Open Access Clinical Practice Article

Investigation of X-ray Shielding Properties of Concrete Containing Different Percentages of Recycled Lead Shots

M. Alnajjar, S. Yassin, S. Shihada

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28708

This study investigated the recycled lead in shot form with maximum radius of 1.18 mm that added to concrete constituents in different percentages of lead-to-cement ratio (20% to 140%) by weight.

Several tests on fresh and hardened concrete were carried out. The fresh concrete was tested for slump and workability. The tests of hardened concrete included compressive strength at 7 days, 14 days, and 28 days. The penetration of x-ray to concrete after 14 days from casting date was done using a basic x-ray machine as source at 100KeV and 120KeV energies.

An X-Ray Dosimeter STEP OD-01 used as detector to measure the radiation dose rate (µsv/h) that penetrated the concrete samples.

It is observed that the lead-to-cement ratio of 80% gives the best results, where the compressive strength is the max at this value as well as the shielding properties improved.

Open Access Minireview Article

Objective Measures for the Assessment of Energy Expenditure: A Historical Overview

Manolis Adamakis, Katerina Zounhia, Konstantinos Karteroliotis, Maria Koskolou

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29825

Accurate measurement of energy expenditure and estimate physical activity is extremely important in terms of health outcome and effectiveness of intervention programs. However, total energy expenditure, apart from physical activity, includes basal energy expenditure and food thermogenesis. Energy expenditure can be determined objectively by criterion methods, using direct and indirect calorimetry and doubly labeled water (DLW). Indirect calorimetry is frequently applied in laboratory settings, while DLW is the reference for energy expenditure under free-living conditions. These techniques have been used in both clinical and research settings. This review includes a historical overview of these techniques, with more emphasis on the indirect calorimetry and DLW, with particular reference to their validity. These criterion methods are the most valid and reliable measurements against which all other energy expenditure assessments methods should be validated. However, they have important limitations, which are addressed in the present review. The preferred method to determine energy expenditure is likely to depend principally on the number of study participants to be monitored, the time of measurements and the finances available. New technologies have evolved, such as accelerometry, and additional studies are needed to examine the accuracy of these methods and the possibility of improving the accuracy of measurement by combining two methods or more.

Open Access Original Research Article

Attitudes to Bush Meat Trade and Wildlife Conservation at a Market Town in Lowland Rainforest, Rivers State, Nigeria

M. Aline E. Noutcha, Alfred I. Omenihu, Samuel N. Okiwelu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28255

Aims: The study was undertaken to investigate the attitudes of residents (involved and not involved) to the bush meat trade and conservation at a market town in rural lowland forest, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Methodology: Against the background of meteoric rise in and alarming increase in the number of endangered and threatened mammalian species in Nigeria, studies were initiated at the main bush meat market town, Omagwa, in Rivers State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered to a number of respondents: 103 (not involved in the trade), 42 (Vendors), 37 (Hunters), 08 (Middle men).

Results: Although some of the hunters had been in the trade for many years, more than 50% entered the occupation within the last 10 years. Nearly 70% of them were involved in other occupations before they became hunters; only 30% were unemployed before they ventured into hunting. More than 35% of vendors were civil servants. The attitudes of those not involved in the trade were diverse, but nearly 50% thought it was a threat to wildlife. With regards to conservation, nearly 50% offered very positive suggestions on wildlife management. Among hunters, about 60% suggested ways of conserving wildlife, although they were of the view that to enhance the trade, hunting needed to be intensified. Vendors were totally in support of conservation by different means.

Conclusion: All 190 respondents, with the exception of an individual not involved in the trade, were keen to ensure that future generations would have too many opportunities to behold the diversity of wildlife at Omagwa. It was therefore clear that they were interested in sustainability, one of the main goals of conservation, despite some contradictory statements. Suggestions on wildlife management policies are presented, beginning with enlightenment on the concepts of conservation, sustainability, wellbeing, etc., and other inter relationships.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Associated with the Use of Emergency Contraceptive Pills among Students of the Takoradi Polytechnic in Ghana

Stephen Manortey, Wilhelmina T. Duah, Frank Baiden

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29478

Background: Unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortions are major public health problems in sub-Saharan Africa. In the Western Region of Ghana, unsafe abortions account for 3.8% of all maternal deaths. Emergency contraceptive pills (ECP) give women opportunity to prevent unwanted pregnancy in the first few days after unprotected sexual intercourse. The aim of this study was to evaluate the awareness and use of ECPs among students in a tertiary institution in the Western Region of Ghana.

Methods: We conducted a survey using a self-administered questionnaire which inquired into socio demographic background, awareness, knowledge and use of ECPs. We performed descriptive and bivariate analysis, and used logistic regression in analysis to determine the factors influencing ECP use.

Results: Awareness of emergency contraceptive was high (74.7%) but use was low 28.4%. Those who had basic awareness of EC however lacked detailed knowledge about the content, effectiveness and the timing schedule after unprotected sex. Sixty seven per cent had used emergency contraceptive pills more than ones within a year.

Conclusions: A high level of ECP awareness in this student population is not matched by usage.  Abuse and repeated use of emergency contraceptive could be curbed by educating young adults on emergency contraception with emphasis on content, effectiveness and correct timing of use, through various communication channels.

Open Access Original Research Article

Detection and Assay of Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine Hydrochloride) Utilizing Isocratic High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Ronald Bartzatt, Purnima Gajmer, Mai Han Cassandra Nguyen, Alexandra My-Hanh Tran

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28991

Aims: To demonstrate an analysis for vitamin B6 from commercial aqueous nutritional drinks and solid tablets, utilizing isocratic conditions with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and UV detection at 290 nm.

Study Design: Vitamin B6 in the form of pyridoxine hydrochloride is assayed by HPLC from various samples.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Chemistry, Durham Science Center, University of Nebraska, Omaha Nebraska from May to August 2016.

Methodology: Utilizing a reversed-phase C-18 column with eluent solvent (19% ethanol, 77% water, 4% acetic acid), the samples were prepared in sample solvent (19% ethanol, 81% distilled water). Detection of vitamin B6 was accomplished at 290 nm. Analysis of samples was done following solubilizing in aqueous conditions having ethanol at 10% to 20% (v/v). Column pressure at 1900 psig, rise time 0.1 with flow rate 1.0 mL/minute. Elution peak for vitamin B6 occurred consistently at 1.6 minutes. Nutritional samples, aqueous samples, and solid pills were prepared in aqueous solvent with various levels of ethanol.

Results: Levels of vitamin B6 detected were as low as 4.4029x10-5 molar to 7.8081x10-4 molar.  Sensitivity for vitamin B6 was highest at 290 nm.  Reverse phase isocratic conditions is shown to be effective for determination of vitamin B6 in aqueous based samples. Standard curves applied are highly linear in range from zero to 7.8081x10-4 molar (y = 112,521,145.5x + 2,818.6), having coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.9948) with very strong positive correlation coefficient (r= 0.9974). Percent recovery of vitamin ranged from 95% to 105%.  Amounts of vitamin present in drinks from same manufacturer were consistent.

Conclusion: Utilizing reversed phase column, isocratic solvent conditions with ethanol in water, and a UV detector set at 290 nm is effective for determination of vitamin B6.  Ethanol-water solvent system is effective. Vitamin B6 was found in various amounts in nutritional drinks tested.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Stakeholder Involvement in the Management of Yankari Game Reserve Bauchi, Nigeria

A. E. Okochi, T. N. Tee, P. O. Egwumah

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29457

Aims: To examine the involvement of stake holders in the management of Yankari Game Reserve (YGR).

Study Design:  The study is a survey that is cross-sectional, descriptive and analytical.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at YGR, Bauchi, Nigeria between June and November 2014.

Methodology: Applying a multistage sampling approach, 139 staff members of YGR and 320 members of the host community were randomly selected and interviewed with semi structured-questionnaire to elicit data. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics.

Results: The highest proportions; 94.2% and 95.7% of the respondents respectively asserts that host community members were not involved in the management and protection of YGR. Similarly, 92.2% of YGR staff members asserted that host community leaders and opinion leaders were not consulted for inputs in management decisions about YGR. Also, majority (83.7%) of the respondents reported that community associations like hunters, traditional rulers, youths and non-timber forest products collectors were not involved in the management of YGR. Assessment of stakeholder involvement in management activities showed that Government was leading in capacity building (69.0%), financing (70.4%) and management decision making (58.0%). Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) were leading in awareness creation (71.4%). Among the NGOs that were involved in the foregoing management activities, World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) was leading by 70.5%.

Conclusion: The management of YGR was therefore carried out primarily by government with the support of NGOs. Host community involvement was very low. This portends a conflicting relationship between government and host communities over the conservation and management of YGR. Management should therefore work towards enlisting all stakeholders in the management processes of the reserve to ensure a more effective management regime at the reserve. 

Open Access Original Research Article

Spatial Distribution of Diatoms and Nutrients in a Mangrove Swamp of Eastern Obolo, Niger Delta

A. I. Inyang, K. S. Effiong

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-17
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29373

The spatial distribution of diatoms and nutrients concentration in a mangrove swamp of Eastern Obolo was investigated during dry and wet seasons. This research was to establish the distribution pattern of diatom at ten stations with nutrients level, salinity, TDS (Total Suspended Solid), conductivity, pH across the coastal water, and to evaluate centric/pennate diatom’s ratio in the system. It was observed that during dry period, the salinity, conductivity, TDS and pH level increased progressively toward the Atlantic Ocean. The species taxa encountered at respective station could be affected by TDS, conductivity and salinity level as it correlated significantly with these variables, TDS (r = .929**), conductivity (r = .889**) and salinity (r = .760**). The species diversity during dry season correlates significantly with TDS (r = .700**), conductivity (r = .658*) and salinity (r = 0.545). Reactive phosphate peaked 0.038 mg/L at S9 during wet season and dropped to 0.002 mg/L at S2 during dry season, whereas reactive nitrate recorded a higher value of 1.10 mg/L at S5 during dry season and lower value of 0.018 mg/L at S4 & S6 during wet season. During wet season, salinity level affects diatom density positively as it responded significantly (r = .795**). TDS showed a strong significant correlation with reactive nitrate (r = .810**), reactive phosphate (r = .728*) and with SDI (r= 0.265) during wet period. The ratio of centric to pennate diatom recorded a lower value of 0.41 and 0.37 at S1 & S2 during wet season, and 0.47 and 0.47 at S1& S2 during dry season. The following species of diatoms showed a wider range of distribution during wet and dry period; Coscinodiscus centralis Ehrenberg, Ditylum brightwelli (T. West) Grunow, Biddulphia mobiliensis (J.W. Bailey) Grunow, Thalassiothrix frauenfeldii (Grunow) Grunow and Asterionella japonica Cleve. The centric to pennate diatom ratio could be used to quantify the degree of disturbance of benthic environment. The distribution and composition of the diatom species in the coastal water was affected by salinity level, conductivity, pH and TSD for the seasons majorly, and least by the nutrient level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Influence of Draw Resistance on Benz [a] Pyrene and Its Contribution to Cigarette Hazard Index

Wang Hao, Zhan Jianbo, Yu Jiang, Yu Yao, Cheng Liang, Yu Zhenhua, Zhang Ying, Li Gen, Yue Baoshan, Li Muyan, Ji Yafeng, He Danfeng, Chen Chen, Fu Rongrong, Wang Xiuxiu, Zan Na, Perin Deniz, Zheng Han, Ding Wei, Zhang Jing, Yu Tingting, Xie Jiao, Wang Tao, Gong Weimin, Gui Yongfa, Ding Haiyan, Li Liwei, Li Zhiqiang, Gao Li, Li Tinghua

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28737

Influence of cigarette draw resistance between 860-1130Pa on Benz [a] Pyrene in mainstream cigarette smoke was carried out, and contribution to cigarette hazard index was also studied. The experimental results showed that the contribution degree of is uniform, which is different from variation of HCN, CO, crotonaldehyde and NNK. 1000Pa is the critical draw resistance, below and above 1000Pa an obvious variation of Benz [a] Pyrene appears. Contribution to cigarette hazard index was also analyzed, which proves that it is feasible and convincing to study variation of Benz [a] Pyrene and other smoke harmful components.