Open Access Short Research Article

Beneficial Effect of Supplementation of Flax and Hemp Seeds in the Diet of Alpine Goats on the Iron Content in Blood

Remo Reggiani, Roberto Russo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23716

Aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diets enriched with flax and hemp seeds on iron blood content of lactating Alpine goats. A total of eighteen goats were equally divided in three groups: control and goats supplemented with flax and hemp. The goats were supplemented with control diet for 45 days (conditioning diet). The different treatments ended after 150 days in milk. At T0 (45 days in milk), and at T1 and T2 (100 and 150 days in milk, respectively), the blood from the goats were collected and analyzed for iron content. In control goats, the iron content increased by 23% from T0 to T2. In both treatments (flax and hemp), the iron in goat blood resulted increased by 36% and 62% with flax, and by 33% and 67% with hemp (at T1 and T2, respectively). These results are surprising when it is considered the high phytate content of seeds of these plants. It is likely the presence in flax and hemp seeds of compounds that stimulate the absorption of iron.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges Faced by Consumers of Ghana Water Company and the Way Forward: The Case of Tamale Metropolis, Ghana

Mohammed Tanko, Fuseini Awal, Abukari Iddrisu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23611

The research assesses the challenges consumers of Ghana Water Company faced and the factors that determine consumers’ willingness to pay for improved water supply either from the company or private service provider. The study employed a multistage sampling technique in selecting respondents. Tamale Metropolis was purposively selected and was divided in to four electoral areas in which fifty respondents were selected from each area using systematic sampling through the selection of every fifth house in each area. Kendall`s W was employed to rank the identified challenges consumers faced for being clients of Ghana Water Company Limited (GWCL) while logistic regression was used to analysed the determinants of consumers` willingness to pay. The results indicate that, consumers faced some challenges in dealing with the public utility company, though there is less agreement among the respondents. In ranking challenges faced by consumers, it was evidence that, high water charges were ranked as the most prioritized constrain with a mean rank of 2.61 and poor relationship between customers and the public water company was ranked last with mean rank of 4.72. Assessing consumers` willingness to pay for improved water supply indicates that about 75% of the respondents were willing to pay (WTP) twice the previous amount they used to pay and the mean willingness to pay was ¢67.30 (US$17.71) for monthly consumption. Also, it was observed that, Number of days' water flow from pipes and the income of respondents were significantly negatively related with willingness to pay whilst expenditure consumers made on alternative water sources was positively related with consumers` willingness to pay for improved water service. It was observed that, with time when all the variables in consideration remain the same, the willing to pay for an improved water supply is likely to rise as the constant term has a positive sign and is significant at one percent level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Anterior Teeth Discoloration in South Canara Population

Mithra N. Hegde, Preethesh Shetty, Raksha Bhat

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23040

Background: Discoloration of teeth is a frequent dental finding linked to aesthetic and clinical issues. Information on discoloration and its severity forms the foundation for the magnitude and calibre of prevention programs and treatment needs in a population.

Aims: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of discoloration in anterior teeth.

Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted on 2000 patients each in the years 2012 and 2014 reporting for treatment in A.B. Shetty Memorial institute of dental sciences and rural satellite centres. WHO criterion for detecting discoloration of teeth was followed.

Statistical Analysis Used: All the data was then coded and the prevalence of discoloured anterior teeth was evaluated according to age, gender, diet and location using the SPSS 15.0 software package for statistical analysis

Results: There was significant reduction in the prevalence of extrinsic and intrinsic stains between both the years, namely caries by 1.3%, fluorosis by 3.2%, tobacco by 12.2%, stains due to restorative materials by 0.7%. Also an increase of 3.8% was seen among individuals having tetracycline stains. However no significant differences were observed in individuals with chlorhexidine, plaque/calculus and food/beverage stains.

Conclusions: Due to the awareness created, reduction in the prevalence of stains due to caries, fluorosis, tobacco and restorative materials was seen. However more awareness needs to be created about stains due to tetracycline, chlorhexidine, plaque/calculus and food/beverages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Slaughter and Carcass Characteristics from Indigenous Beef Cattle in Six Abattoirs of Tanzania

Eligy J. M. Shirima, Longin M. P. Nsiima, Anjello J. Mwilawa, Jeremiah Temu, Steven Michael, Da D. Silva Mlau

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22397

The objective of the present study was to examine the slaughter and carcass characteristics and overall market value of slaughtered beef cattle in six abattoirs from six agro-ecological zones of Tanzania. The study was carried out in three phases between June 2013 and September 2014. The information from 3,133 sampled animals revealed that slaughter characteristics, carcass quality and market value from beef cattle differed due to differences in regional origins, sub-breeds, age, sex and the grade of the animals. The overall market weight of indigenous herd ranged from 202 to 266 kg live weight and carcass weight ranged from 100 -129 kg. The Ankole sub-breed produced the heaviest (P<0.05) carcasses while the Gogo and Maasai were the lightest (P<0.05) groups with 255 kg and 204 kg, respectively. The heaviest meat produced was observed from the Ankole group with 129 kg while from the Gogo were lowest up to 105 kg. The dressing percentage was not significant (P>0.05) in both breed and animal origins, and these ranged from 50-52. The highest (P<0.05) monetary value per animal was found to be from the Tanzanian special with USD 166 and lowest (P<0.05) from Tanzanian No. 3 with USD 117. It is concluded that, animals slaughtered in the abattoirs are producing carcass of low weight and monetary value and much is remained to be done to improve their carcass weight and quality and overall monetary value pre-slaughter.

Open Access Original Research Article

Microbial Contamination of Environmental Surfaces in An-Najah National University Setting

Ghaleb Adwan, Yousef Salama, Nael Abu Hasan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23098

Aims: To investigate bacterial contamination of environmental surfaces in An-Najah National University setting. This study focused mainly on staphylococci bacteria in particular detection of some molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus.

Place and Duration of the Study: Department of Biology and Biotechnology, An-Najah National University, Palestine, March-August 2012.

Methods: A total of 210 environmental surface samples from Faculty of Science, An-Najah National University were collected using cotton swabs. S. aureus, biochemical tests and S. aureus species-specific identification was used to confirm the isolates. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing for methicillin was performed, mecA gene, SCCmec typing and seg, seh and sei toxin genes were detected by PCR. Morphology, biochemical tests and selective media were used to identify other microorganisms obtained from contaminated environmental surfaces.

Results: It was found that 31.9% (67/210) of these surfaces were contaminated with S. aureus. Only 5 methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) isolates were detected and belonged to SCCmec IVa type. One isolate of methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was enterotoxigenic and had genotype seg+/seh+. In addition, 85.7%, 90.5%, 14.3%, 11.9%, 10% and 4.8% of cultures were positive for S. epidermidis, fungi, Bacillus sp., Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp. and Streptococcus sp., respectively.

Conclusion: The results show that these different representative environmental surfaces are in daily use and may be a source of infection.

Open Access Original Research Article

Photo- and Photo-Fenton-like Catalytic Degradations of Malachite Green in a Water Using Magnetically Separable ZnFe2O4-reduced Graphene Oxide Hybrid Nanostructures

H. Y. He, J. F. Huang, J. Lu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23103

ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles and ZnFe2O4-reduced graphene oxide (ZnFe2O4-rGO) hybrid nanostructures with rGO/ZnFe2O4 ratio of 0.05, and 0.10 were hydrothermally synthesized. The microstrutrual and photocatalytic activities of nanoparticles and hybrids were studied in the photodegradation of malachite green in the water. The ZnFe2O4 nanoparticles and theirhybrids showed uniform granular morphology and average particle sizes below ~16 nm. Because higher valence band energy of the ZnFe2O4, the photogenerated electrons can be transformed from the ZnFe2O4 to the rGO. Therefore, the sunlight-excited photocatalytic and Fenton-like photocatalytic activities of hybrids in the dye degradation showed obviously greater than the nanoparticles and increased with increasing rGO/ZnFe2O4 ratio. Moreover, the photodegradation rate is larger at higher initial solution pH=5 than at pH=7, whereas the photo-Fenton-like reaction is intenser at higher H2O2 concentration. The quasi-kinetic rate constants of the photocatalysis systems are in the range of ~0.412–0.96 h-1 and increase to ~3.86–7.53 h-1 by synthetically using H2O2. The nanoparticles and hybrids also showed strong ferromagnetic property with the saturation magnetization of ~25.15–26.28 emu/g, which provides a well magnetic separation performance of the nanoparticles and hybrids from the degraded solution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Primes and Squares Challenge

José William Porras Ferreira

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-3
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/24252

This paper answer the question or conjecture: Can all prime numbers be written as the sum of two square numbers, ie q = r2 + p2 , where q,p and are primes? Also it is found a rule which helps to predict which prime numbers can be written as the sum of two square numbers and which cannot and showing that there are infinite  primes that fulfil the above condition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Functional Probiotic Yoghurt Production with Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Juice Concentrate Fortification

Nazan Kavas, Gokhan Kavas

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23937

In this study, probiotic yoghurts were produced with cow’s milk with 13% dry matter standardized concentration by 3% skimmed milk powder addition and pomegranate (Punica granatum  L.) juice concentrate (PGJC) fortification at different ratios (1% v/v and 2% v/v) One sample was produced as plain yoghurt (PY). The samples were stored at +4°C±1 for 14 days. Physicochemical, microbiological, sensory properties as well as total phenolic content (TFC) were analyzed at the 1st, 5th, 10th and the 14th days of the storage. In the study, some physicochemical properties and TFC levels of pomegranate juice (PGJ) and PGJC were analyzed at the 0th day of the storage. It was determined that, with PGJC fortification, physicochemical, rheological properties of yoghurt improved and TFC levels increased. PGJC fortification had no negative effect on the sensory properties of the samples, however it significantly affected the color property of the 2% (w/v) level fortification. The relation between PGJC fortification and viability and numerical increase of probiotics were significant (p<0.05). The increase in PGJC level improved the mentioned parameters. In the study, the relation between PGJC fortification and the physicochemical, microbiological, rheological, sensory properties and the increase in TFC levels of yoghurts were significant. Conclusively, 1% (w/v) and 2% (w/v) PGJC fortification improved the functional properties of yoghurt samples.