Open Access Minireview Article

A Review on Bio- And Adsorptive Desulfurization of Diesel Fuel

Mojirade M. Oloruntoba, D. S. Aribike , S. C. U. Nwachukwu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/26909

Aims: To review some previous work on biodesulfurization and adsorptive desulfurization of diesel fuel.

Study Design: The emissions from fossil fuels have been established to be a major contributor to global warming and acid rain which deteriorates the environment and infrastructures. In refineries, hydrodesulfurization (HDS) method is currently used to remove thiols, sulfides and thiophenes compounds present in lower-boiling petroleum fractions, but the removal of benzothiophenes (BT) and dibenzothiophenes (DBT) contained significantly in middle-distillate petroleum fractions (MDPF) e.g, diesel via HDS is difficult due to the presence of substitutions which are believed to sterically hinder access of the sulfur atom to the catalyst surface. Over the years there have been several regulatory standards and researches on limiting the sulfur content of petroleum products. The development of complimentary desulfurization techniques that will remove these recalcitrant compounds from the MDPF is therefore essential. Biodesulfurization (BDS), a process in which sulfur is removed from a substance by an enzymatic process yielding sulfate or sulfide as a product; and Adsorptive Desulphurization (ADS), a process which removes sulfur from a substance through the use of adsorbents are amongst the complementary methods being explored for the removal of sulfur present as DBT in MDPF.

Methodology: The review highlights the study by some listed authors on biodesulfurization and adsorptive desulfurization of diesel fuel respectively.

Results: The potentiality of ADS using different types of adsorbents are continuous area of research as little or no report of their commercialization has been reported. Also, for the BDS, most research focus has been on aerobic desulfurization with currently little evidence for the potentiality of a commercially significant anaerobic desulfurization.

Conclusion: The current trends toward stricter regulations on the content of sulfur in fuels provide enough incentive for the continued search for improved complementary desulfurization technique.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Perceived Impact of Information Technology on Teaching and Learning in Secondary Education

Kehinde M. Aregbesola, Ngozi Okonkwo , Ifeoma Nnaemezie

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/26366

The current study assessed the impact of Information Technology (IT) on teaching and learning in some Nigerian secondary schools based on students’ perception. The Awka Education Zone of Anambra State was the geographical area of coverage. The objective of the research was to assess students’ perception of the impact of IT in teaching and learning in secondary schools. A sample size of 600 respondents was used. A 15 item structured questionnaire developed within the study was used for data collection. Three research questions were posed and two hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The study showed that students performed better when exposed to IT methods in teaching and learning than when exposed to traditional methods. The z-test analysis showed that there was significant difference in mean interest of male students and female students towards IT integration in teaching and learning. A significant difference was equally observed in the mean perception of junior and senior students toward IT integration in teaching and learning.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring the Most Common Learning Strategy in English Language for Achieving Instructional Effectiveness at International Islamic School, Gombak

Abubakar Sani

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/25050

This study explores the most often used language learning strategy in English class among secondary school students of International Islamic School in Gombak, Malaysia based on gender, age and grades. For the purpose of this study, three language learning strategies were adopted that consisted of cognitive, metacognitive and social. The study covered 191 participants (male and female) whose age range is between 13-18 years across grades 7-11; and purposive sampling was used to select the participants in the study. Data were collected using a questionnaire, employing a 5-point Likert’s scale. Descriptive statistics were employed in describing the most frequent language learning strategy used by the students. The findings reveal that the students employ all the three learning strategies based on gender, age and grades; but social language learning strategy appears to be the most frequently used strategy among the students. Thus, it is recommended that teachers should organize classroom activities that promote social interaction among the students. This could help them to become successful language learners.

Open Access Original Research Article

Rainfall Variability Effects on Pastoral Pasture Availability in Turkana Central Sub-County, Kenya

D. C. Moso , G. M. Ogendi , S. M. Makindi , G. M. Maina

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/26901

Aims: This study was conducted to analyse rainfall variability and assess its effects on pasture availability, over the period 1983 to 2014.

Study Design: The study employed causal research design, in order to highlight the changes in pasture availability in response to rainfall variability.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Turkana Central Sub-County, between June 2014 and December 2014.

Methodology: Landsat images for the years 1984, 2002 and 2014 were obtained. Meteorological rainfall data for the period 1983 to 2014 was acquired. Focus group discussions were held with village elders and key informants from Livestock Department. Data was processed and analysed using descriptive statistics and Geographic Information Systems softwares, to generate Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values.

Results: The study findings revealed that the significant pastures were tree leaves and shrubs, Acacia tortilis being the most abundant tree species in the study area. It was also established that the amount of rainfall received in Turkana Central varied annually, displaying a general trend of 160.7 mm increase over the thirty-two years. Consequently, pasture availability increased; the mean Normalized Difference Vegetation Index value in the year 1984 was 0.262, whereas it was 0.377 in the year 2014. However, with the reduction of the drought cycle from 10 to 2 years, pasture scarcity had become more severe in the recent past.

Conclusion: Increasing amount and variability in rainfall led to increase in pastures. However, unlike in the past, severe pasture scarcity is experienced during droughts, which are becoming more recurrent, intense and prolonged.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Proposal for Measuring Solubility of the Silica in Rice Husk Ash

Masafumi Tateda , Ryoko Sekifuji , Mana Yasui , Atsushi Yamazaki

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27239

Aims: At present, rice husk is being used in many applications as a biomass resource. The method of rice husk quality evaluation, especially solubility, is not codified and therefore values cannot be compared across regions and institutions. In this study, the solubility of silica in rice husk ash was analyzed, and a systematic measurement process was proposed so as to make global sharing of data easier.

Study Design: Producing black and white ash using a boiler in the field and an electric furnace in a laboratory, respectively, the solubility of silica in rice husk ash and those physical properties were analized. 

Place and Duration of Study: Rice husk incineration: a local agricultural association located in Imizu, Toyama, Sample analysis: Toyama Prefectural University.

Methodology: The Japanese standard method 4.4.1.c was evaluated for measuring the solubility of silica in rice husk.  The current study also assessed the physical state and solubility of silica in both white and black rice husk ash.

Results and Conclusion: From the analysis results, we determined that the Japanese standard method 4.4.1.c could be simplified to reduce the complexity of the measurement procedure. For a consistent and high accuracy measurement of the solubility of silica in rice husk ash, an acid treatment procedure is necessary. Since solubility increases as the surface area of ash decreases, powdering of samples is not necessary and ash can be used as-is for solubility measurements. Ash became bulky as the burning temperature increased, indicating that the silica did not fully transit to crystalline state in the conditions tested. Fixed carbon, volatile matter, and moisture content may also affect solubility up to 800°C. Additional factors that we did not study may also affect the solubility of silica in rice husk.

Open Access Original Research Article

Optimisation of Drilling Parameters for Directional and Horizontal Wells Using Genetic Algorithm

O. A. Falode , C. J. Agbarakwe

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27061

In this paper, a modification of Bourgoyne and Young ROP model has been derived. Bourgoyne and Young recommend multiple regression method to determine unknown coefficients. However, applying multiple regressions leads to physically meaningless values in some situation. Although some new mathematical model methods have recently been developed to reach meaningful results. In order to reach a more accurate prediction and physically meaningful coefficient, genetic algorithm was used to determine the eleven unknown drilling parameters of the proposed model. The model was validated with field data obtained from randomly selected wells drilled in the offshore locations at Khangiran Iranian field. The proposed model was found to estimate the rate of penetration with an error of ±10%.

In this study, a robust model has been developed, tested and found to give realistic penetration rate for roller cone bits in directional and horizontal wells. The model is a veritable tool that can be used to investigate the synergistic effect of several drilling parameters on the rate of penetration.

Open Access Original Research Article

Weather Variability and Climate Change Impacts on the Mental Health of a Seaside Community

Sônia Regina da Cal Seixas, João Luiz de Moraes Hoeffel, Michelle Renk , Gabriela Farias Asmus, Fabio Bueno de Lima

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/26194

Aims: To assess weather variability and climate change impacts on the mental health of a small fishing community in Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Study Design: To this study, a fishing community strongly familiarized with the region was selected. Interviews were held with the most active fishermen members among the community.

Place and Duration of Study: Interviews were held in the Association of Mussel Producers and Fishermen of Cocanha’s beach (MAPEC), in the municipality of Caraguatatuba, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil, between 2009 and 2011.

Methodology: We chose 13 individuals to interview, all of them small-scale fishermen and mussel producers who were born at Cocanha beach. Their perception on the changing environment – as well as the setbacks in work activities and daily life – were codified and analyzed with NVivo 10 software. Health data were collected in a municipality level. We acquired hospital admissions for mental health and behavioral disorders from the Nacional Health System (DATASUS). We performed trend analysis (period 1998 to 2014) for rates of incidence of mental and behavioral disorders due to alcohol use, psychoactive substance use, Schizophrenia, schizotypal and delusional disorders. We also extracted social-economic data from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE).

Results: The results indicated that the morbidities related to mental health problems showed a significant increase in hospital admissions, and were higher than the average rate in the state of São Paulo, Brazil, and that the interviewees were aware of ongoing environmental changes such as: marine water temperature, sea water levels, beach landscaping and intensity of precipitation.

Conclusion: Environmental changes related to climate change have a strong impact on the daily lives of the interviewees, on their mental health and on use of natural resources. The perception of the communities directly using natural resources should be considered in the assessment and monitoring of climate change.

Open Access Review Article

Lie Ideals and Centralizing Mappings with Generalized Derivations

Radwan Mohammed Al-Omary, Nadeem Ur Rehman

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/26822

Let R be a prime ring with char(R) ≠ 2, Z(R) the center of R and L be a nonzero square closed Lie ideal of R. An additive mapping F : R → R is called a generalized derivation on if there exists a derivation d : R → Rsuch that F(xy) = xF(y) + d(x)y for all x, y ∈ R. In the present paper we shall show that L ⊆ Z(R) such that Radmitting a generalized derivations F and G associated with derivations d and g respectively, satisfying several conditions.