Open Access Original Research Article

N-Coincidence and Common N-fixed Point for Hybrid Pair of Mappings in Partially Ordered Metric Spaces

R. A. Rashwan, I. M. Shimaa

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-20
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28914

In present paper we introduce the concepts of mixed g-monotone property and △g-symmetric property, where g is single valued mapping, for multi-valued mapping under any number of variables and use it to obtain some existence and uniqueness fixed points for hybrid pair of mappings under general contractive conditions in partially ordered metric spaces. Our results are generalizations of several results in this direction. We equipped this paper with examples in order to illustrate the effectiveness of our generalizations.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigating the Influence of Quarry Mining Activities on Malaria Prevalence: A Community Based Survey in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Lawrence Ulu Ogbonnaya, Pearl Adaoha Agu, Chinyere Ojugo Mbachu, Eze Chidi Eze, Edmund Ndudi Ossai

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/30004

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of quarry mining activities on malaria prevalence in rural communities of Ebonyi state, Nigeria.

Study Design: A comparative cross sectional study design.

Place and Duration of Study: Rural communities of Ebonyi State southeast Nigeria between November 2011 and February 2012.

Methodology: Two rural communities in Ebonyi state, Nigeria were purposively selected for the study. One was renowned for its numerous quarry mining industries while the control group was a farming community. Total population study of the two communities were done. Data collection involved a pretested interviewer administered questionnaire and blood film examination for malaria parasites. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Science statistical software version 20. Chi square statistical test of significance was used in the analysis and level of significance was determined by a p value of < 0.05.

Results: A total of 342 respondents participated in the study, (206 in study group and 136 in control). A significantly higher proportion of respondents in the study group were aware of quarry mining activity in their community and the presence of abandoned quarry pits, (p<0.001). Also, a higher proportion of children under 5 years and pregnant women in the study group experienced malaria in the past two weeks when compared with those in the control group, (p<0.001) and a significantly higher proportion of respondents in study group were positive for malaria parasites when compared with the control group, (p<0.001).

Conclusion: When compared to non-mining community, quarry mining significantly increased the prevalence of malaria. Also, pregnant women and children under the age of five years were the most affected groups in such areas. Bearing in mind that these mining activities are not regulated, there is need for adequate supervision and monitoring of all mining activities by responsible agents of government. There should also be intensification of malaria control efforts in such communities.

Open Access Original Research Article

Antifungal Activity of Various Medicinal Plants against Late Blight of Potato from Ethiopia

Meskerem A. Abayhne, Nitin M. Chauhan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/30217

Aims: Emerging losses caused by late blight of potatoes need new approaches to control Phytophthora infestans. Searching for novel molecules with antifungal activity, twelve medicinal plants from Ethiopia were investigated against this pathogen.

Methodology: To accomplish this task, growth inhibitory effect of aqueous, ethanolous, and methanolous extracts of various medicinal plants were tested in vitro by applying agar well diffusion technique.

Results: All plant extracts except Eucalyptus globules and Hagenia abyssinica showed promising antifungal activity against the P. infestans mycelial growth. Datura stramonium, Rhamnus prinoides and Moringa stenopetala exhibited highest activity against P. infestans. Direct germination of zoosporangia was also significantly inhibited by all extracts of medicinal plants except E. globules and H. abyssinica. Methanolous extract of Nicotinia tabacum did not inhibited either mycelium growth or sporulation of the fungus.

Conclusions: Various products of proposed medicinal plants deserved to be reliable sources as antifungal agents and might play significant role for future practical applications in a socially and ecologically healthy management of late blight of potatoes. Further work in this direction can give insight into novel antifungal targets and molecules for prevention of P. infestans infection, especially against late blight of potato and tomato.

Open Access Original Research Article

Teacher Quality Indicators as Correlates of Public Secondary School Physics Students’ Achievement in Onitsha and Awka Educational Zones of Anambra State, Nigeria

Ukoh Edidiong Enyeneokpon, Oboshi Chinenye Maureen

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/28993

This study examined teacher quality indicators as correlate of physics students’ achievement in Onitsha and Awka Educational zones of Anambra State. Fifty Physics teachers and 500 senior secondary two physics students were randomly selected from fifty  schools in Onitsha and Awka educational zones of Anambra state, physics Achievement Test, Students’ Questionnaire on Teacher-Student Relationship, Teacher’s Classroom Observation Form, and Teacher’s Demographic Form were used for data collection and were analyzed using multiple regressions. The results showed that  combined teacher quality indicators (teacher’s subject matter knowledge, teacher’s qualification, teacher-student relationship, teacher’s qualification and teacher’s experience) have significant contributions to physics achievement (F = 5.417, P < 0.05). Relative contributions of pedagogical knowledge, Teacher-student relation, teacher’s experience and Teacher’s qualification to achievement, were not significant except subject matter knowledge (β = 0.227, p <0.05) which was found to have significant relationship with Physics achievement. It was recommended that teachers should be given opportunities for continuous study in physics and other professional developments to improve their content knowledge.

Open Access Original Research Article

Selection of Bayesian Multiple Deferred Sampling Plan (BMDS-1) with Weighted Poisson Model Based on AOQ and ATI Curve

K. Subbiah, M. Latha

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/30036

Bayesian Acceptance Sampling Approach is associated with utilization of prior process history for the selection of Distributions (viz., Gamma Poisson, Beta Binomial) to describe the random fluctuations involved in Acceptance Sampling. Latha [1] has studied Bayesian Chain Sampling Plan – 1 involving designing of Bayesian Chain Sampling Plan indexed through Acceptance Quality Limit (AQL), Limiting Quality Limit (LQL), Overall Average Outgoing Quality Limit (OAOQL), and Maximum Allowable Average Percent Defective (MAAPD). The main thrust of this paper is to account for the possibility of dependence among the items of a sample. In paper a procedure is developed to draw an Average Outgoing Quality Level (AOQL), Overall Average Outgoing Quality Limit (OAOQL) curve by using Gamma Poisson distribution and compare the different procedures in order to show the ambiguity of the procedure and their results. It provides an investigation into the robustness of single sampling procedure indexed by Acceptance Quality Level (AQL) and Average Outgoing Quality Level (AOQL).

Open Access Original Research Article

Determination of Molar Mass and Its Relationship with Free Energy of Activation: A Case Study on Human Salivary Alpha Amylase

Ikechukwu I. Udema

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29395

Aims: The objectives of the research were (i) to show that the mass concentration, molar mass of one-active site enzyme, and consequently, the type of human salivary alpha amylase (HSαA), can be determined using kinetic parameter dependent model, (ii) to show that the free energy of activation for hydrolysis of substrate is usually related to molar mass.

Study Design: Experimental.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biochemistry, Ambrose Alli University and Research Division of Ude International Concepts Limited (RC 862217) B. B. Agbor Delta, Nigeria. The research spanned between June, 2008 and August, 2016.

Methodology: Bernfeld method of enzyme assay was used. Assays were carried out on diluted commercial human salivary alpha amylase (HSαA) and crude extract of HSαA. 

Results: Mean values of calculated mass concentration and molar mass of the enzyme were 171.09±0.64 mg/l and 61.92±0.64 kDa respectively (from 20 calculations). The concentration of crude extract of HSαA was 94.5±0.4 mg/l. With the old model the free energy of activation (△Ga) value is 51.19±0.12 kJ/mol (n = 20). Using directly the new model the value is 51.21±0.08 kJ/mol.

Conclusion: It is concluded that the model can be used to accurately determine the concentration of the enzyme and its △Ga using either standard solution or crude extract. Therefore, as a corollary, the molar mass of such enzyme can be determined given well defined concentration of the enzyme. The enzyme purchased from Sigma – Aldrich, USA, may be the glycosylated HSαA.

Open Access Original Research Article

Weighted Regression Curves for the Population with Diabetes Mellitus

Hyounkyun Oh, Dhruvika Patel, Sujin Kim

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/30368

This study contributes to the fields of Statistics and Numerical Analysis by considering the Least Square method to develop new regression functions. Based on the chronological, discrete dataset for the national and international population with diabetes mellitus from 1980 through 2015, we examine the accuracy of various traditional regression functions. Moreover, in order to emphasize the importance of more recent, past data to the future outputs, the article suggests a weighted Least Square Method. The weight vector is developed by appropriately transforming the standard logistic function σ(t) on the given timeline while counting the number of node points, Then the root mean square error (RMSE) is re-defined along with these components and the derived weighted regression functions work more coincident than the non-weighted ones to predict the near future values. The obtained regression functions are employed again to predict the near (2016) and remote (2030) future populations of patients with diabetes and outputs are analyzed with their unique properties.

Open Access Review Article

Impact of Oil Pollution on Livelihood: Evidence from the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria

Ikenna V. Ejiba, Simeon C. Onya, Oluwadamilola K. Adams

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/26633

This paper highlights the negative impact of oil pollution in Nigeria with particular reference to the Niger Delta region. For a region that provides a majority of Nigeria’s revenue and foreign exchange earnings to bear an exclusive brunt of oil exploration and exploitation is quite an irony. Oil spillage and gas flaring over the years has been at the heart of environmental degradation in the Niger Delta with an average of about 700 spills recorded annually; while gas flaring has continued unabated in spite of been an illegal activity as prescribed by law. In spite of the report(s) by oil companies that majority of oil spills in the region is due to sabotage; neglect on the part of IOC’s and ageing infrastructure have equally contributed to the high incidence of oil spill and gas flaring as experienced in the region. Oil spillage and gas flaring have continued to impact negatively on the people of the region causing destruction of the environment, while causing significant damage on livelihood of mostly farming and fishing communities. This situation has increased the vulnerability of households thereby affecting their wellbeing adversely, with a threat on the region’s future means of sustenance; while governments response and remediation efforts aimed at restoring the regions ecosystem have not being very effective. This paper therefore calls for strengthening of the appropriate federal laws relating to oil exploration to ensure that oil companies operating in the region do so in compliance with proper environmental standards and international best practice.