Open Access Short Research Article

Sustained Symptom Reduction by Aftercare following Discharge from Psychiatric Inpatient Treatment: An Exploratory Study

Richard Gaugeler, Ingrid Salem, Walter Renner

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/24438

Aims: To find out whether group based aftercare with duration of ten to 20 weeks would help clients discharged from psychiatric in-patient treatment to maintain or improve clinical symptomatology over a follow-up period of at least one year.

Study Design: Exploratory study with an intervention vs. control group design.

Place and Duration of Study: The Waiern Clinic, Department of Psychosomatics, Feldkirchen (Austria), between January 2012 and June 2015.

Methodology: We included 177 patients (131 of them women; age range 22-76 years, M = 50.8, s = 10.8 years), mostly diagnosed with major depression or anxiety disorders. N = 91 patients (N = 71 of them women) were assigned to the aftercare group and N = 86 patients (N = 60 of them female) were assigned to the control group. Clinical symptomatology was assessed by the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) – 18, measuring depression, anxiety, and somatoform symptoms on six item-scales respectively. Follow-up assessment was performed by phone interviews. Only patients who had provided data at the beginning and the end of inpatient treatment and at follow-up were included in the study.

Results: For the aftercare group, mean symptom load at the end of aftercare was compared with mean symptom load at least one year later. For the control group, mean symptom load at the point of discharge from in-patient treatment was compared with mean symptom load at least one year later. Whereas the aftercare group improved significantly (P = .004), there was no significant change in the control group (P = .95) (Cohen's d = - 0.35).

Conclusion: Short-term aftercare following discharge from in-patient treatment may assist patients in improving clinical symptomatology over a period of at least one year.

Open Access Short Research Article

Service Quality and Customers’ Willingness to Pay for Vehicle Repairs and Maintenance Services

Collins Kankam-Kwarteng, Stephen Acheampong, Frank Amoateng

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/24918

This study assesses customer perception, customer expectation of service quality and their willingness to pay for vehicle repairs and maintenance services among patrons of small scale auto mechanics services in the Kumasi metropolis. Many organisations view service quality as only a support mechanism, rather than a viable competitive strategy. The SERVQUAL model was used to determine how customer expectation and perception of service quality influence the willingness to pay for auto mechanical services. A descriptive design was used and data was collected from two hundred (200) customers within the Kumasi Metropolis using questionnaire design. The data was analysed using SPSS. It was found that all the determinants of service quality (SERVQUAL); tangibility, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy have a relationship with willingness to pay. However, customers’ perceptions of service quality offered by mechanical service industry did not meet their expectations (all gaps scores recorded negative except one). For the purpose of expanding knowledge in the field of the small scale auto mechanic industry future researchers should investigate into the factors influencing service quality in the small scale auto mechanics that engage in vehicle repairs and maintenance; service quality and customer satisfaction, how they are measured in terms of customer Willingness-To-Pay for vehicle repairs and maintenance services

Open Access Original Research Article

Inhibin B Levels in Relation to Obesity Measures and Lipids in Males with Different Numbers of Metabolic Syndrome Components

D. O. Laniyan, M. A. Charles-Davies, A. A. Fasanmade, J. A. Olaniyi, O. E. Oyewole, M. O. Owolabi, J. R. Adebusuyi, O. Hassan, B. M. Ajobo, M. O. Ebesunun, K. Adigun, K. S. Akinlade, S. U. Okoli, O. G. Arinola, E. O. Agbedana

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/24641

Introduction: Defective spermatogenesis and metabolic syndrome affect 2-4% and 12.4% of males respectively. Deficient testosterone levels due to increased conversion of testosterone to oestradiol have been demonstrated in males with the metabolic syndrome (MS) with limited pituitary and leptin contribution. Defective spermatogenesis is thus implicated in males with MS but is controversial. Inhibin B is a marker of spermatogenesis. This study aims at evaluating inhibin B levels and their relationship with obesity measures and lipids in males with different number of MS components.

Materials and Methods: This is a preliminary prospective study in which a total of 106 apparently healthy males (30, 30, 30 and 16 males with 0, 1, 2 and ≥3 components of metabolic syndrome (NMSC) respectively) aged 19-64 years were purposely selected. Blood pressure (BP) and obesity measures (including visceral adiposity index (VAI) and body mass index (BMI)) were obtained by standard methods. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC) were determined by enzymatic methods while low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) and the lipid ratios (TG/HDLC, TC/HDLC, LDLC/HDLC) were calculated. Inhibin B was analysed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (RayBiotech, Inc. USA). Data analysed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and multiple regressions were significant at P <.05.

Results: Inhibin B decreased significantly in males with 0 to 2 NMSC (P <.05). However, inhibin levels between males with 0 and ≥3 NMSC were similar. Age and inhibin B levels were also similar among the different classes of BMI (P>0.05). Inhibin B related positively with HDLC and TC but negatively with VAI, LDLC and TC/HDLC.

Conclusion: Reproductive function appears protected in Nigerian males with MS. However, improvement in HDLC, LDLC, TC levels, VAI and TC/HDLC may enhance fertility potential especially in males with one or two MS components, probably through dietary modulation and physical activity.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Postharvest Practices of Groundnuts in Northern Ghana Based on the Participatory Rural Appraisal Technique

D. Oppong-Sekyere, R. Akromah, E. Y. Nyamah, A. D. Ninfaa, M. M. Braimah, M. M. Akpalu, A. R. S. Salifu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22384

A postharvest evaluation study of groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea L.) was undertaken in a total of thirty (30) districts selected from the three Northern Regions of Ghana, namely, Upper West, Upper East and Northern, by employing the Participatory Rural Appraisal (P.R.A.) procedure. Ten (10) randomly selected, predominant groundnut growing districts were sampled in each case; interviews and focal group discussions were held which involved 600 individual key informants in all, 20 from each district/community and thirty (30) focal group discussions. Interviews were conducted using both open and close-ended questionnaires. The main aim of the research was to solicit general information on the postharvest activities and marketing of groundnuts as it pertains in Northern Ghana. The Statistical Package for the Social Scientists (SPSS version 17.0) and Microsoft Excel were used to analyze data obtained from the questionnaire; Results were summarized into means, using standard error, and percentages, where necessary. The association between storage structures and duration of groundnuts in storage was tested by the Chi-Square statistic method. Results obtained from the study shows that ‘China’ local groundnut variety was the most cultivated (76.5%, 99.5%, 96.5%) in all three regions (N/R, U/E and U/W respectively). Reason for choice of variety was high yielding (73.33%) and ease of harvesting and drought tolerance (32.67%). Most efficient Storage structure of groundnut was Jute sack (93%). Average length of storage was 5-6 months (74.45%). Most common storage pests were Grain weevils (57; 9.50%) and Cercospora Spp. (28; 4.67%). Most common storage diseases were Aflatoxin (78; 13%) and Aspegillus Spp. (21; 3.50%). Improvement of the storage structures has a higher likelihood of increasing the duration of groundnut in storage. The major end use of groundnut according to the study was groundnut paste (50%). Groundnuts have ready market (489; 81.50%) according to farmers. Relay of information was mostly by colleague farmers (39.33%) and MoFA (31.33%), NGOs (13.83%). The scale of measurement used was common for bowls and 100 kg bag. Average market price of a 100 kg bag and a bowl were Ghs136.55%, Ghs3.43 respectively.

Open Access Original Research Article

Impact of Stone Quarrying on the Environment and the Livelihood of Communities in Mandera County, Kenya

Felix Lamech Mogambi Ming’ate, Mohamed Yussuf Mohamed

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/24945

Background: Stone quarrying is one of the major practices carried out in the world by the construction industry. In Kenya and specifically in Mandera County area, stone quarrying industry has grown rapidly in recent years.

Objective: This study thus aims at examining the impact that stone quarrying has had on the environment and the livelihood of the communities in Mandera County, Kenya.

Methods: Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used for data collections and analysis.

Results: The study found that stone quarrying has significantly contributed to the incomes of the stone workers, quarry owners and the community. In contrast it was found that stone quarrying also contributes towards negative impacts to the community such as degradation of land and vegetation cover, and affects the health of the residents, for example muscle pain among many quarry workers, cough/asthma, eye problem and malaria.

Conclusion: The study recommends that in response to the negative human and environmental impacts experienced in Mandera County, there is need to use technologies that are user and environmentally friendly and rehabilitation of quarries after use if the communities have to continue enjoying the improved livelihood due to stone quarrying.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fertility Behaviour in a Rural Nigerian Community: Determinants and Implications

Itimitang Wilson Etukudo, Ben Victor Effiong

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/13232

This study was carried out in Jesse kingdom in Ethiope West Local Government Area of Delta State, Nigeria, to find out the fertility level in the area, its determinants and the implications for the people of the area. Data used in the study were collected from a representative sample of 1030 women mainly in the age group of 15-19 years. Using the multiple regression, the study examined the changes in fertility level due to variation in such factors as level of education, types of occupation, religion/culture and age at first marriage. The findings indicate high fertility levels for the study area. Early marriage, social values placed on children and child bearing, marriage pattern, low use of contraception, low level of education and labour force participation, infant and child mortality as well as political consideration were found to have influenced the fertility behavior in the study area. The socio-economic implications of high fertility in the study area are discussed. Also, the strategies for addressing the issue of high fertility in the study area are suggested.

Open Access Original Research Article

To Assess the Fear & Anxiety among Patients Attending the OPD of a Dental College in Bangalore City

N. Vanishree, Swati Patnaik, N. Naveen, Deepa Bullapa, P. Guru Suhas, C. Bharath

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/22209

Background: Anxiety and fear towards dental treatment are common problems frequently experienced by patients world-wide. Despite the advances in technology and increased oral health awareness significant percentage of people suffer from dental anxiety.

Aim: To determine dental anxiety and fear levels of patients attending the out-patient department (OPD) of a dental college in Bangalore city.

Study Design: Cross-sectional questionnaire survey.

Materials and Methods: Dental fear and dental Anxiety among the study subjects were assessed using Dental Fear Survey (DFS) and Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS) respectively. Statistical analysis was done using chi-square, ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation. A total of 356 study participants were present, out of which 220(61.7%) were males and 136(38.3%) were females.

Results: It was found that females were more anxious and afraid. A total of 0.8% of the study participants were severely anxious and 8.7% of the study participants were severely afraid of dentists and dental hospitals. When age, gender, fear and anxiety were correlated, it was found that as the age increases, fear and anxiety decrease (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Study participants were mainly afraid or anxious about getting their teeth extracted or scaled. This fear and anxiety could be reduced by keeping their personal choices in mind.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design of Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Harvester

O. E. Omofunmi, S. A. Ebifemi, A. B. Eweina

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/24858

Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a free floating aquatic plant that grows in still or slows moving fresh water bodies and has become one of the world’s worst aquatic weeds due to its ability to form dense floating mats on the water’s surface. These mats have significant impacts on rivers, wetlands, dams, lake, and irrigation systems. However, water hyacinth, which evades waterways and reduces recreation and aesthetics value of water bodies, needs to be controlled. This purpose of this study was to design a harvester for control of water hyacinth. The anatomy and physiology of the water hyacinth were used to design the machine using basic engineering procedures. The main feature of the water hyacinth harvester included an electric motor (2.0 h p), mower disc (100 x 70 x 7.36 mm), shaft (26 mm diameter) with 4 blades made of stainless steel. The machine operates with capacity of 10,646 tons /hr. at the speed of 3.04 m/s. The capacities of the loading and delivery conveyors are 846.60 tons /hr. and 538.75 tons /hr. respectively. Fabrication of the designed water hyacinth harvester, using local materials will promote and enhance indigenous technologies that will improve physical control of the plant.