addressing nutrient inadequacies in areas where it is consumed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of the Water Supply-demand Relationship in the Middle Draa Valley, Morocco, under Climate Change and Socio-economic Scenarios

Ahmed Karmaoui, Issam Ifaadassan, Abdelaziz Babqiqi, Mohammed Messouli, Mohammed Yacoubi Khebiza

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/21536

This article explores the water supply-demand relationship in the Middle Draa valley, under climate change and socio-economic scenarios; identifying some of the climate-hydrological variables that best express the vulnerability of hydro­logical resources at watershed level. The analysis utilizes the outputs of some general circulation models runs under different scenarios socio-economical and climate change (A2 and B2). We used the Statistical downscaling models (SDSM) that allow the observation of climate change at local level and the Water Evaluation and Planning System (WEAP), an integrated approach to simulate water systems and orient management policies. The results predict that under the scenario of climate change A2, the region will know more severe droughts than under B2 scenarios. The estimation of the water balance is made through WEAP model; which shows that the study area will know a lack in supply.

Open Access Review Article

Effective and Efficient Means to Prevent and Minimize Identity and Identity Cards Theft, Criminal Vices and Unauthorized Access to Places in Nigeria

Kadiri Kamoru Oluwatoyin, Alimi Maryam Odunola, A. O. Alabi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/18171

This paper is a theoretical review of the major crimes leading to identity and identity cards fraud, criminal vice, unauthorized access of strangers in organizations and homes, effective and efficient means to minimize these problems in Nigeria. The paper provides prevention techniques that have been offered to people and business (e.g. schools and organizations). In addition, the paper reviews literature and summarizes the most effective and efficient means for people and business to protect Nigerians against ID theft, criminal vice, unauthorized access of strangers in organizations and homes. Identity (ID) theft is unauthorized obtaining of others confidential information in order to misuse it. ID theft is one of the major problems that impose billions of Naira’s annually on people and businesses in Nigeria. Inception of ID theft in Nigeria is due to some basic factors such as political, social, economic and technological. This paper examines different types of frauds that are the major results of ID theft, prevention techniques and panacea which is the use of biometric to the problem of ID and ID cards theft in Nigeria. This paper also examines prevention technique against unauthorized access of strangers.