Open Access Short Research Article

The Flow Properties of Some Chemical Additives Used in Modification of Natural Zeolite for Cement Concrete

N. N. Morozovа, Hamzah Abdulmalek Qais

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23541

Aim: To assess the effectiveness of water-reducing additives in relation compressive strength of cement pastes.

Methodology: Experimental study, Materials used were natural zeolite from Egypt, with a grain size up to 0.08 mm, containing zeolite (clinoptilolite) - 75%, and ratio Si / Al content is 4.8-5.4; Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R., and a modified viscometer with an internal diameter of 25 mm and 50 mm height was used. Changes in water demand was evaluated by value of flowing on the border of gravity spread test.

Results: Natural zeolites with low W/S ratio (water solid ratio) equals to 0.4 was well plasticized at low dosages (0.25%) of additive Melflux. The most effective form of chemical additives was SP-3, which at the dosage of 0.6% reduces the W/S ratio of zeolite pastes by 20%. In addition, Melflux was chosen as the most effective in cement systems, although it is less efficient in natural zeolite, but the amount accepted is 5%, also Melflux was compared with pure cement paste in range from 0.1 to 0.75% by weight of solids, which determines need of concrete with high strength.

Conclusion: Cement paste containing natural zeolite exhibit improved resistance to water requirement by using chemical additives. However, adding natural zeolite in presence of additive Melflux decreases water demand of mixtures which directly increase the compressive strength of cement paste.

Open Access Short Research Article

Lineweaver Burk Plot, Rate Constant, and Mathematical Relationship between Molar Mass and Free Energy of Activation: “To be or not to be”

Ikechukwu Iloh Udema

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/24857

Aims: Verify a derived kinetic parameter dependent model for the determination of Gibbs free energy of activation and consequently rate constant and to show that despite criticism against the process, Lineweaver Burk plot and the rate constant, both process and term remain indispensible for the determination of Gibbs free energy of activation for a nonstandard solution of an enzyme in particular.

Study Design: Experimental investigation involving in vitro assay of Aspergillus orzyzea alpha amylase using gelatinized soluble potato starch for test backed with control test without substrate as the blank.

Place and Duration of Study: Research Division of Ude Concept International Limited (RC: 862217), B. B. Agbor, Delta State, Nigeria. The investigation lasted for one year as part of a series of research between 2013 and 2016.

Methodology: Bernfeld method of enzyme assay was used. Controls were free from substrate.

Results: The result of investigation showed that Gibbs free energy (△Ga) values were 59.20±0.11 kJ/mol (from old model; = 6) and 59.43±0.19 kJ/mol (from new model; = 2) while rate constant (k2) was 10385.08±55.13/min (n = 2) at pH, 5 and temperature, 20°C; The △Ga values, 57.50±0.29 kJ/mol (from old model; n = 6), 57.82±0.04 kJ/mol (from new model; n = 5), and 57.58±0.16 (from old model; n = 5) and k2values, 23536.77±3045.794/min(= 6) and 20210.95±1344.04/min (n = 5) were reported at pH 6.9 and 21°C.

Conclusion: The Gibbs free energy (△Ga) and rate constant (k2) values calculated using the old and new models were similar. The derived model which suggested that △Ga α In (1/MPROT)2 at a given temperature stands verified. Thus the continuous use of Lineweaver Burk plot and the kinetic parameter, k2 as defined remains very necessary due to vital and useful results obtainable when they are used.

Open Access Short communication

The Use of Lime for Carbon Dioxide Production: Brief Analysis

Carlos Hernandez-Rodriguez, Yolanda Guadalupe Aranda-Jimenez, Edgardo Jonathan Suarez-Dominguez

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/24305

Nowadays, the selection of construction materials depends not only on the economic or resistance characteristics but also the environmental effect, mainly for the energy usage, CO2 emissions and pollution produced during the processes to obtain them.

Portland cement and lime can be used to produce solid vertical structures. Poured earth is a technique that can substitute concrete or cement mortars in edification, characterized by using less inorganic materials as cement, and soil of the surrounding environment.

This paper proposes a method to analyze the use of lime and cement in solid, and show the basic analysis of lime and explain why it is impossible to have a 100% ecological product or renewable, but also it is possible to reduce emission with decrease of products according to the desired characteristic of the final material produced.

Open Access Original Research Article

Service Recommendation Based on Ranking Using Keywords in Hadoop

V. Naveena, S. V. Kogilavani

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/24184

Recommendation system acts as a tool in providing the most appropriate service to the user. Currently, information through online services is increased. This leads to the overhead of data in online and there is a possibility of getting less accurate prediction. In previous approaches, recommendation of services does not consider the suggestion of the user at a time, was in need of searching for the particular service. The proposed system deals with the implementation of personalized recommendation to provide services for hotel reservation system. Candidate service is created as the combination of keyword list and Domain Thesaurus which consist of semantically annotated words. Preferences are collected from the active user about particular service for each application. Similar user’s opinions are taken from the reviews using keyword extraction method. Similarity is calculated between user preferences with reviews of the previous user using jaccard and cosine similarity measures. From this most similar keywords are provided to the user as a recommended service using MapReduce framework. It outperforms about 8% when compared with previous approaches, in providing the accurate prediction of relevant service to the active user.

Open Access Original Research Article

Enhanced Performance of a Dye Sensitized Solar Cell Using Silver Nanoparticles Modified Photoanode

Eli Danladi, M. Y. Onimisi, S. G. Abdu, P. M. Gyuk, Ezeoke Jonathan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/24439

We reported an improved performance of a dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) using silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) modified fluorine tin oxide (FTO) electrode through successive ion layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR). The resulting photoelectrode was successfully incorporated in the DSSC. The photovoltaic performance was evaluated under 100 mWcm-2 light intensity. The performance, especially the photocurrent, and open circuit voltage of the DSSC containing Ag-NPs was significantly affected by the Ag-NPs. The modified Ag-NPs photoanode shows a short circuit current density (JSC) of 0.0316 mAcm-2, a photovoltage VOC of 0.442 V yielding an overall conversion efficiency of 0.00710%. This represents a 22% improvement in photocurrent over the photocurrent (0.0259 mAcm-2) of bare FTO without Ag-NPs.

Open Access Original Research Article

Lipid Profiles and Liver Function Parameters of Postpartum Rats Administered Dry Lake Salt (Kanwa)

Sabiu Murtala Dambazau, Yusuf Saidu, Lawan Sulaiman Bilbis, Auwal Idris, Hafsat Ibrahim Dogara, Umar Aliyu Umar

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23765

Background: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPMC) is a rare but devastating cardiac failure of indeterminate etiology occurring in late pregnancy or early puerperium. Dry lake salt (Kanwa) is usually consumed in many parts of Nigeria as laxatives. In the Northern Nigeria, with a high prevalence of PPMC, it is consumed postpartum in large quantities as a traditional practice.

Objectives: This work investigated the effect of kanwa on serum lipid profile, some liver function indices, blood pressure and body weight of postpartum rat administered graded doses of kanwa.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of biochemistry, Usmanu Danfodiyo University Sokoto, between July 2012 and February 2013.

Methodology: The female rats were grouped into 4 of five animals each postpartum. The rats in the groups were administered 0 mg/kg (control), 100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg, and 300 mg/kg body weight respectively of Kanwa orally for four weeks.

Results: The results indicated a significant decrease in HDL-C [group III - 13.20±10.7 mg/dl and group IV - 10.95±9.97 mg/dl] when compared with the controls (p<0.01). There is significant increase in TAG especially in group IV (357.30±25.76), while all other lipid profile parameters (T.CHOL, VLDL-C, and LDL-C) assayed were found to have no significant different from the control (p>0.05). However, there is a non significant (p>0.05) increase in atherogenic index of the treated group as compared with the control. Moreover, blood pressure as well as body weight results are all considered not significantly different from control (p>0.05). Lastly, the liver function indices are all found to have no significant changes from the control also.

Conclusions: The result indicated that kanwa may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of the PPMC.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Effect of Financial Structure on the Performance of Nigeria Consumer Goods Firms

Echekoba Felix Nwaolisa, Ananwude Amalachukwu Chijindu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/24569

This study assesses the effect of financial structure on performance of consumer goods firms quoted in Nigerian Stock Exchange. In this study, twenty three (23) out of the twenty seven (27) firms were randomly chosen for the period 1993 to 2013. The study applied earnings per share and return on equity as performance indices. To add to this, total debt to total equity ratio, short term debt to total equity ratio were adopted to measure financial structure while tangibility, firm size, growth and risk were included as control variables capable of influencing performance. The effect of financial structure on performance was analysed using pooled ordinary least square, fixed effect and random effect regression technique. The results of the analysis divulged that financial structure represented by total debt to total equity ratio and short term debt to total equity ratio, negatively affect financial performance of consumer goods firms measured by earnings per share and return on equity. The negative effect of financial structure variables: total debt to total equity ratio and short term debt to total equity ratio tends to buttress that as result of agency conflict, performance of firms that are highly geared are negatively affected. The findings also were in conformity with the proposition of the pecking order theory that firm performance and financial structure are negatively correlated. This study concludes that financial structure has negative effect on financial performance of Nigeria consumer goods firms. In the light of this, we suggests that firm’s management should established a debt-equity mix capable of improving financial performance notwithstanding the proxy adopted for assessing performance. Over investment in fixed assets should be discontinued and effective and efficient utilization of fixed assets vehemently upheld.

Open Access Original Research Article

Appraisal of the Level of Awareness and Adaptation to Climate Change on Cassava Production in Ondo State, Nigeria

B. O. Akinwalere, M. L. Adeleke, A. O. Ojo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23466

The study carried out an appraisal of the level of awareness and adaptation to climate change on cassava production. Both primary and secondary data were used. One hundred and twenty (120) respondents were randomly selected and interviewed with the aid of well structured questionnaire and interview schedule. The socio-economic characteristics of the respondents were descriptively analyzed. Variables related to the awareness and adaptation to climate change on cassava production was analyzed using Likert scale.

Results from the analysis showed that 76% of the respondents were aware of climate change while 80% were male implying that the respondents are dominated by males. Sixty-seven percent had farming experience of 16 years and above, 30% had primary school education while 15% had no formal education. Various copping strategies such as the use of improved cassava varieties and shifting cultivation method were adopted by the farmers. The study therefore, recommends training on climate change in to agricultural extension curriculum.