Open Access Minireview Article

Sustainable Strategies for Low Carbon Development in Nigeria

Nnaemeka Vincent Emodi, Chinenye Comfort Emodi, Adaeze Saratu Augusta Emodi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/24889

This study investigated the possibility of achieving a low carbon development in Nigeria through the application of some sustainable strategies. The investigation was through a review of some low carbon policies applied in some country’s cases. The strategies were then explored to ascertain the possibilities of replication in the Nigerian context. It was necessary due to the increase in climate change activities experienced in Nigeria. The strategies were based on some successful country case in a bid to improve their transition towards a low carbon economy. These strategies applied by other nations were investigated and explored for replication possibilities in the Nigerian context. They include; thinking and adopting the green growth ideology, energy policy reforms, long-term energy planning and target, energy regulations and standards, environmental tax reforms, urban planning, efficient building design, the efficiency of the energy system, efficiency of passenger transport system, and renewable energy options. The low carbon strategies presented in this study can contribute to the achievement of a low-carbon economy in Nigeria and create sustainable development.

Open Access Original Research Article

Implication of Focal Depth, Temporal and Magnitude Distribution of Earthquakes in Oceanic Ridges

O. S. Hammed, M. O. Awoyemi, G. O. Badmus, A. K. Bello, A. F. Majors

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/20048

This research aimed at investigating the focal depth, time and magnitude implication of earthquakes associated with the oceanic ridges. Oceanic ridges studied in this research were Mid Atlantic Ridge, Chile Ridge and Pacific ridge. The data were extracted from the earthquake catalogue of Northern California Earthquake Data Centre U.S.A. The data were obtained for the magnitude range of 1.0 - 8.0 for earthquakes that occurred along these oceanic ridges for the period of 1981 - 2010. The data were analyzed using magnitude, focal depth and frequency classification techniques. In the oceanic ridges studied, the shallow focus earthquakes were very predominant. The earthquakes recorded in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge outnumbered the Chile and Pacific Ridge earthquakes. This indicates that the phenomena that are associated with seismicity such as rate of tectonic divergence of oceanic plates, crustal and sub-crustal stress accumulation are enormous in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Thus the Atlantic Ocean is mostly prone to the tsunamigenic earthquake risks.

Open Access Original Research Article

Integrated Production of Rice and Fish: Toward a Sustainable Agricultural Approach

Frederick Terkuma Ujoh, Fanan Ujoh, Iveren Kile

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/24626

Aims: To improve the knowledge and practice of integrated agriculture (specifically rice-cum-fish) in the face of declining land availability and increasing food demand.

Study Design: Experimental study design.

Place and Duration of Study: Akperan Orshi College of Agriculture, Yandev, Nigeria, between June 1 and November 30, 2014.

Methodology: The research methodology was that of an experimental design with three plots comprising of rice mono-cropping, fish mono-culture and rice-cum-fish culture in an integrated production plot. Three plots of land were used totaling an area of 0.04025 ha (402.5 M2). Fish was reared in an earthen pond with a total area of 0.0100 ha (100 M2) and 1.5 M deep. Also, integrated production plot of rice-cum-fish with an area of 0.02025 ha (202.5 M2) where the area for rice was centralized and measuring 0.0100 ha (100 M2), leaving the remaining area of land bordering the rice plot at 0.0100 ha (100 M2) and 1.5 m deep for rearing fish. Zero tillage was adopted for both areas allotted for the cultivation of rice to enhance sustainable agricultural practice. The research lasted for a period of 183 days. Fish in the various ponds were harvested on the same day with the aid of fishing gears, weighed and recorded. Rice was also harvested on the same day, trashed, winnowed weighed and recorded.

Results: The parameters considered for rice were plant height (PH), number of tillerings produced by rice and rice yield. Fish parameters include fish mean length gain (MLG), total number of fish harvested and survival rate. The average PH, number of tillers and rice yield for Rice Mono-Culture (RMC) and Integrated Production Plot (IPP) were 70.9 cm & 78.8 cm, 16 & 20, 1456 Kg/ha & 1625 kg/ha respectively. Similarly, the Fish Mean Length Gain (MLG), total number of fish harvested and the survival rate for Fish Mono-Culture (FMC) and Integrated Production Plot were 40 cm & 47 cm, 1237 & 1250 and 95% & 96% respectively.

Conclusion: Integrated farming system have a tendency of positively influencing, improving and increasing the community’s rice and fish production in the face of the threatening increase in population and food demand from the results obtained. Further research could also be conduction within and outside the research area to ascertain the trends and dynamism of this system of agriculture taking into consideration global climate change.

Open Access Original Research Article

Some Antinutritive and Antioxidative Properties of Pulverized Citrus sinensis (Sweet Orange) Peels and Seeds

Anthony Cemaluk C. Egbuonu, Olorunshola D. Omodamiro, Christian E. Odo, Roberts I. Uroko

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/25930

Introduction: Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) fruit peels and seeds may have antinutriitve and antioxidative properties but are essentially discarded with abundant waste generation.

Aim: This study evaluated some antinutrients and antioxidative property of pulverized Citrus sinensis(sweet orange) peels and seeds, using standard methods.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike, Nigeria between May and August, 2015.

Methodology: The antinutrients were determined by standard methods. The antioxidative property was measured as the 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity of the respective sample at 100 mg/ml. The potency was measured by estimating the half maximal effective concentration (EC50).

Results: The hydrogen cyanide content in the peels (18.16±0.06 µg/g) was higher (p<0.05) than that in the seeds (11.67±0.07 µg/g) or any other determined antinutrient followed by phenol in the peels (1.06±0.05 mg/100 g) and flavonoid in the seeds (0.69±0.03%). The DPPH radical scavenging activity (percentage inhibition, %) was higher (p<0.05) in the peels (68.58±0.02) than in the seeds (43.73±0.02). Similarly, the EC50(µg/ml) was higher (p<0.05) in the peels (937.40±0.10) than in the seeds (658.60±0.21).

Conclusion: The antinutrient mix in the peels may confer it with higher cyanide toxicity, higher antioxidant activity but lowered antioxidant potency than the seeds. The study seemingly underscores the importance of hydrogen cyanide in the antioxidative activity and potency of the samples. This could be central to other food wastes, warranting further studies aimed at determining and possibly eliminating hydrogen cyanide content of these and other food wastes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Composition of Essential Oils from the Leaf and Stem Bark of Michelia foveolata

Do N. Dai, Dau Ba Thin, Tran D. Thang, Tajudeen O. Olayiwola, Isiaka A. Ogunwande

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/25304

The chemical constituents of essential oils obtained from the hydrodistillation of the leaf and stem of Michelia foveolata Merr. et Dandy (Magnoliaceae) were being reported. The main compounds of the leaf essential oil are β-caryophyllene (37.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (23.3%). However, β-caryophyllene (26.4%), germacrene D (5.9%), trans-α-bergamotene (5.6%), δ-cadinene (5.5%), bicyclogermacrene (5.4%), bicycloelemene (5.3%), spathulenol (5.3%) and 3,7-guaiadiene (5.1%) were present in the stem.

Aims: The aim of this study was to isolate essential oils from the leaf and stem bark of Michelia foveolataMerr. et Dandy (Magnoliaceae) and investigate the volatile constituents present therein.

Study Design: The study involves the hydrodisitillation of essential oils from the air-dried plant materials and analysis of their chemical composition.

Place and Duration of Study: The leaf and stem bark of M. foveolata were collected from Vũ Quang National Park, Hà Tĩnh Province Vietnam, in July 2014.

Methodology: About 500 g of air-dried plant samples was shredded and their oils were obtained by separate hydrodistillation for 4 h at normal pressure, according to the Vietnamese Pharmacopoeia. The chemical constituents of the distilled oils were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS).

Results: The main compounds of the leaf essential oil are β-caryophyllene (37.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (23.3%) while the stem bark contained large amounts of β-caryophyllene (26.4%), germacrene D (5.9%), trans-α-bergamotene (5.6%), δ-cadinene (5.5%), bicyclogermacrene (5.4%), bicycloelemene (5.3%), spathulenol (5.3%) and 3,7-guaiadiene (5.1%).

Conclusion: The present oil compositions were found to be different from the results obtained previously from the essential oils of Michelia species grown in Vietnam and other parts of the world.

Open Access Original Research Article

Photovoltaic Perfomance of Dye Sensitized Solar Cells Using Natural Dyes Extracted from Bougainvillea Flower and Mango Leaves

Ezeoke Jonathan, M. Y. Onimisi, Eli Danladi, S. G. Abdu, M. S. Abdulsalam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/24786

We reported an improved performance of a dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), sensitized with mango (Mangifera indica) leaves extract. Nano-crystalline titanium (TiO2) film electrodes were sensitized with aqueous extract of Mangifera indica and bougainvillea extract. The resulting photoelectrodes were successfully incorporated in the DSSCs. The photovoltaic perfomance of the DSSCs were evaluated under 100 mAcm-2 light intensity. The Mangifera indica extract sensitized solar cell gave a short circuit current density (Jsc) of 0.1314 mAcm-2, an open circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.49 V, a fill factor (FF) of 0.59, and an overall solar energy conversion efficiency (η) of 0.038%. Also, the bougainvillea flower extract sensitized cell gave a Jsc of 0.0134 mAcm-2Voc of 0.36 V, FF of 0.51 yielding a conversion efficiency of 0.003%. This represents a 36% improvement in open circuit voltage over that of bougainvillea.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Short Communication on Mapping the Pattern and Problems Associated with Internet Usage among Youths in Malaysia: Some Preliminary Results

Md. Salleh Hassan, Mohd Nizam Osman, Norsabila Ramli, Hayrol Azril Mohamed Shaffril

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23955

This study aims to determine the pattern and problems of internet usage among youths in Malaysia educational institution. Albeit the presentation of preliminary data from actual study, it provides a ‘draft map’ to the pattern and problems of internet usage among youths in Malaysia. To elicit the data, questionnaires were distributed to 47 undergraduate students of Universiti Putra Malaysia. Analysis performed has confirmed that respondents used internet mainly for seeking information with regard to their studies and to communicate with friends. Financial constraint and information overloaded are among problems faced by them in using the internet.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experiences of Selected Public Finance Sector Entities Gained on Internal Audit Functioning in Poland –Research Findings

Jolanta Maria Ciak

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/25346

The aim of this paper is general characteristics of internal audit as an instrument for supporting management and presentation of the results of research conducted in selected public finance sector entities in Poland. It is a pilot phase. The main idea behind this study is to present the experiences of the public finance sector entities in relation to internal audit implementation. The research was conducted with the use of the method of the primary literature reviewing and a research survey in the period of time from May to September 2015.

The results of the conducted research indicate that the organization and operating of internal audit in most cases conformed with the relevant law, and the measures adopted enabled auditors to act independently. The analysedentities were and still are interested in internal auditing. In most of the entities their financial, operating and information activities - also important for the entities - were audited. Although most of the analysed entities indicated significant advantages of internal auditing, some of them drew attention to major flaws, which influenced the quality of auditing.

Open Access Review Article

Climate Change and Its Impact in Nigerian Economy

Nebedum Ekene Ebele, Nnaemeka Vincent Emodi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/25162

Climate change has become a great challenge to our generation and its impact is felt in almost every society in the world. Nigeria as a developing country with a population of about 180 million is likely to be adversely impacted by climate change due to its vulnerability and low coping capability. Evidences have shown that climate change impacts on Nigeria arises from various climate change related causes experienced due to the  increase in temperature, rainfall, sea level rise, impact on fresh water resources, extreme weather events, flooding, drought in the north and increased health risk. The study reviews some existing literatures, information, policies, and data on climate change in Nigeria and its impact on the various sectors of the economy. The finding for this paper indicates that many sectors of Nigerian economy appear to be directly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change such as agricultural sector, health, energy, etc. This generally affects the growth of economy. The impacts of climate changed highlighted in this study raise the need for more support in research and education awareness on the impact of climate change in Nigeria. This review attempts to create awareness on the impacts of climate change in Nigeria and presents some policy recommendations for adaptation and mitigation measures to tackle the challenges.