Open Access Original Research Article

Image Information Measures for Predicting Image Registration Performance on iThemba LABS Image Registration System

Adebayo A. Adeleke

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28108

Image information measures such as mutual information and entropy quotient can do more than just giving a quantitative impression on how good an image is. In recent times, they have found application in radiotherapy, especially in treatment planning. Thinking about maximizing information in an image, image registration has been found to be handy, though computationally expensive to achieve. In this work, we describe an experiment to help establish a relationship between registration performance and the extent of misalignment that made registration necessary using data from a CT scan of the body. We present ways in which information measures can be used to decide whether registering images is a necessary operation. We visualize the experimental result and define functions that fits the distribution by making an educated guess and then optimized the functions to arrive at as minimum parameter as possible. We finally screen the various models to arrive at the optimally performing ones. We have found these models to perform very well in predicting registration performance pre-operationally, explaining between ~62.94% to ~99.96% of the effect of rotating around or translating along x, y, z on the performance of registration output should it be carried out, thereby saving more computer power required in image registration, time and boredom on the part of the patient.

Open Access Original Research Article

Father Antonio Rosmini-Serbati: A Discourse on His Philosophical and Theological System with an Imprint of Fundamental Rights

Nico P. Swartz

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/26363

Rosmini’s works and philosophical ideals purport to propitiate Catholic theology with the susceptibilities of modern day political and social thought. With regard to his instruction from Pope Pius VII, Rosmini found himself wedged between the obligation to renew Catholic philosophy and finding his work on the Index. The former is of much concern according to the tenor of this study. In his task for renewal, Rosmini engaged the theological and philosophical principles of the “ideal being” in order to postulate man’s relationship with God, the Absolute Being. In order to determine and materialise such relationship, Rosmini was forced to evoke the principles of anthropology, cosmology and ontology. This path will steer Rosmini to actuate a Christian tradition in which fundamental rights will be maintained. Rosmini beliefs that in a Christian culture the role between man and God must be firmly established. He would make us belief that his model is inspired by the (divine) light of reason. Although man has some divine qualities (such as the soul or reason which was infused by God into man) he cannot be God. Man would though be able to use these divine qualities bestowed upon him by God to conduct good relations with each other in society and to uphold the fundamental rights of others. This will engendered also a respect of one’s fundamental rights even the government or State. Only a Christian society could accommodate this notion in full.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessing Carbon Footprints of Students in University of Agriculture Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria

E. T. Tembe, A. A. Onah, S. A. Shomkegh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28229

The aim of the study was to assess the carbon footprints of students in the University of Agriculture, Makurdi, Nigeria, to determine the amount of carbon generated from unaccounted sources. The study was carried out in March, 2016, in 3 out of 10 Colleges in the University, purposively selected to involve students studying Forestry, Fisheries and Agricultural based disciplines within the North-Core of the University. The online carbon footprint calculator developed by World Wide Fund for nature (WWF), was used for the assessment. The calculator had well-structured questions to track carbon footprints generated by each student’s activities through food consumption, home, travel and stuff. Results obtained were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and compared with the planet global average of 3.06 tonnes. College of Forestry and Fisheries had the highest carbon footprints of 665.0 tonnes, representing 35% of carbon expenditure in the Colleges. College of Agricultural Economics and Extension had the lowest carbon footprints of 602.40 tonnes. Among the Departments, Animal production had the highest footprints of 339.60 tonnes while Department of Agricultural Extension recorded the lowest footprints of 293.6 tonnes. 400 level students generated the highest carbon footprints of 675.90 tonnes while 300 level students produced the lowest footprint of 620.8 tonnes. The students surveyed in this study showed high carbon footprints in their food consumption, travel and home activities; requiring more planets to live if everyone else in the world adopted their lifestyles. It is therefore recommended that creation of awareness on the impacts of carbon footprints and its reduction strategies be carried out to enable them adopt lifestyles that could help them live within the limits of our only planet, the earth.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Constructing Indices for Establishing Successful Restaurant Atmosphere

Yen-Cheng Chen, Pei-Ling Tsui, Hsin-I Chen, Shu-Hsin Ko

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28598

Restaurant operation has always been an essential profit source for international hotels. Although food is the core element for a restaurant, there are other clues for attracting customers according to past research, such as store atmosphere. Store atmospheres significantly influence customers’ purchase intention, satisfaction and loyalty. Though literatures indicated directly influences on atmospheres on restaurant operation and customers’ impression, a lack of study towards the essential atmosphere factors for restaurant. This study aims to construct the essential atmosphere factors for restaurant operation. Delphi method was employed in study to collect experts’ opinions, including professors in related fields, managers of hotel restaurants, and experienced VIP customers of famous international hotels. Overall, there were four rounds of questionnaires processed. The results of this study provide restaurant managers and operators a set of factors towards establishing positive restaurant atmosphere in a hotel, which would help to increase customer satisfaction and purchase intention.

Open Access Original Research Article

Neural Network Models for Predicting Wellhead Pressure-Flow Rate Relationship for Niger Delta Oil Wells

Anietie N. Okon, Dulu Appah

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28715

Some wellhead pressure - flow rate correlations developed for Niger Delta region oil wells are in-house estimation tool by the operating companies in this region. However, the limited available correlations for wellhead pressure - flow rate prediction for Niger Delta oil wells are not generalized. A more robust and adaptable soft computing approach - Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was developed to address the inconsistency using field test data: production flow rate (q), flowing wellhead pressure (Pwh), choke size (S), gas-liquid ratio (GLR), flowing temperature (FTHP) and basic sediments and water (BS&W) obtained from 64 oil wells in Niger Delta fields. The developed ANN models were based on Gilbert and modified Gilbert forms of equation for predicting wellhead pressure - flow rate relationship. The results obtained indicate that the developed ANN models resulted in accurate predictions than the empirical correlations. The statistical analysis of the developed ANN models predictions with the field test data also resulted in average error, absolute relative error, root mean error and standard deviation of -0.1233, 0.1920, 0.3650 and 0.3621 for Gilbert form and -0.0450, 0.1045, 0.4533 and 0.4498 for modified Gilbert form, respectively. The results also show that the ANN models’ prediction resulted in coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9653 and 0.9951 for Gilbert and modified Gilbert respectively. The developed ANN models for Gilbert and modified Gilbert predictions are close with coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.9619. Therefore, the ANN models are superior to the empirical correlations’ predictions for wellhead pressure and can be used as a quick-and-robust tool for oilfield prediction of wellhead pressure - flow rate relationship in Niger Delta oil fields.

Open Access Original Research Article

Market Participation and Value Chain of Cassava Farmers in Abia State

Simeon C. Onya, Samuel E. Oriala, Ikenna V. Ejiba, Francis C. Okoronkwo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27950

In recent times there has been emphasis on value chain development especially in Africa so as to allow farmers derive maximum benefit from farm produce. This study therefore examined market participation and value chain of cassava farmers in Abia state, Nigeria; using primary data obtained from 135 cassava farming households selected through application of multistage randomized sampling technique. Data were analysed by descriptive statistics, multinomial logit model and principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that 42.92% of the farmers added value to their produce by processing into garri while 67% sold unprocessed produce at the local, farm gate and contract markets. However, net margin and profitability analysis showed that the net return on investment (ROI) of unprocessed/fresh cassava, and processed garri marketing were 1.68 and 2.36 respectively. Results of the multinomial logit model showed that marital status, level of education, distance to the market, farm size and transaction cost significantly influenced market participation in cassava market while age, marital status, household size, level of education, distance to the market, market information, farm size, transaction cost and output significantly influenced participation in garri market. The major constraints to farmers’ participation in cassava value chain were high cost of processing cassava, high transaction cost, poor coordination among actors in the value chain, lack of storage facilities, poor road network, price fluctuation, high cost of cassava tubers and poor access to market information. The study recommends that factors such as cassava product pricing, and market information should attract policy attention to give boost to cassava value chain market participation; and also eliminate impediments such as infrastructural inadequacy; enhance the performance, and yield profits and income for farmers. The study recommended that factors such as cassava product price, market information and cooperative membership should attract policy attention to give boost to cassava and garri market participation.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survival Analysis of Small Scale Manufacturing Enterprises in Eastern Ethiopia

Tesfaye Abera Bokoro

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28332

Small manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) are important because they provide the majority of new jobs created especially in developing counties like Ethiopia. In Ethiopia, despite the enormous potential of vibrant small manufacturing enterprises to contribute to job creation, income generation and poverty alleviation, the high failure rate of small enterprises is a subject of much concern. The main purpose of conducting this study was to critically analyse likelihood of SMEs long survival in a competitive market. Descriptive and survival analysis methods were employed to analyze panel data between the period 2001 and 2006 E.C in the eastern part of Ethiopia. About 86.4% of total failed firms ceased operation during the first two years of operation, and only 9.1% of all failed firms ceased operation after their fifth birth day. Hazard function showed that probability of failure decreases as the age of the enterprise increase. Kaplan-Meier survival probability plots were used to compare the survival probabilities of SMEs with regard to manufacturing type showed that leather product and textile manufacturing enterprises have higher probability of survival whereas wood and metal work and food item producing enterprises have the least survival probabilities.  This study has policy implications for Government and other stakeholders to understand that newly emerging manufacturing enterprises face difficulty in their first three years of establishment. Therefore, since the creation of new jobs depends on the new entry rates and growth of enterprises, a concerted attention should be given to support them financially as well as technically to reduce the failure rate.

Open Access Original Research Article

Coulomb Forces on the Dynamics of Electrostatic (ES) Tether in Ionosphere

J. Z. G. Ma, G. Vukovich

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29194

In ionospheres, the orbital debris population presents a significant threat to ongoing and future space endeavors. The Electrostatic (ES) tether is an innovative tool to reduce the further buildup of space junk from abandoned satellites. We introduce the dynamics of the tether by making use of the Lagrangian formulation. We examine both quantitative and qualitative features of the Coulomb forces on the tether with high-voltage (HV) supplies, with reference to the tether’s in-plane pitch angle α, out-of-plane roll angle β, orbital polar angle θ, and orbital height h. The effectiveness of the tether to de-orbit objects is demonstrated by simulations at Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) altitudes which are located well within the ionospheric F-layer. Results show that a rapidly applied power supply allows efficient orbit modification due to the influence of the Coulomb forces. The de-orbiting is a damped oscillatory process with final altitude between the initial one and the first (deepest) trough. Surprisingly, repeated application of the HV power following the first does not produce further altitude reduction. For a 16 kg tether system at 800 km altitude, a HV supply of 1 kV for about 30 minutes produces ∼3 km descent for a 1 km long tether.