Open Access Short Research Article

Determinants of Women Adaptation to the Potential Impacts of Climate Change: A Case Study in Assosa Woreda, Benshangul Gumez Region, Western Ethiopia

Martha Kidemu , Agena Anjulo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27472

The aim of this study was to analyze determinants of women adaptation to potential impacts of climate change. Multinomial logit model was fitted to the data from survey of 150 (one hundred fifty) women headed households. The study was conducted in Benshangul Regional State of Ethiopia, Assosa District from January to June 2015. Women perception on climate was assessed using indicators of climate change .The major climate change adaptation measures women practice in the study area were identified and selected by focus group discussion. The different factors affecting the choice of the practices were identified from literature review and researcher’s knowledge of the contextual setting. Women headed households were purposively selected from the rural area of the district and 150 (one hundred fifty) sample households were randomly selected. Semi-structured questionnaire was administered and the survey was fitted to Multinomial logit model using stata software. The result of the analysis showed that women perceived the presence of climate change very well. Moreover, wealth status, access to climate change information, average distance from home of rivers and forest, education level, access and control over resources, working condition (length of working hour per day) and, area of land owned were the determinants of climate change adaptations. So, poverty, lack of access to climate information, lack of access to education, lack of agricultural extension service, lack of access and control over resources, long distance women walk to fetch water and fuel, and long working hour conditions were barriers of women climate change adaptation decision. Economical empowering of women, improving access of women  to climate information, construction of water schemes near houses, promotion of use of  energy saving cook stoves, improving women access and control over resources and minimizing work load by changing women working condition are suggested interventions to increase women climate change adaptive capacity.

Open Access Short Research Article

Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making with Linguistic Information Based on Linguistic Prioritized Operators

Zhiming Zhang

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/11862

In this paper, we propose some linguistic prioritized aggregation operators and uncertain linguistic prioritized aggregation operators for handling the multiple attribute group decision making problems in which the attributes and decision makers are in different priority level. First, we extend the prioritized aggregation (PA) operators [R. R. Yager, Prioritized aggregation operators, International Journal of Approximate Reasoning 48 (2008) 263-274] to linguistic environment and present two linguistic prioritized aggregation operators called the linguistic prioritized weighted average (LPWA) operator and the linguistic prioritized weighted geometric (LPWG) operator. These proposed operators can capture the prioritization phenomenon among the aggregated arguments. Then, some desirable properties of these aggregation operators are examined in detail. We next utilize the proposed operators to develop an approach to multiple attribute group decision making under linguistic environment in which the attributes and decision makers are in different priority level, and a practical example is given to illustrate the practicality and effectiveness of the developed approach.

Open Access Short Research Article

Telecommunication Engineering and Entrepreneur Opportunities in Nigeria

Ayodeji J. Bamisaye , Caroline O. Ekejiuba

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/21506

The positive development of entrepreneurs in any society enhances the socio-development of that society. Entrepreneurship thrives in competitive and challenging markets, under this competitive and liberalized environment, telecom industry is growing at an unimaginable pace. This paper examines the concept of Entrepreneurship from the perspective of telecommunication industry, specifically in the Nigeria Telecom scenario. The entrepreneurial opportunities in the sector were also presented.

Open Access Original Research Article

Simulation-based Learning Utilizing Virtualization Technology and Backtrack in Teaching Information Assurance and Security: Case in Haramaya University

Patrick D. Cerna

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27572

Simulation-based training techniques, tools, and strategies can be applied in designing structured learning experiences, as well as be used as a measurement tool linked to targeted teamwork competencies and learning objectives. An adequate computing lab support for advanced computer courses that needs practical understanding and hands-on approach is a perennial challenge for most higher educational in Ethiopia. The study presents a model of using dedicated and flexible lab support information security and assurance courses as part of the curriculum of Bachelor of Science in Information Technology in Haramaya University, Ethiopia. Using virtualization technology different laboratory setup on a single computer machine has been implemented using one of the well-known operation system for penetration testing called backtrack. Information Security topics like Port Scanning and Service Identity Determination, Password Cracking, Trojan Attacks, Steganography, Man-in-the-middle attacks, and Web SQL injection were able to learn and simulate by students under this virtualization setup. A self-administered survey questionnaire has been employed to assess the class service quality and perception of the students on this matter. The result shows that after the students are introduced to the activity in the laboratory using virtual machine in simulating topics in information security, there is 83% increase in number of student having a very good understanding in the subject. Moreover, the table shows us that 90% of the student agrees that the hands on activity using VM really increase their interesting learning the course. Moreover, the table shows us that 90% of the student agrees that the hands on activity using VM really increase their interesting learning the course. These show that the implementation of hands on activity with VM really helps the student to have better understanding in the subject matter. In conclusion, virtualization technology is not only limited to industry utilizing them to improve their servers and network services, but also has been effective as innovative teaching strategy in the laboratory practical session in the academe. Thus, it was found that the students are accepting the challenge to learn information security using virtualization and are benefiting greatly from their experiences.

Open Access Original Research Article

Case Study: Technical Considerations to Optimize Rice Husk Burning in a Boiler to Retain a High Solubility of the Silica in Rice Husk Ash

Masafumi Tateda , Ryoko Sekifuji , Mana Yasui , Atsushi Yamazaki

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27902

Aims: Optimal conditions were investigated for the operation of a boiler using rice husks as fuel. Superior operation resulted in the production of high quality ash as well as heat recovery. Good quality ash is a useful resource that can bring profits to a local community.

Study Design: Rice husks were burned in a boiler and the boiler operation was evaluated by measuring the ash solubility in an alkali solution. The operational factors influencing the performance were determined.

Location and Duration of Study: The study was located at the local Imizuno Agricultural Association (IAA) in Imizu, Japan, the location of Toyama Prefectural University. Data were collected from June 2011 to March 2016.

Methodology: The quality of ash was evaluated by examining its solubility. The NaOH method and Testing Method 4.4.1.c were employed to measure solubility. The operational factors of temperature control, maximum temperature setting, air flow capacity, and fire grate movement pattern were chosen to determine the optimal boiler performance.

Results: The following was determined for temperature control: Do not use the AUTO setting at the beginning of the process but engage the AUTO setting once the boiler has finished idling. The optimal maximum temperature was found to be 500ºC; the air flow capacity was 30 Hz; and the fire grate moving pattern was 5-5-6.

Conclusion: For boiler burning or an exothermal reaction, two phases were needed to produce a better quality of ash: An exothermal reaction for the first phase and an endothermic reaction for the second phase. Also, there may be additional factors that contribute to a superior operation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Climate Change on Annual Streamflow of Kocabaş Stream (Çanakkale, Turkey)

Tuba Ejder , Semih Kale , Seçil Acar , Olcay Hisar , Fatih Mutlu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28052

Climate change due to global warming have effects upon sustainable use of natural resources. Climatic parameters such as temperature, evaporation and precipitation obtained from 3 meteorological observation stations, and streamflow data of Kocabaş Stream were used to understand the effects of global warming on annual streamflow of Kocabaş Stream. Change years were determined and trend analysis was applied for climatic parameters and streamflow of the river. As specified in the results of analyses it could be enunciated that there was a visible increase in temperature and evaporation, and that there was a decrease in precipitation and annual streamflow of the river. Change year was determined as 1981 for streamflow of the river and trend analysis results showed that the streamflow has a decreasing trend and the annual amount of this decrease is predicted to be 0.025005 ms-1. Trend analysis results for climatic parameters showed that there is a decreasing trend in precipitation and increasing trends in temperature and evaporation. The paper indicates that the effects of climate change on annual streamflow of the river could be variable and that many effects such as agricultural activities, anthropogenic effects, and geographical location should be considered in predicting of climate change effects on river systems.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Role of Convenience in Fast Food Consumption in Urban Ghana

Rose Omari , Joost Jongerden , George Essegbey , Godfred Frempong , Guido Ruivenkamp

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27927

Background: Although fast food has been linked to various health problems its consumption is increasing in Ghana. The objective of this study was to examine how convenience (a measure of perceived product convenience, which is a product attribute, and convenience orientation, a psychosocial attribute of consumers) together with demographic variables and cooking skill influence fast food consumption in urban Ghana.

Methods: A cross-sectional consumer survey was conducted among 400 fast food consumers, 15 years and older, drawn from 20 fast food restaurants in the Accra Metropolitan Area of Ghana.

Results: Firstly, findings showed that the more consumers perceived fast food as convenient (i.e. having convenience attributes such as easiness to get, easiness to eat, quickness to get, requiring little efforts to clear-up after eating) the greater the odds of eating it more frequently. Secondly, convenience orientation was measured by three components, namely consumers’ inclination to save mental effort, physical efforts, and time however, the time component was the most significant in influencing fast food consumption. Thirdly, the predictive power of income level and cooking skill on frequency of fast food consumption could not be confirmed although positive associations were found between them. Fourthly, the findings could not show any significant association of age, gender, education level, employment status, working status, and marital status with frequency of fast food consumption.

Conclusion: The study concludes that most people eat fast food because its inherent convenience attributes as well as consumers’ inclination to save mental effort, physical effort and time. Therefore, when designing nutrition and health programmes strategies should be developed to encourage and support provision of healthier options in fast-food restaurants. Alternatively, restaurants that have been identified to be offering healthier foods should be encouraged to integrate convenience attributes into their operations.

Open Access Review Article

Nitrate Metabolism: A Curse or Blessing to Humanity?

Daniel A. Nnate , Ngozi K. Achi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/26773

Nitrate (NO3ˉ) is a metabolic waste produced in humans during the detoxification of nitric oxide (NO). Nitric oxide is responsible for the regulation of blood flow, cell signaling and host defense in a number of mammalian tissues. Shortly after synthesis, nitric oxide is oxidized to nitrate in order to terminate its effect. NO can also be synthesized by an alternative mechanism that relies on the sequential reduction of nitrate to nitrite (NO2ˉ); thereby making nitrite a storage pool that can be reduced to NO under appropriate condition with a concomitant increase in the methemoglobin (metHb) concentration. The NO and metHb produced can result to adverse health effects if not detoxified. NADH-methemoglobin reductase accounts for most metHb reduction. Nitric oxide dioxygenases (NODs) catalyze the conversion of NO to NO3ˉ­­­­­ which help to protect cells from NO poisoning. Nitrate and its reduction products are involved in the modification of the body’s physiological functions. We are exposed to nitrate from dietary intake and nitric oxide oxidation. Nitrate metabolism becomes a threat when nitrate is consumed in excess and the body lacks the enzymes that catalyze the detoxification of its byproducts. During such condition, the hemoglobin, nucleic acids, dietary amines and glycoproteins acts as the primary molecule that mediates its effects. Nitrate is a potential therapeutic agent in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases and improving cell viability. This review serves to reevaluate nitrate metabolism in human with the intentions of understanding its role in NO homeostasis and its metabolic effect due to excess intake.