Open Access Short Research Article

The Impact of Macroeconomic Indicators on Cement Prices in Ghana

Mark Bediako, Eric Opoku Amankwah, Dela Adobor

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22961

Portland cement is an important commodity in almost every part of the world. Its importance is visible in the construction and concrete industry which are very pivotal in the growth of major economies. In Ghana the construction industry is among the pillars the drives the economy. This study attempted to investigate the impact of some selected macroeconomic indicators on the performance of cement prices between the period of 2000 and 2014. The macroeconomic indicators studied were inflation rate, monetary policy rate and exchange rate. The study used multiple linear regression analysis for the interpretation of the inferential statistical data. The regression results showed that cement cost was not responsive to the trends in inflation and monetary policy rates. It was however responsive to trends in the exchange rate pattern showing a positive relation. To effectively control cement prices, the study recommends an effort to use local materials such as burnt bricks and calcined clay pozzolan which don’t need so much of foreign exchange for any form of importation.

Open Access Commentary

Valuation of Machinery and Equipment: Is it Inter-disciplinary, Multi-disciplinary or Collaborative?

T. A. Ashaolu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23397

Property valuation as a professional exercise occupies a unique position different from related concepts of ‘valuation’, ‘assessment’, ‘evaluation’ and ‘measurements’ that are pervasive in accounting, engineering, quantity surveying and medicine, among others. This paper therefore reflects on the lingering feud between estate surveyors and valuers (ESV) and engineers in Nigeria on issues that borders on competence for professional valuation of assets in the nature plant, equipment and machinery (PEM). Through a perspective discourse that analyses required inputs for property valuation and the strengths and weaknesses of each group, the paper found that ESV could neither maintain monopoly for the exercise nor are engineers capable of usurping the practice based on their subsisting academic and practice focus. It therefore concludes that ultimately, holistic property valuation need evolve as an interdisciplinary field independent of real estate discipline while in the interim, collaboration of multiple disciplines involving ESV, engineers and other allied professionals should be adopted for PEM valuation. The paper is aimed at disabusing the mind of both parties and concentrates on required objectivity that would improve professionalism in the valuation of all strands of property assets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparison of Aluminum and Iron Electrodes for COD Reduction from Coffee Processing Wastewater by Electrocoagulation Process

G. Asha, B. Manoj Kumar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22815

In the present study, applicability of aluminum and iron electrodes to remove COD in the coffee processing wastewater is evaluated by electrocoagulation method. Optimum electrolysis duration using aluminum and iron electrodes are observed as 45 and 60 minutes respectively. The COD remaining after the electrolysis duration of 105 minutes is 0.265 Kg \ m3 and 0.732 Kg \ m3 with energy consumption of 3.61 kWh / Kg removal of COD  and 40 kWh / Kg removal of COD using aluminum and iron electrodes respectively. A comparison of variations in the trends of COD removal using aluminum and iron electrodes by electrochemical process is observed. The study revealed that electrochemical treatment using aluminum electrode is better in comparison with iron electrode with satisfactory results of   97% and 89% COD removal efficiency and decolorization.

Open Access Original Research Article

Short Term Study on the Compressive Strength of Microbial Laterized Concrete Cured in Seawater

T. F. Awolusi, O. O. Akinkurolere, O. L. Oke, O. G. Aluko

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22733

The effect of bacteria (Bacillus subtilis) on the compressive strength of laterized concrete cured in sea water was investigated. Because of the many variables involved, Taguchi method of experimental design was employed. The variables were water to binder ratio (0.45, 0.50 and 0.55), percentage laterite replacement of fine aggregate (0%, 10% and 20%) and changes in the volume of bacteria culture (0%, 10% and 30%) which depends on the pre-calculated quantity of water required for each test at a cell concentration of 105 colony forming unit per ml. Two curing media (water and sea water) were used with constant mix ratio of 1:2:4. Compressive strengths were determined at 7, 14 and 28 days. Results indicated that maximum compressive strengths for microbial laterized concrete were obtained for the following combinations; 0% laterite replacement with volume of bacterial culture at 20%, 20% laterite replacement with volume of bacterial culture at 30% and 40% laterite replacement with volume of bacterial culture at 10%.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Distribution and Accessibility of Primary Health Centre in Ife East Local Government of Osun State, Nigeria

J. E. Adewoyin, S. A. Ogunyemi, K. H. Muibi, O. Fasote, S. A. Halilu, T. A. Alaga

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22208

This study was carried out in Ife East Local government area of Osun State on the spatial pattern and accessibility of Primary health care centre. The objective of the study was to examine the spatial distribution of this health care facility, how accessible is the facility as well as the factors responsible for the disparity in accessibility level. Administrative map of the area, GPS coordinates of the healthcare facilities and questionnaire information are the sources of data for this study while GIS software and Microsoft Excel were used in analyzing the data. The result showed that there are twenty – two primary health centres in the study area; fourteen of these are functional while eight are non – functional. The result also showed that the Primary Health centres (functional) were clustered and not evenly distributed and is mainly in the urban area of the study area.

Open Access Original Research Article

Potential Leading Resources in Padang Panjang City, West Sumatra: The Development of Regional Economic Based on Soft System Methodology (SSM)

Kholil ., Sri Lisa Susanty, Soecahyadi .

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22285

In order to improve competitiveness and enhance economic development, each region in Indonesia must be able to make the best use of its potential natural and cultural resources. The City of Padang Panjang is one of  514 district in Indonesia with great potentials for tourism industry. However, these potentials have not been strategically developed to enhance the region’s economic development and competitiveness.

The aim of this research is to design the best strategy of tourism industries development based on available potentials resources using Soft System Methodology (SSM). Analysis showed that the thawalib education system, plate dance  and Minangese Cultural Centre may serve as three of the most promising potentials for developing cultural tourism in Padang Panjang City. In order to create a sustainable tourism industry, public involvement and cooperation with neighboring regions, is required. Furthermore, any strategies for the development of tourism industry in Padang Panjang City must be integrated with other sectors of development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Natural Pyrethrum Extracts Photo-stabilized with Organo Clays

Esther Maina, Harrison Wanyika, Anthony Gacanja

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22433

Botanical pesticide use in agricultural sector over synthetic pesticide would ensure less pest resistance and reduced environmental pollution. Natural Pyrethrum Extracts (NPE) are effective, environmental friendly pesticides, but are photo-labile, limiting their use in pest control. In the present study, naturally occurring montmorillonite (MMT) clay was purified following established procedures. Organo-clays were prepared by treating the purified clay with Hexadecyltrimethylammonium Bromide (HDTMA) and Trimethylphenylammonium Bromide (TMPA) organic cations. NPE molecules were loaded into these organo clays by simple immersion using NPEs solution to obtain NPE-organo clay composites. The samples were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrophotometry and X-ray Diffractometry (XRD) techniques. In situ photo-stability tests conducted by exposing the NPEs-clay composites to sunlight for four hours revealed ~52% stabilization of NPEs by HDTMA modified clays. The findings demonstrated a great potential of clay to photo stabilize NPE and consequently improve the versatility of NPE-based pesticides. Bio-assay test on maize weevils revealed 100% mortality rate on NPE HDTMA-clay treatments at 120 hrs while the un-protected NPEs exhibited 18% mortality rate for the same duration of time. Clay synergizes NPE; acting as a carrier, photo- protector and desiccant to NPE pesticide in weevils’ eradication. Embrace of this effective technology shall ensure enhanced food security and more income to the pyrethrum growing farmers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Perceived Risks of Breast Cancer Lung Cancer and Cardiovascular Disease in Irish Women

M. Varzgalis, F. A. Kelly, C. M. Ni Fhoghlu, T. P. Mcveigh, M. J. Kerin, K. J. Sweeney

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22714

Background: Despite widespread availability of risk information, many women hold inaccurate perceptions of their risk for developing breast cancer. It is important to prevent women who overestimate risk from undergoing excessive screening and preventive strategies, and to encourage those who underestimate to take appropriate health care behaviour.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess women perception of relative risk of breast cancer, lung cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Methods: Prospective cross-sectional survey was carried out Galway University Hospital. Participants were recruited between July and August 2013. Three study cohorts were included in this study, non-cancer patients, non-cancer volunteers and health care professionals. Perceived risk for cancer was assessed by asking subjects to rate their perceived likelihood of developing breast cancer in their lifetime. The baseline used population risk as 1:10 time for breast cancer, 1:3 for cardiovascular disease and 1:40 lung cancer risks.

Results: A total of 428 respondents filled designed questionnaires. There were no male respondents. 75(17.5%) were non cancer patients, 206(48.13%) volunteers and 105(24.53%) health care professionals. Mean age was 42.50 years (+/- 16.64). On univariate analysis family history of breast cancer (p < 0.001) was associated with high cancer risk perception. No association was found between high perceived risk of breast cancer and smoking, cardiovascular disease diabetes and level of education. Smokers on univariate analysis perceived that their risk of lung cancer is not higher than population risk. Multivariate analysis showed that family history (p < 0.001) is strongest confounder for overestimating risks of cancer.

Conclusions: Public health information is required to prevent women who overestimate risk from undergoing excessive screening and preventive strategies, and to encourage those who underestimate to take appropriate health care behaviour.