Open Access Original Research Article

Post-harvest Storage Losses in Rice: A Study of Ekiti State, Nigeria

Lawrence Olusola Oparinde, Adeniyi Michael Otitoju, Abiola Adebunmi Olarinre

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29652

Aims: This study examined post-harvest storage losses in rice in Ekiti State, Nigeria.

Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in Ekiti State, Nigeria between May 2014 and August 2014.

Methodology: Multistage sampling procedure was used to select 150 rice farmers from Ekiti State. Descriptive statistics, Quantitative analytical techniques and Probit regression model were used to analyse the data.

Results: Over 50% of the respondents were using Warehouse as storage system, while the remaining respondents were using Bags. Some of the reasons for the use of warehouse as stated by the respondents include inheritance from parents and availability. Majority (52.3% and 48.4%) of the farmers recorded less than 10% intensity of post-harvest storage losses using Warehouse and Bag storage system respectively. The study further revealed that mean efficiency for Warehouse storage system and Bag storage system was 89.7% and 85.3% respectively, which shows that Warehouse is more efficient than Bag. The mean economic loss in Warehouse was ₦28,380, while that of Bag was ₦32,113 indicating that Warehouse storage system is more efficient economically than Bag storage system in the study area. The results of the probit model showed that cost, life-span and efficiency of the storage system were significant in determining the choice of storage systems in the study area.

Conclusion: It could be concluded that the intensity of post-harvest storage loss in the study area was high, which calls for urgent intervention so as to salvage the situation. Therefore, individuals, government and non-governmental organisations should introduce more affordable, efficient and sophisticated storage systems to the study area for effective storage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Design Approach for 2D Recursive Filters Used in Frequency Plane Partitioning

Radu Matei

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29802

This work proposes an analytical design procedure for some types of 2D recursive filters useful in frequency plane partitioning, namely diamond, parallelogram, fan or wedge-shaped filters with a specified bandwidth and orientation. Such filters can be used as components of particular filter banks, applied in directional image decomposition. The design starts from two zero-phase low-pass 1D prototypes, to which specific frequency mappings are applied, also exploiting the symmetry properties in the frequency plane. This method combines analytical approach with numerical approximations, yielding the desired 2D frequency response. A more selective filter results by combining two or several elementary filters. Several design examples for these filters are provided.

Open Access Original Research Article

Expenditure Pattern, Poverty and Impact of Tobacco Expenditure on the Consumption of Essential Household Commodities in Nigeria: A Rural/Urban Context

Folashayo Adeniji

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29597

Smoking impacts the living standards of households in addition to its damaging consequences on the health status of households that use tobacco. Given a fixed household budget, the consumption of essential household commodities are affected by their decision to smoke or not, especially in low-income households. In this study, we carried out the analysis of household expenditure pattern, poverty levels and the impact of tobacco expenditure on household consumption of essential commodities using the Nigerian Harmonised National Living Standard Survey, 2010. We employed the Quadratic Almost Ideal Demand System (QUAIDS) under separable consumer utility and two-stage budgeting frameworks to establish if tobacco use causes substitution effect on other goods that are more beneficial to household welfare. The results show that the mean per capita household expenditure is higher among non-poor households compared to poor households. In contrast, a significantly higher mean per capita expenditure on alcoholic beverages, tobacco and narcotics was observed among extremely poor households suggesting complementarity between tobacco and alcohol. Also, extremely poor smoking households appear to spend more on medical care than non-smokers within the same poverty classification. Overall, poverty incidence was 68% and our model estimation showed that tobacco consumption is not separable from household consumption of some goods so that changes in tobacco expenditure affects spending on these commodities.

Open Access Original Research Article

The Implications of Women’s Late Entry to the Bar and Their Treason against the Order of Nature: A Judicial Analysis

Nico P. Swartz

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28732

During the Roman Empire, two women Carfinia and Calphurnia, offended the sensibilities of the Courts. Carfinia vexed a praetor with her pleading and Calphurnia, pleading before the Senate, lost her case and in an act of extreme contempt of Court, turned her back to the judges, lifted her robes and displayed her derriere (her buttocks, her rear-side or her behind). As a result of the actions of Carfinia and Calphurnia, women were excluded entirely from rendering any Court or public service on account of their temperament. Being decommissioned for centuries from the legal profession, women encountered a heavy backlog and their entry, after much fighting, was not received as a welcome invitation by their male counterparts. 

Aim: Law was seen to be a male prerogative and the common rationale had been that women have never been admitted to the bar. And, over and above this contention of the legal fraternity, patriarchal sentiments portray that the constitution of the family organisation and divine ordinance dictates that the domestic sphere is that which properly belongs to the domain and functions of womanhood. This study aims to dispel such notion and tried to forge an isonomy or achieved gender equality between the sexes. Its target audience is legal practitioners.

Methodology: This research overwhelmingly dictates or hinges upon a theoretical model. Law literature like textbooks and Court cases of years’ back and of present interpretations have provided the tenor for this paper and an array of internet sources on gender roles vis-à-vis the practice of law proved to be useful.

Main Findings: Patriarchal sentiments and the perception that law is a male construct have barred women from entering the legal profession. Apart from their presumed incapacity in law, women were thought to be emotional rather than rational and logical and this perception attests to their exclusion from the legal practice.

Conclusions: Patriarchal contentions about the constitution of the family and divine ordinance dictate that women belong to the domestic sphere, where they executed the nurturing duties of wife and mother. The research bolstered the notion that the aforesaid sentence portrays the fact that that is the law of the Creator and women infringed this law when they militate against it by entering the legal profession. Patriarchal notions regard women’s intention to enter the legal profession as treason against the order of nature.

Recommendations: Sentiments as to the exclusion of women form the legal profession in modern day context have regarded women’s exclusion from the legal profession as anachronistic, out-dated and even unreasonable. And such sentiments will never succeed constitutional scrutiny of human rights. The socio-economic reality also determines that the implications of a decommissioned woman will have a negative effect on family life in particular and an adverse effect on the economy in general.

Open Access Original Research Article

Behavioral Patterns of Child Sexual Abuse and Their Relationships with Personality Characteristics

Cristina Andreu, Pilar Barreto, Amparo Oliver, José Manuel Tomás, Victoria Mínguez, Elena Roales

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29789

This paper replicates the three types of patterns of child sexual abuse of Canter, Hughes and Kirby [1] based on frequency and co-occurrence of different patterns of abusive behaviors. In a sample of 206 Spanish men convicted of child sexual abuse, three abusive patterns are obtained: Intimacy, Aggressive and Criminal-Opportunist pattern. A mixed group Aggressive- Opportunist is also found. These groups differ significantly in some personality characteristics.

Open Access Original Research Article

Correlation between Oxidative Stress Markers and Atherogenic Indices in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Adedeji David Atere, Busayo Grace Ale, Babatunde I. Adejumo, Olaiya Paul Abiodun, Ufuoma Christian Solomon

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29318

Worldwide, approximately 200 million individuals are currently suffering from Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Diabetes mellitus is associated with hyperglycemia; which induces oxidative stress that is responsible for the various complications associated with the disease. This study was designed to know the relationship between oxidative stress and atherogenic indices of plasma in Type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. A total number of eighty (80) subjects comprising of 58 diabetic subjects with mean age (62.91±10.57) years and 22 non-diabetic subjects with mean age (55.27±16.62) years were studied. Estimation of enzymatic and non-enzymatic oxidative stress markers (which included MDA, SOD, GPx, CAT, Uric acid and Albumin) and atherogenic indices (TCHOL, TG, HDL, LDL) were done respectively using standard spectrophotometric techniques. The mean plasma of SOD, GPx, CAT and albumin were significantly lower in diabetic subjects compared with control group. However, TChol, HDL, MDA and uric acid were significantly higher in diabetic subjects compared with controls. The findings of this study showed significant differences in dyslipidemia, lipid peroxidation and increase of oxidative stress markers from naïve type 2 diabetic subjects through controls. Thus, early diagnosis and management of this condition is necessary in order to incorporate antioxidant supplement as a supportive therapy for adequate glycaemic control.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study on Reverse Technological Spillover of China’s OFDI among Different Worldwide Economic Groups and Regions

Lan Xu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/30099

This paper adopts the principle of Malmquist productivity growth index calculation to analyze the Chinese outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) for recent 10 years and its reverse technological spillover to the home country. To this end, the paper uses the two-stage (parametric and nonparametric) optimization approach to estimate the elasticity of China’s OFDI that contributes to the development of domestic reverse technological spillover and economic efficiency. Besides, in order to appropriately evaluate the effect of reverse technological spillover, this paper also utilizes the component of technological progress in the Malmquist productivity growth index to measure total factor productivity (TFP). Finally, this paper provides the comparative analysis of reverse technological spillover across worldwide economic groups and regions that China has the outward foreign direct investments (OFDI) with.  

As a result, China’s direct investment overseas in recent 10 years exhibits an obvious positive effect on the reverse technological spillover domestically. Such effect is the largest from the African continent where China has direct investment, and is the weakest from the Asian continent. But according to the classification of per capita GDP criteria, the elasticity effect of reverse technological spillover on the Chinese OFDI hardly differs among groups of countries with different income classes. Besides, research results reflect that China, as the largest developing country, the outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) of an extensively large scale is just about to start, and the Chinese OFDI till now still shows an obvious motivation for seeking resources, while the proportion of technology-seeking type of OFDI is not enough.

Open Access Review Article

Industrial, Carbon Sequestration and Climate Change Mitigation Potentials of Bamboo

Mekonnen Daba

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28926

Bamboo is an exceptional ancillary for timbers. It has more than 150 years history as indicated in different scientific investigations. Bamboo is a perennial plant, highest yielding, the fastest growing and renewable natural resource. Global climate change has been identified as the most important environmental, economic and social challenge faced by humankind. Greenhouse gases (GHG) in the earth’s atmosphere is increasing and causing climate change. Numerous researchers, policy makers and scientists are trying their best to decrease this greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide (CO2) from the earth atmosphere. Bamboo is frequently encouraged as an ideal renewable resource for biomass, valuable for wood and paper industry. Bamboo is source of income in rewarding the diverse requirements of smallholder’s farmers in rural areas and has great potential in sequestering carbon and climate change mitigation. Therefore, promoting bamboo farming systems in smallholder farmers to reduce greenhouse gas in atmosphere and expanding bamboo forests in future under wider use and intensive management is suggested. This study provides a brief overview about bamboo potentials as; industrial benefits, carbon sequestration, soil erosion control, water and soil conservation and climate change mitigation.