Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of the Professionalism of Student Affairs at a Nigerian Private University

Dare Ojo Omonijo , Michael Chibuzor Anyaegbunam, Albert Oguche Shaibu, Chidozie Emmanuel Mabia, Mary Jude-Therese Nwodo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/23690

This study applied data from descriptive background to conduct a research on student affairs professionalism at a Nigerian private University. The study among other things investigated the: programmes of study of student affairs personnel; percentage of staff who are interested in student affairs profession, percentage of personnel who have acquired degrees and trainings in Student Affairs profession. The study engaged the use of questionnaire to collect data from 108 respondents. The results of the investigation showed that majority of staff members had never obtained any degree in student affairs profession. Also, the findings revealed that absolute majority of respondents had never received any training in a student affairs profession. It also indicated that majority of respondents lack any knowledge of appreciable student affairs service, as a career. Following this, recommendations were made on how personnel in student affairs can obtain degrees and trainings in student affairs career. Suggestions were also made on to commencement student affairs professionalism not only in the institution under study, but also in African higher institutions.

Open Access Original Research Article

Determinants of Participation in Non-farm Employment among Rural Farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Simeon C. Onya , Chukwukere A. Okezie, Ikenna V. Ejiba

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28047

This study examined the determinants of participation in non-farm employment, and factors that influence income derived from non-farm employment among rural farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Primary data used in the study were obtained from 150 respondents’ selected employing multistage sampling technique. Multinomial logitand Tobit regression were used for the analysis. Findingsrevealed that farm households derive more income from non-farm sources (N288,585.7) relative to farm activities (N118,900). Crop income contribute more to farm income while income derived from forest (lumbering, hunting, firewood) contributed the least to farm income. Furthermore, income derived from being self-employed contributed the highest to non-farm income of households. Accordingly, 29.18% of total household income was derived from farming, out of which cropping accounted for 18.18%, livestock 8.53%, fishing 1.44% and forest income accounting for 0.25% respectively; while non-farm income share of total income stood at 70.82% out of which 2.27% participated in agricultural wage employment, 30.81% participated in non-agricultural wage employment, 33.10% participated in self-employment activities. Result of the multinomial regression analysis showed that age, farm size, educational level, household size, distance to the market, distance to the nearest urban center, access to electricity and availability of good drinking water  were the dominant factors that influenced the choice of participation in non-farm employment in Ebonyi State. Also sex, level of education, size of farm income, and value of household assets were the dominant factors which influenced non-farm income in the study area. The study recommends the promotion of non-farm employment as a good strategy for supplementing the income of farmers throughtraining programmes directed towards training farmers in skills that can be used in non-farm employment and/or small and medium scale businesses (SME’s); while also improving infrastructure, credit and financial markets.

Open Access Original Research Article

Volatile Constituents and Insecticidal Activity of Essential Oil of Margaritaria discoidea (Baill.) G. L. Webster

Oladipupo A. Lawal , Sunkanmi E. Sotubo , Adesola A. Osunsami , Olanrewaju I. Eresanya , Isiaka A. Ogunwande

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28523

The volatile constituents and insecticidal activity of essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of air-dried and pulverized leaves of Magaritaria discoidea (Baill.) G. L. Webster growing in Nigeria was studied. The constituents of the oil were analysed by means of gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The percentage yield of oil was 0.10% (v/w), calculated on a dry weight basis. A total of fifteen compounds, representing 99.99% of the total component of the essential oil of M. discoidea were characterized. The major compounds identified in the oil were geranyl acetone (33.0%), phytol (12.7%) and (E)-α-ionone (11.6%). The result of insecticidal activity indicated that M. discoideaessential oil at a concentration of 120 mg/mL displayed 100% mortality against Sitophilus zeamais, at 72 h. This is the first report on the chemical constituents and insecticidal activity of essential oil of M. discoidea.

Aims: The aim of this study was to isolate essential oils from the leaf of Magaritaria discoidea (Baill.) G. L. Webster (Euphorbiaceae) and investigate the volatile constituents present therein as well as insecticidal potential.

Study Design: The study involves the hydrodisitillation of essential oils from the air-dried plant materials, analysis of their chemical composition and evaluation of biological activity.

Place and Duration of Study: Fresh leaves of M. discoidea were harvested from trees growing at Tipper Garage, Kolobo, Abeokuta, Ogun State, Nigeria, in March 2016. The study was coonducted over 3 months period.

Methodology: About 500 g of air-dried plant samples was shredded and their oils were obtained by separate hydrodistillation for 4 h at normal pressure, according to the British Pharmacopoeia. The chemical constituents of the distilled oils were analyzed by means of gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), while the insecticidal assay was conducted by established procedure.

Results: The main compounds of the leaf essential oil geranyl acetone (33.0%), phytol (12.7%) and (E)-α-ionone (11.6%). The result of biological activities indicated that M. discoidea essential, oil at a concentration of 120 mg/mL displayed 100% mortality against Sitophilus zeamais, at 72 h.

Conclusion: The present oil compositions were reported for the first for this species and for any member of Magaritaria family of plant.

Open Access Original Research Article

Structural, Surface and Optical Analysis of Al2O3 Thin Film on Al Substrates Prepared by Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

S. Shanmugan , A. Siti Sarah , J. Nur Jassriatul Aida, D. Mutharasu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28155

Aims: Synthesis of Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) thin films on Al substrates by CVD method and study their structural parameters and surface properties for various processing time.

Study Design: Synthesized thin film samples were post processed with various temperature. The structural and surface properties were analyzed by XRD technique and FESEM method to understand the influence of processing time and also the temperature.

Place and Duration of Study: Nano Optoelectronic Research Laboratory, School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang 11800, Malaysia, between December 2013 and July 2014.

Methodology: Aluminium oxide (Al2O3) thin films were synthesized on Al substrates by CVD method and manipulating the deposition time for their structural evaluation using XRD spectra. The surface and optical properties were analyzed by FESEM and FTIR spectra respectively.

Results: Polycrystalline structure was noticed with (025) phase as dominated in Al2O3 structure. From the XRD spectra, the observed crystallite size was increased with process time for (025) oriented phase and also noticed the average crystallite size was under 100 nm. The observed dislocation density was high for the film deposited at 20 mins duration for both (201) and (025) phases. The CVD synthesized Al2O3 thin film had bubble type structure on their surface irrespective to the process times and also annealing.

Conclusion: Al2O3 thin film was successfully deposited by CVD at low operating temperature. Post processing (annealing) was not supported to improve Al2Ogrowth on Al substrates and also their structural properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Exploring the Silicon Composition of Rice Husk Ash and Clay Soil along River Niger-Lokoja, Nigeria

Abutu A. Nathan , Hile D. Donald , Ochang Micheal

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27541

Rice is a crop that is grown by subsistence farmers in Lokoja-Nigeria at a very small scale. The elemental chemical composition of the soil has great influence on the plant on it, hence, both the soil sample and rice husk from the same site(s) were used to determine silica percentage composition by calcination techniques for possible use as a raw material for silica-based production products. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) determination show that the Silica content in the White Ash from RHA are 45.86%, 45.47% while the silica content from the calcined soil was 45.06%, 44.61% for Site A and Site B respectively. Characterization of Site A White Ash by FTIR gave absorption bands that tally with other researchers. XRD of the same sample shows crystalline characteristics with the formation of crystobalite and traces of tridymite. Rice planted on this river bank soil in Lokoja proved to be affordable raw materials for silica production.

Open Access Original Research Article

Superharmonic Solutions of Order (2,3) to a MEMS Governed the Motion of a TM-AFM Cantilever

A. M. Elnaggar , K. M. Khalil , A. S. Rahby

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28140

The superharmonic solutions of a weakly nonlinear second order differential equation governed the dynamic behavior of a microcantilever based on TM (Tapping mode) AFM (Atomic force microscopy) are studied analytically by applying the method of multiple scales (MMS). The modulation equations of the amplitude and the phase are obtained. Steady state solutions, frequency response equations, the peak amplitudes with their locations and the approximate analytical expressions are obtained. The stability of the steady state solutions is given. Numerical solutions of the frequency response equations and their stability conditions are carried out for different values of the parameters in the equation. Results are presented in groups of figures. Finally, discussion and conclusion are given.

Open Access Original Research Article

Proximate and Water Soluble Vitamin Contents in Some Selected Bangladeshi Fruits and Vegetables

Maksuda Mina , Abu Torab MA Rahim , Md. Nazmul Haque , Md. Shahjalal Hossain Khan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28541

Fruits and vegetables are generally valued for their rich content of vitamins and minerals. The present study has been undertaken to determine the proximate composition (moisture, protein, fat, total ash and total dietary fiber) and water soluble vitamins (Thiamin, Riboflavin, vitamin C and vitamin B6) contents in selected key fruits and vegetables of Bangladesh. Proximate composition of analyzed fruits and vegetables shows that the moisture content in all analyzed sample was very high ranging 81-95%. Results showed that all the analyzed food sample contain as expected less amounts of fat and available carbohydrate except banana (19% available carbohydrate). Total dietary fiber content varied widely (1.6-7.2 g/100 g) of which jackfruit was found rich in it (7.2 g/100 g edible portion). Water soluble vitamin analysis of fruits and vegetables shows that thiamin content in analyzed samples was highest in jackfruit and lowest in egg plant. Riboflavin is ranging from 0.043-0.144 mg/100 g edible portion. Tomato contained lowest amount of pyridoxine while jackfruit contained highest amount (0.049-0.313 mg/100 g edible portion, respectively). L-Ascorbic acid content of the vegetables revealed that green chili contained highest amount as expected (102 mg/100 g edible portion) whereas banana contained the lowest (0.104 mg/100 g edible portion). The findings of this study provided valuable and reliable data of water soluble vitamins that can be expected to contribute in diet calculation for ideal and therapeutic uses.

Open Access Review Article

Challenges for Optimum Design of Surface Irrigation Systems

Alaa Nabil El-Hazek

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27504

There are many challenges to be faced in order to achieve the optimum use of available resources against the increasing food and other demands of the world population with the shrinking resources. Optimization can be considered as the ensemble of steps which must be taken to find the minimum, or maximum, of a function that is usually called an objective function.

This paper provides snapshots of research and practical implementation of optimum design concepts and criteria of surface irrigation systems. Technical papers and reports are reviewed addressing challenges and different aspects of this issue, in addition to optimum allocation systems of surface water and ground water.

It is concluded that the optimum irrigation may be defined more broadly as maximization of overall benefits, including nonmonetary benefits as water quality protection, food security, increased employment, and resettlement of populations. Linear programming, dynamic programming and genetic algorithms techniques are still very popular to get optimal surface irrigation systems. Surface irrigation parameters identification represents an important way to get optimal surface irrigation systems. Optimal conjunctive use of surface and ground water resources may be needed in some cases, such as water deficits in arid and semi-arid regions and uncertainty.