Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Analysis of the Distribution Pattern of Primary Healthcare Facilities in Ile – Ife Metropolis Using Geographic Information System

A. Hafeez Sedenu, K. H. Muibi, A. T. Alaga, O. O. Ajileye, John Ogbole, A. A. Kappo, O. S. Popoola, Oloko-Oba O. Mustapha

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22339

The importance of health to the overall wellbeing of every nation cannot be overemphasized. Therefore, there is a need for effective planning and management of the healthcare facilities in order to achieve optimum result in the country for equitable distribution of health facilities as a factor for sustaining the population in the cities.

This research explores potential use of Goespatial Techniques for analysing public healthcare facilities accessibility and distribution pattern in Ile- Ife metropolis. Primary and secondary data were acquired. Primary data include questionnaire administration and Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver’s coordinate points of the health facilities while secondary data include administrative map of Ile-Ife metropolis and geo-eye satellite image 2011. These set of data were integrated into Arcgis environment and the following spatial analyses were carried out; overlay operation, statistical analysis and network analysis.

The results obtained are: study area map, digital road network, most centrally located facilities, mean center, standard distance, directional distribution, kernel density and nearest neighbourhood ratio (NNR=1.068821). The Nearest Neighbour Ratio shows a random distribution pattern for health care facility. The service area maps were also produced to show the total travel time from the points of resident to the nearest healthcare facilities within a given time of 2, 3, 5 and 7 minutes. The total area served by the healthcare facilities in km2 was determined. From the results it shows that the study area is fairly provided with health care facilities. However, they are concentrated around the center of the town while other areas are inadequately served. Primary healthcare facilities should be provided to serve the areas that are underserved in the study area. The centrally located primary health center should be well equipped by the government so as to serve the population better. Improvement should be made on healthcare provision by having a standardized regulation for establishing primary healthcare facilities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Serological and Molecular Evidence of Hepatitis E Infection among Patients with Suspected Viral Hepatitis Seen at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra

Lawrence Henry Ofosu-Appiah, Joseph H. K. Boney, Theophilus Adiku, Jacob Barnor, John Kofi Odoom

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22974

Aim: Ghana is not clearly demarcated in the endemic region for hepatitis E virus but serological studies have shown a high anti-HEV seroprevalence among pregnant women in Accra, Ghana.  In this study, we investigated to assess the HEV seroprevalence in patients presenting with symptoms of hepatotropic virus at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital.

Study Design: Structured questionnaire was administered to each consenting patient with suspected viral hepatitis to document their demographic characteristics as well as diagnosis.

Place and Duration of Study: The investigations were done between between April 2010 and March 2011 at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana.

Methods: We obtained 17 patients blood samples and 86 archival blood samples that had previously tested negative for HBV and HCV to determine the seropositivity and seroprevalence of HEV (IgG and IgM). Information was obtained from subjects using structured questionnaire. We measured anti-HEV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. HEV antigen from positive samples was measured by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).

Results: The overall serological prevalence of anti-HEV specific antibodies was low. Of the 103 serum samples tested, only 6 were positive for anti-HEV specific antibodies which gave a seroprevalence of 5.8%. Fifty percent of the ELISA seropositive samples were confirmed to be positive for HEV RNA by real time RT-PCR. All the confirmed positives were from females, 1 of whom was pregnant.

Conclusions: Evidence from this study points to hepatitis E virus as one of the causes of viral hepatitis among patients seen at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana suggesting that HEV remains an under-recognized and significant public health problem that needs further attention and research.

Open Access Original Research Article

Preliminary Study of Various Photoactive Nanomaterials for Oil Cleaning Application

Sharon Zhu, Bruce Y. Decker, Christopher S. Bryan, Yong X. Gan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23374

In this paper, nanomaterials were tested for oil cleaning application. Comparative studies were performed on pure titanium, titanium dioxide nanotube, titanium dioxide nanoparticles embedded in electrospun polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) fiber that was heat treated and not heat treated, and titanium-cobalt oxide in PVP that was heat treated. The ability of these materials of decomposing and removing oil under photon energy excitation was evaluated. Ultraviolet (UV) light was used as the photon energy source to excite these nanostructured materials. It is found that the titanium oxide nanotube has the highest photon responsive activity. Other nanomaterials including heat treated oxide containing PVP fiber also shown the function of oil removal.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Quantitative Structure-activity Relationship (QSAR) Study of the Anti-tuberculosis Activity of Some Quinolones

Gowal M. Eric, Adamu Uzairu, Paul A. P. Mamza

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23176

Aims: To use QSAR methodology in developing mathematical models for predicting the in-vitro anti-tuberculosis activity of some quinolone compounds against Mycobacterium smegmatis.

Study Design: A quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) study on a set of thirty-four 8-methylquinolones was performed. The genetic algorithm (GA) and multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) were used to select the descriptors and to generate the correlation models that relate the structural features to the biological activities.

Place and Duration of Study: Physical Chemistry Laboratory, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, Nigeria. Between March 2015 and July 2015.

Methodology: The molecular structures of the compounds were optimized at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level of theory using  the standard pople’s basis set 6311G* and the Becke’s three-parameter hybrid functional with LYP correlation functional  (BLYP/6311G*). Several molecular descriptors (i.e., features) were computed mainly using the Padel software for the thirty four compounds, genetic algorithm was used to choose the most relevant descriptors among the several calculated descriptors. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to develop linear model for predicting the biological activity.

Results: The most robust model was found to have R2 = 0.9184. The robustness of the chosen model was further tested using the leave-one-out (LOO) cross validation procedure (Q2 LOO = 0.84987) and the external validation procedure (R2Pred =0.79343) as well as Y-randomization. Leverage approach was used to establish the applicability domain of the model.

Conclusion: The predictive ability of the model was found to be satisfactory and could aid in the design of similar group of anti-tuberculosis drugs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluating Performance of IC Packaging and Testing Firms by Bootstrap Data Envelopment Analysis

Erwin T. J. Lin

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23459

Taiwan’s Integrated Circuit Packaging and Testing (ICPT) industry ranks number one in the world with 56% market share. However, facing the keen competition from global market, enhancing the operating performance becomes the most important way to be survival. As such measuring the efficiency deserves in-depth investigation. This paper adopts DEA and Bootstrap DEA methods to evaluate the performance for 24 global ICPT companies in 2010. The results show that, the average bias-corrected efficiency is slightly less than DEA efficiency. Based on the results some conclusions are drawn and recommendations for improving performance as well as the future study are proposed.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of the Effect of Oil Exploration on Galvanized Steel in Niger Delta, Nigeria

T. I. Mohammed, I. C. Nwankwo, T. O. Olugbade

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/21053

Aims: This paper determined the effect of oil exploration on engineering infrastructures in Niger Delta area of Nigeria where oil explorations are commonly practiced.

Study Design: Treatment of legal measure for the protection of the three environmental media: air, land, and water.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Federal University of Technology, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, between November 2013 and December 2014.

Methodology: Verification of Niger Delta seawater and rainwater contaminated with gas flaring for concentrations of sulphate, nitrate and hydrogen ions were thoroughly done using JENWAY 6850 UV/Vis Spectrophotometer and JENWAY 3505 pH Meter. For the purpose of validation, rainwater from non oil exploration area of Nigeria were likewise verified for the same composition. Because of variation in composition of these materials, a test was conducted on metals using iron filings to test for corrosion effect.

Results: Materials (rainwater and seawater) from different locations of exploration areas of Niger Delta proved to be acidic with average pH value of 5.35, while that of non oil exploration area contain average pH of 5.97. The result from the test, using confirmed acidic water from Niger Delta area of Nigeria, shows more rapid corrosiveness as against test of water from non exploration area which shows normal effect on corrosion.

Conclusion: Corrosion is more rapid on the materials made of metals (infrastructures) from Niger Delta area than what obtains in ordinary are. Also, engineering infrastructures in oil exploration environment corrode more rapidly than those found in a non exploration area looking at it within the same period of time.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pathology of Broiler Chicks Naturally Infected with Salmonella enteritidis (S. enteritidis) & Salmonella typhimurium (S. typhimurium) During an Outbreak in Sudan

E. A. Muna, Manal H. Salih, A. M. Zakia, M. O. Halima, A. M. Abeer, M. M. Ameera, Huda O. Ali, Sowsan B. Idris

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23431

Aims of the Study: To isolate and identify bacteria causing the disease, Characterize the bacterial isolates uses the automated machine vitek 2 compact, serotyping and Phage typing of bacterial isolates and study the histopathological finding due to the causative agents.

Place of Study: The samples collected from poultry farm included liver, intestine, kidney, spleen, heart, trachea and brain. Then transported immediately on ice to the Veterinary Research Institute, Soba for isolation, identification and characterization of bacteria.

Study Design: A total of eight thousand (8,000) broiler chicks, of the ‘Ross’ breed, were bought for commercial benefits in March 2014. Due to mortality that was started at the first day, postmortem was done to investigate the gross lesions and taking samples from liver, intestine, kidney, spleen, heart, trachea and brain.

Methodology: 52 samples from that organs were Isolated and identified according to bacteriological standard methods.

Automated system Vitek 2 compact was used to confirm and characterize the isolates.

Serotyping and phagetyping of isolates were done as further characterization.

Gross and histopathological lesions on different tissues were studied. All the histopathological pictures were found similar to those done by the previous researchers.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Retrospective Study on Child Malnutrition in the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana

Williams Walana, Samuel Ekuban Kwabena Acquah, Samuel Makinin, Mavis Sarfo, Abdul Bassit Muktar, Ezekiel Kofi Vicar, Ernestina Yirkyio, Mohammed Shaibu Osman, Alhasan Abdul-Mumin, Sylvanus Kampo, Iddrisu Baba Yabasin, Juventus Benogle Ziem

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23095

Introduction: Malnutrition is an essential global public health challenge affecting millions of people. The burden of malnutrition is huge especially among children in developing countries and poverty stricken regions.

Aims: This study investigated the distributions, co-morbidities, and admission outcomes among malnourished children in the paediatric ward of the Tamale Teaching Hospital, Ghana.

Study Design: A retrospective health facility based study was employed.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the paediatric ward of the Tamale Teaching Hospital, from May to June 2015. Data extracted covered the period March 2011 to March 2015.

Methodology: Record books were manually reviewed and data on patients’ demography, nutritional status, clinical findings, co-morbid conditions, duration of admission and treatment outcomes were extracted using a structured excel template.

Results: Out of a total 969 children admitted to the ward, 440 (45.4%) were females and 529 (54.6%) were males. Majority of the patients 537 (55.4%) were within the age bracket 7-24 months, with a mean age of 21.2±0.6 months. Approximately 95.3% of the children were severely malnourished. Treatment outcome were generally successful; 534 (58.6%) recovered and were referred to the outpatient clinic for further management, while 220 (23.7%) improved and were discharged. However, the total death rate for the period was 12.8% (119/927). Regarding duration of admission, majority 434 (45.7%) spent between 1-7 days on admission followed by 8-14 days 296 (31.2%). The commonest malnutrition related co-morbidity was malaria, recording 28.1% (236), followed by respiratory tract infections 12.7% (107), gastro-intestinal tract infections 12.0% (101), and sepsis 10.0% (84).

Conclusion: The gradual increase in malnutrition cases recorded in the hospital suggests the existence of relatively high cases in the various communities within Northern Ghana. Thus scaling up community-based malnutritional interventions will be critical in ameliorating the challenges of malnutrition related admissions, particularly among children in the northern part of Ghana.