Open Access Original Research Article

Rainfall Trend Analysis and Adaptation Strategies to Manage Climate-Induced Crisis in Coastal Zone of Karnataka, India

H. M. Vinaya Kumar, M. Shivamurthy, M. M. Lunagaria

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/32709

Analysis of deviation of precipitation in space, time and quantities, and its associated effect on the ecology is vital in coastal environments where the resource is highly variable and unpredictable. The present study is mainly concerned with the changing trend of rainfall and adaptation in a coastal region of Karnataka. This study is an effort to analyse one of the most important climatic factors i.e. rainfall, for analysing the trend for the area. Weekly rainfall data of 34 years from 1980 to 2013 has been processed in the study to find the seasonal and annual rainfall pattern using Mann-Kendall (MK) Test and Sen’s Slope estimation. Decreasing trend in annual rainfall was observed in Dakshina Kannada (-3.2 mm/yr.), whereas increasing trend was found in Udupi (4.9 mm/yr.) and Uttara Kannada (13.0 mm/yr.). In seasonal trend analysis of rainfall, a non-significant increasing trend is observed for winter, summer, and post-monsoon in all the three districts. While decreasing trends in monsoon rainfall are noticed in Dakshina Kannada (-7.1 mm/yr.) and Udupi (-1.8 mm/yr.).  Its need to adapt to changing rainfall patterns brought about because of climate change, as water is the most vital element for farming. Adaptation strategies of farmers to agricultural crop production, soil and water conservation and flood management were analysed. The majority of the big farmers have adopted best coping mechanisms than small and marginal farmers as they have comparative advantages.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Concentrated Electromagnetic Energy Streams in Electronics Manufacturing

Vladimir Leonid Lanin

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/31752

Aims: The concentrated streams ultrasonic (US) and high frequency (HF) energy are widely used in electronics manufacture in assembly and mounting process. US soldering is non-polluting and more economic process, as such operations as fluxing and clearing, demanding expenses of time and materials, are excluded. US soldering joining difficult soldering materials and nonmetallic materials: ceramics, glass, ferrite. HF electromagnetic energy possessing of local high speed heating of conducting materials in any environments provides formation of qualitative soldering connections in electronics products.

Methods: The US metallization of glass-ceramic materials was performed in the chamber with a residual rarefaction of 1–10 Pa and using IR heating. A low-melt Sn–10Zn solder and experimentally developed sol­der on the basis Sn with the addition of Zn and In were used. The cavitation pressure in the melted solders was evaluated according to the spectral density of the cavitation noise in the frequency band of 100–450 kHz using a cavitometer. The optimal frequency of US oscillating local soldering system is modelling with ANSYS. Two types of inductors are investigated: circular winding inductor and with open-ended magnetic circuit. The first contained HF generator, circular inductor with the cylindrical detail, and capacitor. In the second the generator was connected to winding coils on magnetic circuit of ferromagnetic material.

Results and Conclusion: At local input US fluctuations in melts concentrate US energy in small volume and lower oxidation of solder in a bath. US fluctuations parallel to soldering surface are preferable to increase of soldering connections durability, maintenance of high stability of processes and reduction of mechanical influence by products. The efficient management of power and speed of induction heating is necessary to control the size of current power and speed of the induction heating in working winds.

Open Access Original Research Article

Effects of Silvicultural Treatments on Forest Carbon Stock: A Case Study of Bhudkaya Buffer Zone Community Forest, Bardia National Park, Nepal

K. C. Ambika, Ram Asheshwor Mandal, Sanu Maharjan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/31908

Enhancement of forest growth through silvicultural treatments is one of the various strategies to increase carbon (C) sequestration in forests. This study was carried out to examine the effects of silvicultural treatments on Bhudkaya Buffer zone community forest (BBZCF) in Bardia National park.

The inventory for estimating above and below ground biomass of forest was carried out using stratified random sampling technique. Group discussion was carried out with the members of BBZCF to know the management practices adopted there. The biophysical data were analyzed using statistical analysis. Soil samples were collected from three different depths 0-10, 10-20 and 20-30 cm in order to determine the soil carbon. Total carbon stock was computed by adding carbon stocks of five different forest pools viz; tree, soil, litter, herb and grass, estimated using standard methods for each plot.

BBZCF adopted general silvicultural treatments like thinning, pruning, selective cutting and cleaning in 56.98 ha. The aboveground carbon stock in non-treatment blocks for trees, saplings, litter, herb and grass, and root was calculated at 127.38 t ha-1, 0.16 t ha-1, 0.04 t ha-1, 2.65 t ha-1, and 25.48 t ha-1, respectively and in the treatments block it was estimated as 112.65 t ha-1, 0.1 t ha-1, 0.42 t ha-1, 1.31 t ha-1 and 22.52 t ha-1, respectively. Soil organic carbon of silvicultural treatments block was estimated 45.99 t ha-1 and non-silvicultural treatments block was estimated 36.05 t ha-1.

Open Access Original Research Article

Decentralized and Distributed Information Filter for Autonomous Intelligent Multisensor Systems

A. Olatunbosun, I. O. Lawal

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/27886

This research paper is on development of distributed and decentralized multisensor data estimation and fusion algorithm with linear information filter for fusing the information from these various sensors and embedded in the developed system. The estimation technique is modified Kalman filter that provides estimates of the information about a certain state. Consequently the developed system is Radar Tracking System (RTS); comprising of array of antennae, and GPS mounted on a Digital Rate Gyroscope (DRG), for accurate and effective Information Gathering and Processing (IGP). The system was simulated to determine the stability and drift error rate of the trajectory over a period of 300secs. The results are also derived under usual methods and proof procedure of some existing literature. The advantage of this algorithm is that the transmission of new information can be done asynchronously only when the amount of information, measure with its randomness, is larger than a fixed threshold level.

Open Access Original Research Article

Evaluation of Crude Oil Biodegradation Potentials of Some Indigenous Soil Microorganisms

Felix Adeleke Ikuesan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/29151

This study evaluated the crude oil degradation potentials of some indigenous soil microorganisms. The microbial isolates were among those obtained from crude oil contaminated and uncontaminated agricultural soils of Awoye, Orioke-Iwamimo, Igodan-Lisa and Oba-Ile all in Ondo State, Nigeria. The isolates were tested for crude oil degradation potentials by visual turbidity, extent of breakdown of overlaid oil and the optical density by spectrophotometry method at the wavelength of 540 nm. Brevundimonas diminuta, Bacillus subtilis, Flavobacterium species, Enterobacter species, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Alcaligenes faecalis, Bacillus megaterium, Klebsiella edwardsii, Bacillus aryabhattai, Aspergillus flavus, Kodamaea ohmeri, Cephalosporium species, Mucor mucedo, Paecilomyces variotii, Candida parapsilopsis and Trichoderma species were among the sixteen bacterial and seven fungal isolates tested. The findings in this study revealed varying optical densities of 0.324-0.647 for bacteria and 0.497 -0.812 for fungi at days 11 and 17 respectively thus suggesting different responses and potentials to breakdown crude oil. The highest degradative ability was shown by Klebsiella edwardsii (OD 0.647) followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (OD 0.575) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (OD 0.490). Paecilomyces variotii showed the highest degradative ability (OD 0.812) among the fungi. The results also suggest that these microorganisms with high degradative ability may be useful in seeding petroleum hydrocarbon polluted agricultural soils for bioremediation.