Open Access Study Protocol

Students Calcium Awareness Program: A Proposal of Mobile Devices Health Promotion Program

Salman Alzayani

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/17348

Aims: The aims of this health promotion program are to increase the knowledge and awareness regarding calcium dietary intake among college students and to positively change their attitude towards it.

Methodology: This heath promotion program is designed to target the undergraduate university students (18-22 year old). The program will be delivered to the students through their mobile devices by downloading a free mobile app directly from the internet to their smart phones and tablets. The logic model used in the educational program (Intervention) is to increase participants knowledge and awareness regarding calcium (Determinant), to assist them in selecting their dietary options rich in calcium (Behavior) and eventually prevent osteoporosis and fractures (Health Goal). The behavioral theory used is health belief model, as we aim to create enough concern regarding this health issue and make the participants to really feel that they will be vulnerable to osteoporosis in the future, therefore making the behavioral changes look beneficial for them.

Discussion and Evaluation: Program evaluation will be divided into two phases, process; using app statistics, and summative; using a non-experimental evaluation with pre- and post-tests that will be submitted by the participants through the app.

Open Access Short Research Article

Studies of Pb(II) Adsorption onto Local Adsorbent

S. E. Uwadiae

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/19111

The study was carried out to assess the suitability of a locally sourced clay as potential adsorbent for the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions following batch mode of operation. The study investigated the effect of varying contact time, solution pH, adsorbent dose and initial concentration of metal ion on sorption. Batch equilibrium and kinetic experiments were conducted at 25°C, using <0.02 mm particle sizes of clay. The kinetic and equilibrium models were fitted employing the non-linear regression method, using a trial-and-error procedure in the Microsoft Excel solver. In order to determine the best fit isotherm, five error analysis functions were used: hybrid fractional error function, Marquardt’s percent standard deviation, average relative error, sum of the errors squared and sum of the absolute errors. However, the sum of normalized error was further employed in order to have a better comparison between the error functions sets for the isotherm models. With the highest R2 value of 0.9887 and lowest sum of normalized error value of 0.0108, the Sips isotherm fitted the equilibrium data better than the other isotherm models. The pseudo-second order model gave the best fit to the kinetic data as it had the lowest standard error of the estimates value of 3.22x10-6 and the highest coefficient of determination, R2 values of 0.9887 for the adsorption of Pb(II) onto Ikpoba clay.

Open Access Original Research Article

Incidence of Aflatoxigenic Fungi and Aflatoxins in Maize Cultivated in Highland and Mid-altitude Agro-ecological Zones in Kenya

Samson Chebon, Wanjiru Wanyoike, Christine Bii, James Gathumbi, Dorington Ogoyi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/17836

Kenya has had recurrent aflatoxicoses of regional epidemiological pattern spanning over three decades now. A comparative study was therefore undertaken aimed at establishing factors contributing to fungal and aflatoxin contamination differences in maize cultivated in two Agro-Ecological Zones.

Methods: A total of 309 maize samples obtained from the Highland Agro-Ecological Zone and Mid-Altitude Agro-Ecological Zone of Kenya were analyzed in a three year study, 2008-2010. A purposeful sampling technique was used. Aflatoxigenic fungal contamination involved culture on modified Potato dextrose agar supplemented with Yeast Extract Sucrose agar and 0.3% β-cyclodextrin. Aflatoxin quantification was by a commercial Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kit. The findings from these two variables were compared according to the agroecological zone. Similarly, correlation analysis between the grains’ moisture content, fungal and aflatoxin contamination was undertaken.

Results: Significant differences existed both in the mean grains’ moisture content and mean fungal load for maize samples from the two Agroecological zones (P < 0.001) with 12.8% and 3.0 CFU/g, respectively for Highland samples while Mid-Altitude samples had 13.2% M.C. and 83.5 CFU/g, respectively. A significant agro-ecological relationship was established regarding frequency of aflatoxigenic fungal species, with Aspergillus flavus in only 8.4% of Highland samples but predominant in 54.3% of Mid-Altitude samples samples(X2=16.764, p=0.05). Significant regional differences (P< 0.001) also existed regarding aflatoxin contamination, occurring in only 18% of Highland samples at 2.0 μg/kg mean contamination level and 73.7% of Mid-altitude samples at 14.0 μg/kg mean aflatoxin level. However, weak correlation existed between fungal and aflatoxin contamination in both Agro-Ecological Zones. Use of certified maize seed was a common practice among farmers in Highland Agro-Ecological Zone.

Conclusion: The observed regional differences in both the fungal and aflatoxin load could be attributed to agro-ecological conditions and farming practices. The cool humid agro-ecological conditions prevalent in the Highland Agro-Ecological Zone together with sound farming practices particularly use of certified maize seed could have accounted for the lower contamination levels. Serious research on development of maize varieties that are not only drought resistant but also high yielding and resistant against pathogenic fungal infections including aflatoxigenic fungi is urgently needed so as to encourage farmers in the Mid-altitude Agro-Ecological Zone to adopt modern maize cultivars over the indigenous types.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Distribution of Primary Schools in Ilorin West Local Government Area, Kwara State, Nigeria

Oloko-Oba O. Mustapha, Ogunyemi S. Akintunde, A. T. Alaga, R. A. Badru, J. O. Ogbole, Popoola O. Samuel, Samson A. Samuel

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22128

The distribution of educational facilities in most part of Nigeria has been observed to be politically biased to the extent that a facility is over utilized while others are underutilized in an area. Location of schools should be based on factors such as population, proximity and economy efficiency for sustainable development. The study engages geospatial techniques to show spatial distribution of primary schools. The data used for this project were acquired from primary and secondary sources. The primary data were acquired through handheld Germin 60 Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver to capture the coordinates of primary schools. The secondary data used for this study include a high resolution image, administrative map and school data. Data analysis was carried out using Nearest Neighbor Analysis as the statistical tool in achieving the pattern of distribution of primary schools given as the observed mean distance (Do) between each feature over the expected mean distance (De) for the given features in a random pattern. School location, number of primary schools and the area in square-kilometer for each ward were the parameters used to determine the pattern of distribution of primary schools in the study area. However, the result of spatial pattern of distribution carried out in Ilorin West Local Government shows uneven pattern of distribution of schools in the following percentage. Well served 41.66%, marginally served 25%, under served 16.67% and not served 16.67% such that five (5) wards exhibit random pattern, three (3) Clustered pattern and two (2) Dispersed pattern of distribution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Static Headspace GC Method: Tool for Rapid and Sensitive Analysis of Residual Solvents in Amoxicillin and Ampicillin Tablets

Sk Manirul Haque, S. M. Zakir Hossain, Prem Shanker

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22861

A simple and sensitive static head space gas chromatographic (SH-GC) method equipped with FID has been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of residual solvents e.g.,  methanol, dichloromethane and toluene in two therapeutic drugs such as amoxicillin and ampicillin. The separation was achieved with 30 m long Elite - 5 fused silica capillary column and 0.32 mm inner diameter. The developed SH-GC method offered symmetric peak shape, good resolution and reasonable retention time for all the solvents. Beer’s law was obeyed in the concentration ranges 100 – 1200, 50 – 1000 and 50 – 500 ppm for methanol, dichloromethane and toluene, respectively. The method was validated according to international conference on harmonization (ICH) guidelines in terms of specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, robustness and solution stability. The degrees of linearity of the calibration curves, the percent recoveries, relative standard deviation for the method were also determined. All the validation parameters were within the acceptable range. The developed SH-GC method could, therefore, be suitable for simple and rapid detection of trace levels residual solvents in other pharmaceutical products and thereby it could be used for routine analysis in any analytical laboratory.

Open Access Original Research Article

Identification of a Super Paramagnetic Phase of Titanium Substituted Mn-Zn Ferrites and Its Magnetic and Mossbauer Studies

D. J. Satheesh, N. Vasudevan Nair, Jayakumari Isac

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/21950

The magnetic and Mossbauer studies were carried out in  Mn0.8+x Zn0.2TixFe2-2xO4 with x=0.10, 0.15, 0.20.The addition of Ti4+ induces considerable improvements of properties such as linear dependence of permeability versus temperature, Curie temperature, isomer shift, hyperfine interactions etc. Samples with Mn0.8+x Zn0.2TixFe2-2xO4 for x=0.10, 0.15, 0.20 were prepared by usual solid-state reaction method. To achieve equilibrium between the magnetic and core loss properties Titanium is introduced into the base composition of MnZn ferrite. A sublattice assigned to Ti4+Fe2+ pairs appeared in the Mossbauer spectra gave information on the local surroundings of iron ions. Increasing of Ti4+ shifts secondary maximum of permeability (SMP) to higher temperatures is in agreement with the hyperfine magnetic fields observed. The hyperfine magnetic field and electric quadrupole splitting decreases with the addition of Ti. The conduction mechanism is due to hopping of small polarons between Fe2+ and Fe3+.

Open Access Original Research Article

Characterization of Coconut Oil and Its Biodiesel

Nicholas A. Musa, Georgina M. Teran, Saraki A. Yaman

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22293

The aim of this research is to characterize biodiesel produced from coconut oil with a view to finding its suitability as alternative fuel for diesel engine.

Biodiesel are alternative diesel fuels usually obtained from renewable sources, mainly, vegetable and animal oils. Oil was extracted from coconuts bought from a local market in Kaduna State, Nigeria, which is one of the sources of vegetable oil, by wet milling method. The extracted coconut oil was degummed and the percentage yield was found to be 45.5% and it was characterized. Results obtained showed that the coconut oil has specific gravity, viscosity, free fatty acid, saponification value, iodine value, perioxide value and acid value of 0.912, 23 mm2/s, 28.025 mg/g, 191.89, 121.1, 8 mol/kg and 14.025 mgKOH/g respectively. Biodiesel of the oil was produced using transesterification process. The percentage yield of the biodiesel was found to be 49.8% and it was also characterized. Results obtained showed that the biodiesel has specific gravity, viscosity, free fatty acid, acid value, saponification value, iodine value, calorific value, flash point, fire point, cloud point, pour point and cetane number of 0.89, 2.7 mm2/s, 0.38 mg/g, 0.18 mgKOH/g, 154, 124.6, 49 MJ/kg, 100°C, 123°C, 0°C, -3°C and 51 respectively. Some of the physicochemical properties of the biodiesel compared well with that of diesel and in the range of ASTM specifications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sustainable Fodder Production for Qatar’s Food Security

Haga Osman, Hanan Osman, Yousef Ibrahim Al-Hamar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/21807

The state of Qatar falls in one of the driest regions in the world with average rainfall of 76.8 mm year-1, and with zero surface water. The limited available natural water sources puts Qatar under huge pressure to balance between available water and water demands for different water uses.

The previous uncontrolled groundwater use in agriculture (mainly fodder production) caused decline in the groundwater table and resulted in serious environmental problems including creation of depression zones, salt intrusion in several areas and deterioration of groundwater quality and quantity in several areas.

To overcome this problem the government has suggested the use of Treated Sewage Effluent (TSE) as an alternative of groundwater for producing fodder crops, to ensure fodder production while protecting the groundwater sources. This paper aims to review the current and future (year 2030) situation of fodder production using TSE, available data from governmental institutions deal with TSE production, fodder production and environmental protection were collected, analyzed and presented.

The total green fodder area irrigated with different water sources is in continuous increase, it was 1562 ha (producing 129,000 tons year-1) in year 2001 compare to 5183 ha (producing 421000 tons year-1) in the year 2012 with average water consumption of 25,000 m3 ha-1.

The design capacity of the main urban wastewater treatment plants in Qatar is 634,860 m3 day-1, while available treated wastewater is 414,301 m3 day-1 (2013), total TSE used for fodder production in 2012 was 122,500 m3 day-1 to irrigate around 1520 ha (considering 15% losses) which represents 29% of the total area irrigated with different water sources.

Forecast for TSE that will be produced in the years 2016 and 2030 are 790,410 and 819,410 m3 day-1 respectively, this can allow 9,810 ha and 10,170 ha of fodder to be irrigated if all TSE will be produced by the years 2016 and 2030 are used for fodder production.

This study paper is showing that using TSE will not only support filling the gap in fodder production, but also will help shifting from using ground water which is already depleted and hence protecting the Qatari groundwater sources. However there will be intensive competition between fodder production and other uses such as land-scaping, crops production, cooling, industrial and construction uses.