Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Lepidagathis alopecuroides Extracts as Wood (Bombax buonopozense) Preservative against Termites (Macrotermes malaccensis) Attack

F. G. Obomanu, O. K. Ogbalu, O. S. Edori

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29296

Cold and hot extracts of Lepidagathis alopecuroides were obtained using water, petroleum spirit and methanol as extracting solvents. The extracts were diluted to different concentrations (0.025, 0.035, 0.045 and 0.055 mg/L) and a control (0.00 mg/L). The extracts were then applied on completely dried pieces of Bombax buonopozense wood and stuck in the ground near an anthill and allowed to stand for six weeks. The protection of the wood was measured by the rate of non-consumption of the wood. It was observed that the protection of the wood from termites attack by the extracts were concentration dependent. In the cold extract, methanol gave 95.23 ± 7.55% protection at the highest concentration (0.055 mg/L) followed by the value at 0.045 mg/L (65.08 ± 9.20%) as against the control value of 10.50 ± 0.00%. Cold petroleum spirit extract at the highest concentration gave 86.60 ± 9.34% protection while, the cold water extract at the highest concentration gave 88.88 ± 16.32% protection. In the hot extraction, extracts from methanol gave 46.20 ± 10.21% at the highest concentration; petroleum spirit gave 57.38 ± 7.71% protection while, hot water extract gave 53.19 ± 7.25% protection. The results showed that cold extracts of Lepidagathis alopecuroides from the various solvents were more potent in the wood (Bombax buonopozense) protection than the corresponding hot extracts. We can infer that some of the active components in the plant are volatile. The plant Lepidagathis alopecuroides can be recommended as potent, new wood preservative.

Open Access Original Research Article

Pollutants Spread in a Bifurcating River: The River Nun, Bayelsa, Nigeria

W. I. A. Okuyade, T. M. Abbey

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/26722

Pollutants have grievous impacts on human lives and aquatic ecosystem. Reducing them in our environment is a global objective that demands cooperation from all, and the services of experts. In view of this, a hydrodynamic model of the spread of pollutants in a bifurcating river is presented to investigate the role of the flow dynamics of rivers in the dispersion of pollutants. The study is centred on the River Nun, Bayelsa, Nigeria where there are incidences of pollution. The flow model is governed by a set of nonlinear and coupled partial differential equations, solved by the methods similarity transformation and perturbation series expansions. Expressions for the temperature, concentration and velocity are obtained and analyzed graphically. The analyses show that the bifurcation angle, Reynolds number and thermal differentials increase the velocity of the flow. These results have attendant implications on the spread of pollutants in the River Nun. In particular, if the deposition of pollutants in a location of the river is stopped, the increase in velocity will enhance the spread of the existing pollutants through the infinite river, thus reducing their concentration at that location to an allowable level, safe for man and the aquatic ecosystem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Fingerprint-Based Authorization Platform for Electronic-Based Examination

G. B. Iwasokun, O. K. Akinyokun, R. O. Akinyede, S. S. Udoh

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/29179

The advent of technology has revolutionized systemic approach to issues and methodology in different areas of life. Technological apparatus has stepped up human performance and efficiency in transportation, agriculture, entertainment, resource management, training, assessment and other areas of man’s endeavour. Specifically, educational assessment has witnessed a shift in paradigm. Since the traditional approaches to examination suffer in areas of security and standard, they are now being replaced in several places with electronic-based methods which have helped human factors in efficient service delivery. Existing electronic-based examination use PIN, password or token for authorization and they are susceptible to different forms of irregularities ranging from impersonation to other related practices. The research reported in this paper focused on the development of a platform that uses fingerprint-based technology for authenticating electronic-based examination takers with a view to improve on security and control. The platform uses suitable mathematical models for fingerprint database, enhancement, feature extraction and pattern matching. A prototype of the platform was subjected to evaluation using fingerprints from different scanners and 500 research subjects. Analysis of results on error rates and matching speed revealed the suitability of the proposed platform.

Open Access Original Research Article

Knowledge and Utilization of PMTCT among HIV Positive Women Attending Postnatal Clinic at Bariadi District Hospital, Tanzania

Diana E. Nakuzelwa, Edmund J. Kayombo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27090

Background: Mother to child transmission of HIV has been one of the major health problems in Tanzania. It occurs when a HIV infected woman passes the virus to her baby at delivery and during breast feeding. It is not known if pregnant women are aware that HIV pregnant women can pass the virus to the expecting baby and utilize the PMTCT as a prevention strategy.  

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess knowledge and utilization of PMTCT among HIV positive women attending postnatal clinic at Bariadi District Hospital.

Methodology: A descriptive Cross-sectional study was carried to pregnant HIV positive women attending postnatal clinic and VTC centers using structured questionnaire.

Results: A total of 217 pregnant HIV positive women participated in the study. The results showed 85.7 were between 15-44 age group; 72.8% had primary school education and 54.8% were married. Further, the study showed 91.2% had knowledge that HIV could be transmitted from infected mother to her unborn child. The study showed that 90.3% had tested HIV at the booking of ANC. It was learnt that 6.5% underwent caesarean section, 92.2% of women took prophylactic ARV during labor, 87.6% took Nevirapine to save the expected child in the first 72 hours and 81.1% had exclusive breastfeeding as a feeding option to minimize risk of transmission of HIV from mother to child. Above all 86.2% of the study population received counseling and family planning education while attending antenatal clinic.

Conclusion: The findings suggest that on PMTCT during antenatal had significant behavioral change on utilization PMTCT services. This implies that if communities are well informed   by an expert on PMTCT can bring behavioral change on the targeted health problem.

Open Access Original Research Article

Energy Integration to Ensure Effective Generation Supply and Distribution in Ghana Corporation Perspective

Francois Mahama, Carlos Ankora, Noble Kuadey, Lily Bensah

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/30428

Aims: The objectives of the research are to examine the awareness and efficiency of the renewable energy law in Ghana; determine the main source for energy generated by the VRA, GRIDCO, and ECG; determine the distribution gap and find out how effectively these corporations are making use of the other resources to generate electric energy in Ghana.

Study Design:  Purposive Sampling technique study design.

Place and Duration of Study: Volta River Authority, Ghana Grid Company, Electricity Company of Ghana, Ghana, between April 2016 and August 2016.

Methodology: We included sampled employees from the Volta River Authority, Ghana Grid Company, Electricity Company of Ghana. A total of 300 employees of the three organizations were selected for the research. The study employed a purposive sampling technique in selecting the employees from the three organizations.

Results: Data collected was analyzed using appropriate descriptive and inferential statistics. Results revealed that all employees are aware of the Renewable Energy Law Act 832 and that it is defined as energy obtained from non-depleting sources such as “Wind energy”, “Solar energy”, “Bio-energy”, “Geothermal energy”, and “Ocean energy”. Also, this study has established that, “hydro power sources”, “thermal energy sources”; and “renewable energy sources” are the main sources of energy generated by the Volta River Authority and also the type of renewable energy currently generated by the Volta River Authority is the solar energy.

Furthermore, the study has been able to establish that the Volta River Authority currently produce between 2100 to 2499 megawatts of electricity but however, there is a distribution gap or shortfall of about 900 to 1299 megawatts of electricity. Finally, findings from the study revealed that other corporations generate about 900 to 1299 megawatts of electricity.

Conclusion: “High-Cost” and “Lack of trust in the technology” are the factors that will prevent the adoption of renewable energy sources. Also, “Lack of budget funding” and “Unavailability of Gas/Crude oil to power plants” are the barriers to improving energy efficiency. It was however recommended that, the government should endeavor to initiate informative programs aimed at promoting renewable energy and provide capital subsidies and make investments through specialized agencies created for the promotion of renewable energy development and for installation of renewable energy.

Open Access Original Research Article

Copper and Zinc Removal from Contaminated Water Using Coffee Waste

Lovell Odili E. Agwaramgbo, Renata Fraga Cardoso, Taynara Simão Matos

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/31118

Aim: The aim of this research is to evaluate the selectivity in metal removal by coffee waste from binary-metal polluted water from contaminated water.

Place: The work was done at Dillard University in New Orleans, LA, USA.

Duration: The project was carried out between November and December 2014.

There are reports that suggest that there is a steady increase in industrial effluents containing heavy metals that are being dumped into the water. The presence of these heavy metals in water is harmful for the environment, human health, and aquatic life. It is necessary to develop cheap and friendly method such as agricultural waste to remove these metals. These industrial effluents are known to contain more than one heavy metal; thus, the paper presented here examines the effects of dose of adsorbent, metal type, and the presence of another metal on heavy metal removal by coffee waste. Results showed that (1) increasing the dose of coffee waste increases the removal of heavy metal from the samples. As the adsorbent dose increased from 1 g - 4 g, the percent metal removal increased from 73-92% for copper and 50-74% for zinc from single-metal solutions and from 26-78% for copper and 18-58% for zinc from binary-metal solutions (2) there is selectivity in favor of copper removal from the binary metal mixture by the coffee waste as shown above (3) ion type effect was observed in that more copper was adsorbed from both mono and binary metal samples (4) the presence of another metal as impurity increased metal adsorption hence, more adsorption occurred from binary metal solution than from the single metal solution.

Open Access Original Research Article

Temporal Change in Relative Availability/ Contribution of Different Livestock Feed Resources to the Total Feeds Available to Livestock Keepers in the Mixed Crop-livestock Highlands of Ethiopia: The Case of Household Perception in Tiyo District, Arsi Zone

Aklilu Mekasha

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/27223

In this study, temporal change, over the last 30-40 years, in relative availability/ contribution of different livestock feed resources to the total feeds available to livestock keepers were assessed based on household perception. The study was conducted in the Tiyo District of Ethiopia in Arsi Zone -as a typical representation of the mixed crop-livestock highland system of the country. The results revealed that over the last 30-40 years relative availability/ contribution of communal and private pasture lands have significantly declined. On the other hand; aftermath grazings as dry season feeds;  crop residues particularly wheat and barley as year round feeds, and  flour and oil mill/ agro-industrial by-products as year round supplementary feeds have significantly  increased. Nevertheless, the relative contribution of cultivated forage grasses, herbaceous legumes and browses were low and remained unchanged over the study period. Thus the results suggest that efforts on livestock feed resources development, better focus on local level strategies aimed at maximizing productivity and quality of the increasing feed resources. The unchanged very low contribution of cultivated forage crops also require new innovative systems of technology generation, demonstration and dissemination over the approaches being followed for the last 30-40 years.  

Open Access Review Article

Review of Competitive Advantage Measurements: Reference on Agribusiness Sector

Vilani Sachitra

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2016/30850

Aim: In the rapid pace of competition in the current business environment, a firm or an industry is required to be more competitive and hostile. Competitiveness of the global agribusiness has raised concerns among economists and policy makers about the need for competitive advantage in the agribusiness sector of developing countries like. The concept of competitiveness could be viewed as an outcome and as such, superior economic or market performance is considered as an indicator of competitive advantage. Unique measurement of competitive advantage in agriculture sector hence provides supplementary value for identifying factors enhancing competitive advantage.

Approach: This paper attempts to critically review measurement criteria of competitive advantage at firm level, specially concerns with agribusiness sector. The paper undertakes a critical review of the available measurement variables of competitive advantage.

Value: The proposed measurement items of competitive advantage could be used for valid measurements in future empirical studies, especially in agribusiness sector, after testing the validity and reliability. Further, review of comprehensive measurement dimensions of competitive advantage could enhance practitioners’ attentiveness to identify the sources of competitive advantage of their firms.