Open Access Original Research Article

Activation of Local Bentonitic Clays for Use as Viscosifiers in Water-based Drilling Fluids

Okorie E. Agwu, Anietie N. Okon, Offiong I. Akpanika

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28719

Activated locally sourced clay as replacement for imported commercial bentonite for use as viscosifiers was studied. Tests and analyses were performed on local clay samples obtained from five (5) locations: Ini, Ibiono, Ikono, Itu and Uyo Local Government Areas in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. The mineralogical composition of the unactivated samples determined using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), indicates montmorillonite contents less than the American Petroleum Institute (API) standard, so also are the rheological properties and fluid loss characteristics. The activation of the local clays with soda ash (Na2CO3) resulted in improved montmorillonite content. In addition, the activation process increased the clay yield and swelling power. Mud rheological properties and fluid loss potential improved more in the Ikono and Uyo than other clays. Thus, the activated clays can be classified as sub-bentonite that can be used as drilling mud for medium depth wells. The viscosifying potential of the locally sourced clays in water-based mud for oil well drilling can be exploited. This will reduce importation of foreign bentonite, lower total drilling cost as well as add value to the Nigerian economy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatio-temporal Variability and Trends of Rainfall and Temperature Over Gamo Gofa Zone, Ethiopia

Tefera Ashine Teyso, Agena Anjulo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28667

This study examined spatiotemporal climate variability and trends of observed rainfall and temperature data from 1991-2010 over Gamo Gofa zone, southern Ethiopia. Normalized anomaly and coefficient of variation were analyzed to observe the variability of climate. Linear regression was used to analyze trends; Mann Kendall trend test was used for testing the significance and ArcGIS was used to map trend magnitudes and the statistical significance. Normalized anomaly of annual rainfalls showed the variability of dry and wet years at all stations. Coefficient of variation analysis indicated that variability of annual and seasonal rainfalls increased from west to east and to the south. Annual, June to August and September to November rainfalls showed both significant decreasing and increasing trends at different stations in the zone. Generally, most of the land area of the zone had experienced insignificant trends for both annual and seasonal rainfalls. Normalized anomaly of mean maximum and minimum temperature showed 2000s were warmer than 1990s at most of the stations. Mean annual and seasonal maximum temperature at all stations in the zone showed warming trends. Significant land of the zone had experienced both warming and cooling trends of minimum temperature for annual and seasonal timescales. These may result in failure of agricultural production that necessitates developing and implementing systematic planning and management activities in the crop calendar.

Open Access Original Research Article

Household Livelihood Strategies and Socio-Economic Conditions Influencing Watershed Degradation in Kaiti Sub-watershed, Makueni County, Kenya

Kieti Raphael Ndavi, Kauti Matheaus Kioko, Kisangau Daniel Patrick

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28412

Aim: The aim of the study was to find out how livelihood strategies and socio-economic conditions influence watershed degradation in Kaiti sub-watershed in Makueni County, Kenya, and their effects on the environment. The study examined the livelihood strategies and options of the people as well as the socio-economic conditions contributing to watershed degradation, investigated the land use methods practiced and how they affect the sub-watershed.

Study Design: The study used a descriptive survey research approach to obtain data on socio-economic characteristics of the study sites as well as historical trends of land use.

Place and Duration of Study: South Eastern Kenya University, Kitui County, Kenya; between June to August 2015.

Methodology: The study used multiple methods such as household surveys, observations, Focus Group Discussant interviews (FGDs), key informant and experts’ interviews, drawn from sampling of households systematically along vertical and horizontal transect lines. Structured and semi- structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 101 community and key informants. The data collected was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) and Microsoft Excel 2010.

Results: The study established that low food production as reported by the farmers (78%) and reduced income and livelihood (75%) were consequences of watershed degradation in the study area. Landlessness at 39% (S.E=0.311 z= 1.311 sig.0.190), illegal encroachment at 18% (S.E=0.555 z= -0.604 sig.0.546), and laxity in law enforcement at 27% (S.E=0.481 z=0.227 sig. 0.821) were other factors mentioned by the farmers as contributing to watershed degradation.

Conclusion: The study concluded that these conditions predisposed farmers to adopt inappropriate farming methods and unsustainable livelihood strategies which compromised the watershed’s environmental integrity. The study sought to make recommendation for efficient watershed management.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fibre Characteristics and Strength Properties of Nigerian Pineapple Leaf (Ananas cosmosus), Banana Peduncle and Banana Leaf (Musa sapientum) – Potential Green Resources for Pulp and Paper Production

Taiwo K. Fagbemigun, O. D. Fagbemi, Fatima Buhari, Eze Mgbachiuzo, Chima C. Igwe

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29248

Aims: The study investigated the suitability of three agricultural wastes commonly found in Nigeria namely Pineapple leaf (Ananas cosmosus), banana peduncle and banana leaf (Musa sapientum) for their pulp and paper-making potentials.

Study Design: Fresh Musa sapientum waste and pineapple leaves were obtained from banana plantation and local pineapple processing firms around the vicinity of the Institute. The samples were processed, characterized for fibre properties, pulped and converted to handsheets. The properties of the fibre and paper were compared to the properties of non-wood and woody biomass found in Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out in the pulp and paper laboratory of the Federal Institute of Industrial research Oshodi, Lagos between January 2015 and December 2015. Paper testing was carried out in the pulp and paper laboratory of the Centre for Wood Science, University of Hamburg, Germany during the same period.

Methodology: Pulp samples were produced from the selected materials in a thermostatically controlled autoclave using the soda pulping method with 7% Sodium hydroxide at 120°C. Partially delignified pulp samples were macerated in equal volume of 10% glacial acetic acid and 30% hydrogen peroxide and thereafter studied under a Visopam microscope at × 10 mm x 8 mm magnification for fibre morphological properties such as fibre length, fibre diameter, lumen width, cell wall thickness and derived morphological indices. Handmade paper sheets were produced from the pulp samples and tested for strength properties. Data obtained was analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).

Results: Results show that banana peduncle and banana leaf, with average fibre lengths of 1.27 mm and 0.88 mm respectively, are short-fiber resources while pineapple leaf has a longer fibre length of 2.92 mm. The average fibre diameter and lumen width of pineapple leaf, banana peduncle and banana leaf were 12.08/7.84 µm, 15.81/11.56 µm and 9.79/3.84 µm respectively. All studied samples possessed thin cell wall (2.13 – 3.46 µm). The Runkel Ratios for the three sample agricultural waste raw materials, namely; pineapple leaf, banana peduncle and banana leaf were 0.88, 0.37 and 1.69 respectively. Banana peduncle and pineapple leaf were found to be good sources of elastic fibres. Handmade paper sheets produced displayed impressive strength properties.

Conclusion: The three studied agricultural wastes have impressive fibre characteristics which compare very well with other non-wood and woody biomass found in Nigeria. Hand sheets produced from the unbeaten pulp of these agricultural wastes display good properties which make them useful in applications such as in food wrapping, newsprint and handmade crafts. Beating and refining of the pulp from these materials can impact significantly on the quality of handsheets produced.

Open Access Original Research Article

Smoking Prevalence and Knowledge about Its Health Implications among Health Care Professional Students in Ekiti State, South-Western Nigeria

O. A. Akpor, F. E. Eweiye

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27946

Aims: This study examined smoking prevalence and knowledge about its health implications among health care professional students in Ekiti State, South-Western Nigeria.

Theoretical Framework: The Precede-Proceed Model was the theoretical framework for the study.

Methodology: The research design for the study was quantitative. The sample size was determined using the rule of thumb. Simple random sampling technique was used in choosing the participants and sampling techniques was purposive and convenience. Self-developed questionnaire was the instrument used for data gathering. Data from the study was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics.

Results: The findings revealed that 21.6% of the participants have ever smoked cigarette and the majority (77.3%) smoked daily while 89.7% of the participants indicated that they smoked less than 10 cigarettes stick a day and 6.9% smoked more than 30 sticks daily. One-third (34.4%) of the participants commenced smoking between the age of 18 to 21 years while 27.6% between age 16 to 17 years. Almost half (45.2%) of the participants were introduced to cigarette smoking by their peers. The majority (55.0%) of the participants took their cigarette from friends while 35.0% normally bought from the shops. Almost all (99.1%) of the participants were aware of the health risks that are associated with cigarette smoking, almost all (99.1%) and 81.8% of the participants indicated lung cancer while the remaining 18.2% highlighted cancer of the bladder. Also, 93.6% indicated that there was no tobacco treatment centre in their institution.

Conclusion: The study recommended that Nurses and Midwives should ensure that comprehensive individual and group education is done in the clinics and during school health visits, to increase adolescents’ knowledge regarding the health effect of cigarette smoking.

Open Access Original Research Article

Experimental Study of Brine Concentration Effect on Reservoir Porosity and Permeability Measurement

Anietie N. Okon, Ukeme B. Edoho

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28930

Reservoir rock properties such as permeability and porosity can be determined using routine core analysis. However, the optimum brine concentration to determine these petrophysical properties with fluid saturation method has remained unattainable. Therefore, brine concentrations of 0.292 mol/L to 1.752 mol/L were used to assess the effect on reservoir porosity and permeability determination. Six (6) core samples with different diameters and lengths ranging from 2.51 cm to 3.78 cm and 4.48 cm to 10.81 cm respectively were used in the study. Result obtained depicts the effect of brine concentration has on reservoir porosity and permeability; as increased brine concentration resulted in decreased porosity and permeability values. However, stable porosity values were obtained from brine concentration of 1.168 mol / L in all the core plugs. The result further reveals a stable permeability value for core diameter and length of about 3.80 cm and 6.0 cm respectively from a brine concentration of 0.876 mol / L. Therefore, for routine core analysis, brine concentration range of 0.876 mol/L to 1.168 mol / L and core diameter and length of 3.80 cm and 6.0 cm can be used for the determination of reservoir rock porosity and permeability.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decolouration of Crystal Violet by Immobilized and Free Cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

O. B. Akpor, S. C. Obiedelu, C. O. Adetunji

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29120

This investigation was aimed at ascertaining the effects of pH, effect of temperature and effect of sodium acetate concentration on crystal violet decolouration by immobilized and free cells of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a nutrient. The immobilized cells were immobilized sodium alginate solution, agarose and agar in a shaking flask at a speed of 120 revolution/second. Although four dyes were initial selected for the preliminary stage of the study, detailed investigation was carried out using the crystal violet. Prior to inoculation with the respective cells and every 24 h for 120 h, aliquot samples were taken for the estimation of dye using standard procedures. The results revealed highest decrease in the concentration of crystal violet in the presence of the cells was observed at incubation temperature of 35°C. The optimum pH for crystal violet decolouration was shown to be between 8 and 10. Despite the highest decrease in crystal violet concentration in presence of the cells being observed at pH 8 and 10, the decreases did not differ significantly at the different pH. At the different sodium acetate concentrations used in the media, highest decreases in crystal violet concentration in presence of the respective cells was observed at 20 g/L. The present study was able to provide information on the role of the immobilized and free cells of the test bacterial in crystal violet decolouration under the conditions investigated.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Eating Habits and Nutritional Status of Nursing and Midwifery Students in Ekiti State Nigeria

Patience E. Konwea, Seyi E. Ogunsile, Margaret F. Olowoselu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29287

Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess eating habits and nutritional status of nursing and midwifery students in Ekiti State so as to identify their nutrition education need.

Study Design: The study adopted descriptive research design.

Place and Duration of Study: Samples were selected from the schools of nursing and midwifery in Ekiti State Nigeria between March and May 2016.

Methodology: 234 (127 nursing 107 midwifery) students randomly selected from the school  of nursing and midwifery in Ekiti State were included in this study. Data collection was done with the aid of self-structured questionnaire containing 10 items to assess eating habits. Weight and height of respondents were also measured. Data collected were subjected to descriptive analysis of frequency counts, percentages, mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics of multiple linear regression using SPSS version 16. Inferences were made at 0.05 alpha level.

Results: Eating away from home (4.12 ±0.98), eating to relieve stress (4.04 ± 1.17) and snacking (4.02 ± 1.14) are the common eating habits identified. Many (61.7%) had normal weight. No significant demographic difference in respondents’ eating habit but a significant age difference in body mass index (BMI).  Gender (beta weight=.163, p= .013) and student type (beta weight= -.179, p=.017) contributed significantly to eating habit . Female respondents and student nurses had better eating habit than their counterparts. BMI was significantly associated with age (beta weight= -.195, p=.018), marital status (beta weight=.172, p= .014), fruit intake (beta weight= -.164, p=.044), breakfast intake (beta weight=.160, p= .016) and eating to relieve stress (beta weight= .143, p=.033).

Conclusion: It is evident from this study that faulty eating habits are practiced by nursing/midwifery students hence appropriate nutrition education to promote healthy eating is required.