Open Access Case Report

Anaesthetic Approach in a Case with Hypothyroidis

Elif Büyükerkmen, Sedef Öztürk

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/31273

In anaesthesia practice, patients with thyroid gland and the other endocrine pathologies are frequently experienced. Multiple organs as well as cardiovascular system are influenced in patients with thyroid gland dysfunction during the urgent surgery. We aimed to present our anaesthetic experience for orthopaedic surgery in a case whose hypothyroidism had been recognised initially during preoperative assessment. In a 48-year-old male patient, an orthopaedic surgery was scheduled for the right ankle lateral malleolar dislocation fracture result from falling into home. His medical history was unremarkable. On the physical examination; general condition was good, consciousness was open. He was cooperated but depressed. Skin was cold, dry and rough. Also, there was the rough face appearance, enlarged tongue and swelling around the eyes. According the preoperative evaluation, TSH was >100 ulU/ml, free T4 was <0.04 ng/dl and free T3 was 1.30 pg/ml. Without premedication usage, a spiral needle was inserted at once to subarachnoid gap within range of L4-5 on the right lateral position. 0.5 % hyperbaric bupivacaine of 10 mg (2 ml) was given following free CSF outflow. Surgery started when sensorial block was reach to T10 level. No any cardiovascular or respiratory complication was seen during the about 1.5-hour surgery or one-hour postoperative period. The patient was assessed by internal medicine department and polyclinic control was recommended. Then, the patient was discharged on the fourth day of surgery. As a conclusion, we suggest that if surgical region is suitable, spinal anaesthesia implemented with low dose local anaesthetic agent may be a safety method in hypothyroidic cases needed urgent surgery to not wait for euthyroidic condition.

Open Access Case Report

Manuel High-Frequency-Ventilation during Sleeve Pneumonectomy

Elif Dogan Baki, Gürhan Öz, Şeyda Bozkurt, Mehmet Ersegün Demirboğan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-4
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/31272

Aims: Sleeve pneumonectomy is an operation that requires careful perioperative management of anesthesia.

Presentation of Case: A case diagnosed with a mass in the right main bronchus was presented in this article. He was a 53 year old man who underwent right sleeve pneumonectomy with carinal resection and subsequent anastomosis of trachea to the left main bronchus. During the anastomosis, ventilation was provided via a Nelaton catheter by using high frequency ventilation manually. Patient was extubated smoothly in the operating room, and was discharged without any complications at the end of 1st week.

Discussion and Conclusion: In case of unexpected findings during thoracic surgery non-conventional ventilation techniques (manual HFV-like mode) using available materials can lead to satisfactorily results.

Open Access Short Research Article

Quantify the Effect of Repeat Periodic Running Exercise Teenagers - A Case Study in Hong Kong

K. L. Mak, W. K. Loh, Y. T. Chow

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/31139

In this study, we intend to explore the relationship between running training as a form of exercise and pulmonary functions by conducting a case-control study. A total of 329 subjects coming from five schools were sampled, 149 boys and 180 girls, with age between 14 and 21. Subjects were then assigned to two groups (experimental and controls) using a system of random number tables. Pulmonary function tests and their BMI were measured for all the subjects before exercise with the help of a digital spirometer. The experimental group is required to perform repeat periodic running exercise for 20 minutes, three days per week, for eight consecutive weeks. The running exercise was supervised by trained staff. The control group continued with the routine and performs no specific exercise. Pulmonary function tests were repeated after eight weeks for both experimental and controls groups.

Open Access Original Research Article

Challenges, Attitudes and Academic Performance of Agricultural Science Students in Public Secondary Schools of Ibadan North, Nigeria

Olutosin A. Otekunrin, Leah O. Oni, Oluwaseun A. Otekunrin

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/31216

In this study, we considered challenges facing effective teaching and learning of Agricultural Science. Also, we examined whether there were differences in the mean achievement test scores of students in the subject in selected schools. Furthermore, we studied students’ attitude to the subject and examined the relationship between their academic performance in Agricultural Science and their attitudes to the subject. The study was a descriptive survey design carried out at Ibadan North Local Government Area (INLGA) of Oyo State, Nigeria. Three public secondary schools were randomly selected from all the public secondary schools in INLGA in 2014. A total of thirty teachers and one hundred Senior Secondary School II (SSS II) students from the selected schools participated in the study. Agricultural Science Achievement Test (ASAT), Constraints facing Agricultural Science in Public Secondary Schools Questionnaire (CASPSSQ) and Students’ Attitude towards Agricultural Science Questionnaire (SAASQ) were used for data collection. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square test of independence, one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and multiple comparison techniques. The major challenges confronting the teaching and learning of Agricultural Science in INLGA and their solutions were identified. The ANOVA test was significant (P=.00). Least Significant Difference, a multiple comparison technique, on the ANOVA showed that School 1 and School 2 ASAT mean scores; School 1 and School 3 ASAT mean scores were different from each other at 5% significance level respectively. A significant relationship was found between scores obtained by the students in the ASAT and the attitudinal variable of sustained students’ interests in Agricultural Science (P=.02). The study therefore recommended innovative methods of teaching the subject so as to be able to sustain students’ interest in the subject and obtain better academic performance.

Open Access Original Research Article

A Study of Anomalies of Cochlea and Cochlear Nerve in Children with Congenital Profound Hearing Loss – An Indian Perspective

Geetha Nair, Senthil Vadivu, Raghunandhan Sampathkumar, Rabindra Bhakta Pradhananga, Mohan Kameswaran

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/31080

Background: Congenital Profound hearing loss is one of the leading handicaps that is encountered among children in the Indian subcontinent. There is a great demand for cochlear implantation in the Indian clinical scenario due to the high incidence of congenital hearing loss, due to a multitude of etiological factors. Such factors may also lead to anomalies in the cochlea and cochlear nerve, thus leading to challenges for cochlear implantation. With advancements in high resolution radio-imaging, the selection criteria for cochlear implantation has today become precisely defined. In children born with cochlear nerve aplasia and Michel deformity, auditory brain stem implantation is the only other alternative for auditory rehabilitation. There exits some “grey zones” like cochlear nerve hypoplasia, where the implant of choice cannot be clearly defined. Prevalence of anomalies of cochlea and cochlear nerve in relation to congenital severe to profound hearing loss has evoked much interest and since there is no available data on this subject, considered worthwhile to undertake this study.

Aims: This study focuses on our experience with identifying the prevalence of inner ear malformations, the possible etiologies for these malformations and planning the appropriate management protocols for the same.

Study Design: Retrospective study. Outcome measures compared using student t-test (paired).

Place and Duration of Study: Madras ENT Research Foundation, Chennai, India during the period 2005-2014.

Methodology: The study assessed the prevalence & distribution of Cochlear and Cochlear Nerve malformations in 82 children with profound hearing loss (aged between 9 months – 6 years) presented at Madras ENT Research Foundation, a premier auditory implant institute in South India during the period 2005-2014. The outcomes of CI/ABI in children with inner ear malformations were compared by using standard measures like CAP, SIR, MAIS and MUSS scores at sequential intervals of 6 months and 12 months post implantation.

Results: Eighty-two patients with cochlear and cochlear nerve malformations were identified among a consecutive series of 926 children with congenital severe to profound hearing loss. Of these, bilateral malformations were seen in 74 patients and unilateral malformations in 8 patients. Out of 74 patients, 66 had undergone surgery and among these 66 patients, 56 had CI and 10 had ABI. The study showed that there were significant statistical differences in the results as measured by outcome scores during the study, between 6 months and 12 months post implantation. Complications of surgery, though more common with anomalous anatomy, were not very morbid and could be overcome with appropriate measures.

Conclusion: Improvement in auditory perception and speech development skills among the different group of children with inner ear malformations were good both with CI and ABI. We infer that auditory implants have paved the way forward for children with inner ear malformations to acquire auditory verbal skills, but a judicious selection of cases for appropriate implantation is vital to achieve best outcomes.

Open Access Original Research Article

Factors Affecting Contraceptive Use among Reproductive Aged Women: A Case Study in Worawora Township, Ghana

Stephen Manortey , Patrick Lotsu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/29755

Background: Having more children in the past was a form of assurance to couples on the grounds of having more working hands to help till the land and cultivate crops. However, with the advent of modern farming technologies, pressure on social amenities, scarce resources, high dependency ratio, lack of employable opportunities and high incidence of poverty, a lot of people are trying to limit the number of children they give birth to by averting to the use of contraceptives.

Objective: The aim of this study is to determine factors affecting contraceptive use among reproductive aged women in the Worawora township of the Volta Region of Ghana.

Methods: A cross sectional survey using quantitative method was employed. A total of 390 women were conveniently sampled and questionnaires were administered to obtain the needed data. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were deployed to understand the data.

Findings: Majority of the respondents were within the 15-24 age group and also predominantly Christians. The findings identified significant association between the use of contraceptives and age, number of children, number of members per household, occupation, marital status, educational level of partner and having a prior discussing with the sexual partner. Respondents in the age group 35-40 yrs were slightly over four times (OR: 4.33) more likely to use contraceptives compared to the younger aged women, after controlling for other covariates in the predictive model. There was a very progressive likelihood for a woman using contraceptive as the educational level of the partner increase. For instance, women whose partners have attained a tertiary level education were about seven (7) times more likely to use a form of contraceptive compared to those without any formal education. However, the respondent’s marital status and occupation at the time of the study were found to have no statistical significant effect on predicting contraceptive use.

Conclusion: Women in their late thirties and those who indicated discussing the use of contraceptive with their sexual partners have higher tendency of usage. It was noted that partners’ involvement and educational background has high impact on women’s use of contraceptive. Policy decision should be driven to target those outside these age groups and demographic characteristics as measure to encourage usage.

Open Access Original Research Article

Is Stroke Tending towards the Young?

Jide Onyekwelu, Chike H. Nwankwo, I. C. A. Oyeka

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/29588

Stroke is a devastating vascular disease of the brain that carries very poor prognosis. It is a disease of the elderly people but recent literature reports that it is occurring more in the young now than hitherto. Nigeria has a young population and if stroke were to occur more in the young now than hitherto, it will have a devastating effect on Nigeria’s economy. This study is to determine whether stroke is occurring more in the young people now than in past decades. The findings will alert the health managers of the impending calamity in its eventuality.

Data on age and sex of stroke patients and year of stroke event were obtained from randomly selected referral hospitals in Southern Nigeria for the period 1973 to 2011. Proportion of stroke occurrence in the young was modelled. Z test was used to analyze the proportion of stroke that occurred classified by age and gender.

The proportion of stroke occurrence in the young has a downward trend from 1973 to 2011 that is best described by cubic polynomial model. Stroke is found to have an almost 50-50 sex distribution but 61% of those that have stroke at 45 years of age or less are found more likely to be females than males. This shows that more females than males are likely to have stroke at the young age of 45 years or less. Stroke is found to be occurring less in the young people now than in the past four decades studied. It is recommended that a prospective study be undertaken over many decades to confirm or negate the observed decreasing trend of proportion of stoke occurrence in the young since 1973. Further study is also recommended to elucidate the factors associated with stroke occurrence in the young.

Open Access Original Research Article

Site Characterisation Using Electrical Resistivity Methods: A Case Study of Iba Nursery/Primary School, Ojo, Southwest, Nigeria

A. S. Ogungbe, A. R. Balogun, A. A. Umar, O. A. Adejo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-16
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/27818

Two-dimensional (2D) resistivity imaging and vertical electrical sounding (VES) were integrated to map the subsurface lithology within Iba Nursery/Primary School, Ojo, Southwest, Nigeria, with a view to ascertaining the thickness and stratigraphy of the beds and their implications on engineering structures. Ten vertical electrical soundings, covering the entire area were conducted using Schlumberger configuration. Three 2D horizontal profiling (Wenner array) was used to qualitatively interpret the geoinformation of the lithological nature of each geoelectric layer within the study area. The VES data were processed and inverted using master curves and computer software called WinResist, while the 2D inversion was done using Diprowin. Four to five subsurface layers comprising of topsoil, clayey sand, sandy clay, sand and clay were delineated. Qualitative interpretation of VES data revealed five QHA, one QH, one KQH, one KHK, one KHA and one HA curves. The investigation of the study area has revealed that shallow foundation may not be feasible for a massive engineering structure because of the presence of clay materials that are close to the surface. But for small and medium engineering structures, the second layer is found competent due to the presence of sand with relative thickness and high resistivity value that vary from 1.2 m - 13.9 m and 88.5 Ωm – 399.4 Ωm respectively. However, good prospects exist for heavy engineering structures in the study area where the sand formation is relatively thick (19.8 m – 50 m) and has favourable resistivity values ranging between 466.2 Ωm and 560 Ωm.

Thus, the application of 2D resistivity imaging and VES has revealed both the lateral and vertical variations in depth to competent sand layers within the study area, hence providing a useful guide for the site engineers in designing appropriate foundation structures.