Open Access Short Research Article

Trends in Tuberculosis/Human Immunodeficiency Virus Comorbidity, Latvia, 2012-2014

Januskevica Inga, Sangirejeva Anastasija, Eglite Jelena, Hagina Elvira, Jasinskis Vladislavs, Storozenko Jelena, Lejnieks Aivars, Rozentale Baiba

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22247

Aims: To describe the rates of HIV cases and Tuberculosis co-infection in Latvia from 2012 through 2014.

Methodology: This retrospective study was conducted by Riga Eastern Clinical Univesity Hospital(RECUH) Latvian Center of Infectology (LCI) HIV datebase. 2293 TB-patients were reported. 288 (12,6%) of all TB patients were HIV-infected. All patients  had TB  epidemiology during the last years and define variables predicting TB/HIV co-infection. In the same time between  January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2014 were diagnosed tuberculosis with HIV co-infection. Temporal trends were estimated by Statistical (SPSS) version 22.0 for Windows.

Results: In this study were reported 2 293 TB-patients from 2012 to 2014. 288 (12,6%) of all TB patients were HIV-infected. By years 2012-2013-2014, the rate of tuberculosis had been  43,0-38,3-31,8 per 100 000 population accordingly. Most cases of tuberculosis represented new disease (86%, n = 249). Most of patients had extra-pulmonary disease (54%, n = 87/162), closely followed by pulmonary TB alone (46%, n = 75/162). We identified a trend toward increase in tuberculosis prevalence and mortality.

Conclusion: Incidence rate of TB is positively correlated with HIV prevalence. Social inequality and the advent of AIDS are the major factors that aggravate the current situation of tuberculosis. We recommend for Latvian Ministry of Health use complete guidelines for the best management of HIV-infected patients and especially for those who co-infected TB, by targeting all health care personnel in a concerted educational outreach.

Open Access Short Research Article

Teachers’ Characteristics as Determinants of Academic Performance of Junior Secondary School Students in Osun State, Nigeria

Yusuf Florence Adeoti, Yinusa Rasheedat Olufunke

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22001

The study adopted the descriptive survey research design. One thousand (1000) junior secondary school teachers and 500 teachers were randomly drawn from fifty (50) randomly selected public junior secondary schools in Osun state formed the participants for this study. Questionnaire titled “Teachers’ Characteristics as Determinant of Academic Performance Questionnaire” (TCDAPQ) was developed, validated and used for data collection for the study. Four null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significant. Data were analysed using simple percentage and Chi Square. The findings of the study showed that there was a significant relationship between teacher’s qualification and students’ academic performance (x2 = 59.64, df = 9, p<0.05). It was also revealed that a significant relationship existed between teacher’s experience and students’ academic performance (x2 = 37.02, df = 3, p<0.05). Moreover, there was a significant relationship between teachers’ teaching style and students’ academic performance (x2 = 51.39, df = 15, p<0.05). Further, the result also revealed that there was a significant relationship between school teachers’ attitude and students’ academic performance (x2 = 46.12, df = 12, p<0.05).The findings of the study have implications for best practices in education: There is need to have a functioning counseling units in Junior Secondary Schools; the professional counselors should be employed in schools; school counsellors should be organizing orientation and re-orientation for the junior secondary school teachers on the need to develop positive attitude towards teaching profession and the need to get more committed to work. School authorities should encourage teachers with National Certificate in Education (NCE) to go for in-service training to acquire additional qualification; teachers that have first degree without background in education training should endeavor to proceed on Post Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) programme to acquire knowledge in methodology of teaching in order make their teaching more effective.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Corruption on the Growth of the Nigerian Economy-1960-2012: Error Correction Mechanism (ECM)

I. M. Shuaib, Ekeria O. Augustine, Ogedengbe A. Frank

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/15329

This paper examined the impact of corruption on the growth of Nigerian economy using time series data from 1960 to 2012. The paper utilized secondary data and the paper explored various econometrics and/or statistical analytical (Eview 7.2) method to examine the relationship between corruption and economic growth. The paper explored unit root, Cointegration analysis to test for the Nigeria’s time series data and used an error correction mechanism to determine the long-run relationship among the variables examined. From the results of the findings, it was discovered that corruption has an inverse relationship with growth of an economy. The paper recommended based on the econometric results that the government should intensify effort to create more agencies beside EFCC and ICPC to address cases of corrupt practices in the economy, encourage leaders that display transparency, honesty, probity, accountability, purposefulness and commitment to good ideals of the society before followers will be convinced of the ingenuity of such crusade,  ensure corruption as a theme needs to be discourse on debate by government representatives at federal, State and local levels. This will create the awareness that corrupt practices are against norms, culture and social value of the society. Put all these together will dissuade corruption and boost economic growth to increase influx of foreign investors.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Dichotomy between an Employee (Locatio operarum) and Independent Contractor (Conductio operis) for Purposes of Liability in Law of Delict: An Analysis

Nico P. Swartz, Eric Ozoo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/21658

It has been difficult in practice to distinguish between an employee (Locatio operarum) and an independent contractor (Conductio operis). It is important to know whether a person is an employer or independent contractor for the purposes of determining their entitlements such as liability issues (in this context) and other factors like (which do not have necessarily a bearing on this paper – for example, redundancy pay, notice period, health and safety and liability issues). In order to assist in the distinction between employee and independent contractor, the Courts have contrived four tests: (i) the supervision and control test; (ii) the organisation test; (iii) the multiple or dominant impression test; and (iv) the flexible test. These tests have each their merits and demerits and evoked proper analysis and application for the understanding of the dichotomy between employee and independent contractor as envisaged in case laws such as Colonial Mutual Life Assurance Society, R v AMCA Services, Smit v Workmen’s Compensation Commissioner and Motor Industry Bargaining Council.

Open Access Original Research Article

Development of Software Application for Nigerian Traffic Flow Monitoring and Prediction of High-Way Infrastructural Facilities

Peter Kayode Oke, Oluwole Timothy Ojo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/21055

Aims: This study was carried out with the aim of developing a software that can predict high-way infrastructural facilities and also monitors the traffic flow of vehicles at a particular junction of a specified location in Nigeria.

Study Design: A T- Junction was identified as the study area. Relevant data on the junction was collected. The T-Junction was modelled and data collected was transferred to data base and subsequently analyzed in order to develop the required software which is capable of monitoring traffic flow as well as predicting the needed road infrastructural facilities.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between June 2013 and February 2015.

Methodology: The aim of this work was achieved by modelling one of the T– junctions in Akure City, Ondo State, Nigeria where one of the major road in the city forms an intersection with the express road. Primary data was collected through observations and oral interview with some road officers as well as road users. Secondary data such as traffic flow at the study area and vehicle registration in the town was gotten from Federal Road Safety Commission and Ondo State board of internal revenue respectively all in Nigeria. The data collected was processed, analyzed and modelled. Computer software was developed to validate the model.

Results: The results from the software show that for the year 2015, the possible number of vehicles in the city was forecast to be 7,894. The total no of vehicles at the junction waiting in lane 1 would be about 38, 30 for lane 2 and 45 for lane 3 respectively.

Conclusion: The software is a veritable tool that can be used to predict flow of traffic and infrastructure needed in urban environment especially at any T-junction, provided it is built on a properly designed database, which must also be amenable to constant updating.

Open Access Original Research Article

Geology and Hydrogeology of Part of Suleja North Central Nigeria

O. J. Akano, A. Idris-Nda, S. H. Waziri

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/21577

A study on the geology and hydrogeology of part of Suleja north central Nigeria was carried out using geological and hydrogeological mapping and Electrical Resistivity method of geophysical surveys. The study area was divided into portions of almost equal parts to aid easy identification naming and identification of samples. Rock samples were collected and thin sections were produced from three of these samples. Thirty six (36) hand dug wells were examined for static water level measurements while only fifteen of the water samples were examined in the laboratory for chemistry and bacteriological content. Sixty four (64) Vertical Electrical Soundings (VES) were also carried out using the Schlumberger array. Two major rock types were identified in the area and they are Gneiss and Granite. The water chemistry test showed little dissolution of the rock constituent in the water but rather the effect of sewage, pit latrines and wastewater sources situated around the wells in some areas. Also, the Vertical electrical Sounding (VES) results revealed good groundwater potentials in the larger portions of the study area. The area underlain by Granite have the lowest groundwater yield in hand dug wells and as well as from the result of Vertical electrical Sounding. Groundwater occurrence and flow in the area is generally controlled by the topography.

Open Access Original Research Article

Controlled Synthesis and Understanding of Growth Mechanism – Parameters for Atmospheric Pressure Hydrothermal Synthesis of Ultrathin Secondary ZnO Nanowires

Mingzhi Jiao, Duc Hoa Nguyen, Van Duy Nguyen, Van Hieu Nguyen, Klas Hjort, Hugo Nguyen

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22427

Synthesis of ultrathin ZnO nanowires gains great attention from research community because of their large potential in applications involving optoelectronics and sensors. In this study, a low-pressure and low-temperature hydrothermal synthesis of ultrathin ZnO nanowires is studied to understand the growth mechanisms better. To achieve this aim, an about 10 nm thin Zn seed layer was sputter-deposited on a silicon (100) wafer for the hydrothermal growth of ZnO nanowires in an equimolar aqueous solution of Zn(NO3)2 and hexamethylenetetramine. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the Zn layer was self-oxidized into ZnO in air soon after deposition and then functioned as the seed for the preferred growth of c-oriented ZnO nanorods. Different growth conditions were investigated to identify how concentration, temperature, and time influence the final morphology of the synthesized ZnO nanostructures. It was found that under the atmospheric pressure, concentration and temperature have to be higher than 0.0025 M and 50°C, respectively, for the ZnO nanorods to nucleate and grow densely. Low concentration gives sparse and randomly oriented nanorods, whereas high concentration gives dense and vertical nanorods. Ultrathin ZnO secondary nanowires with an average diameter of less than 20 nm were successfully synthesized in a solution with concentration of 0.005 M at 90°C for about 16 h. By analyzing the scanning electron microscopy images of the ZnO nanostructures obtained at different growth conditions, a mechanism is proposed for the growth of the ultrathin secondary ZnO nanowires. This finding provides a cost-effective and straightforward pathway to prepare ultrathin ZnO nanowires.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Sequencing Batch Reactor for Treatment of Coffee Pulping Wastewater

G. Asha, B. Manoj Kumar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/21830

The coffee industry uses large amount of water during various stages of coffee production. Coffee processed by wet method generates large volume of high strength wastewater rich in COD and nutrients hence to comply with stringent environmental regulations and for restoration of safe environment, it has become imperative to find less costly and easily adaptable treatment technology. Coffee pulping wastewater characterized as acidic (3.92 – 4.99), high content of suspended and dissolved organic matter makes it amenable to rapid biodegradation. In the present study, Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) has been employed has an efficient technology for treating coffee pulping wastewater treatment because of its simple configuration and high efficiency in COD and nutrients removal. The COD in the influent coffee wastewater sample is 8320 to     10400 mg/l, influent phosphorus is 60 to 94 mg/l and influent nitrate nitrogen concentration is 32 to 52 mg/l. The COD concentration remaining in the effluent is 296 mg/l, phosphorus concentration is 3 mg/l and nitrate nitrogen concentration is less than 8 mg/l. With raw wastewater the SBR performance was low and after dilution (1:4) of coffee pulping wastewater the performance of SBR increased in terms of COD, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. This study also showed that there is a need for pre-treatment of coffee pulping wastewater since it contains recalcitrant with high COD concentration and low BOD concentration.