Open Access Data Article

Potentials of Rainwater Harvesting as an Alternative Water Supply System in Dhaka City

Asma Ul Husna, Md. Saliur Rahman

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/31866

Dhaka city is characterized by densely populated unplanned growth of predominantly building infrastructures. Concerned water supply authority is unable to fulfill the water demand. Shortage in supply and unavailability of groundwater is increasing day by day. In such situation rainwater harvesting is thought to be the next alternative option. Rainwater Harvesting System (RWHS) is basically a simple, technically feasible and socially acceptable system to capture and use rainwater for various purposes. This study intends to assess the potentiality of rainwater harvesting for domestic use. Rainwater harvesting potential equation calculates the daily potential rainwater supply for residential apartments. Testing of rainwater quality suggests that it is convenient to use rain water only for non-potable uses. In order to get benefits of rainwater harvesting some compulsory regulatory measures need to be imposed in the building development process along with awareness building activities. Therefore this paper identifies various challenges and problems related to explore full potential of rainwater harvesting in Dhaka city.

Open Access Original Research Article

Performance Evaluation of Vertical Rotary Plough

R. G. Jakasania, A. L. Vadher, R. K. Kathiria

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/31757

A rotary plough is an agricultural implement, popularly used to reduce the amount of time and labour spent in soil preparation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance evaluation of vertical rotary plough on fallow and cultivated land. The observed experimental are: moisture content of soil, bulk density of soil, cone index, soil mean weight diameter, wheel sleep, theoretical field capacity, effective field capacity, field efficiency, fuel consumption and weeding efficiency. Result were: soil moisture content 8.19% and 11.74%, bulk density of soil 1.99 gm/cm3 and 1.90 gm/cm3, cone index 0.236 kg/cm2 and 0.144 kg/cm2, soil mean weight diameters 4.17 mm and 3.86 mm, fuel consumption 6.30 l/hr and 5.76 l/hr, field capacities 0.17 ha/hr and 0.23 ha/hr and field efficiency 71.53% and 82.14% in case of fallow land and cultivated land respectively. It shows that the time required for rotary plough operation in fallow land was more than the time required for the cultivated land.

Open Access Original Research Article

Harmonic and Sub-Harmonic Periodic Solutions (1/2, 1/3) of Generalized Mathieu-Van der Pol-Duffing Equations

A. M. El-Naggar, K. M. Khalil, A. M. Omran

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/32122

The frequency-locking area of harmonic and subharmonic ( 1/2, 1/3 ) solutions in a fast harmonic excitation Mathieu-Van der PolDuffing equation is studied. A perturbation technique is then performed on the slow dynamic near the harmonic and subharmonic ( 1/2, 1/3 ) solutions, to obtain reduced slow flow equations governing the modulation of amplitude and phase of the corresponding slow dynamics. Results show that fast harmonic excitation can change the nonlinear characteristic spring behavior from softening to hardening and causes the entrainment regions to shift. Numerical solutions are represented the analytical results.

Open Access Original Research Article

Comparative Study of Heterogeneous Transesterification of Crude and Degummed Kapok Oil

Deborah Chidimma Nwakuba, Ibrahim Ali Mohammed-Dabo, Haruna Ibrahim

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/32319

Crude and degummed kapok oils were transesterified with heterogeneous catalyst (calcium oxide) to determine its potency for biodiesel production in Nigeria. Calcium oxide catalyst was synthesized by supporting 15% hydrated lime on 85% by weight of alumina. The crude oil was degummed by heating it to 80oC with auto phosphoric acid for 30 minutes. It was then esterified to reduce free fatty acid content to 0.5 mgKOH/g. Some quantity of crude oil was also esterified as in degummed oil. The two oil samples were transesterified with 25% methanol (weight % of oil) with catalyst loading of 0.4%, 0.6%, 0.8%, 1.0% and 1.2% (weight of oil). The methyl esters yield of crude oil were; 5.0%, 32.92%, 58.97%, 48.39% and 53.79% and that of degummed were; 58.97%, 72.48%, 85.25%, 88.9% and 86.78%. The degummed oil had higher methyl esters content yet not up to minimum European Union Standard of 96.5%. It is therefore recommended to degum crude kapok oil before transesterification.

Open Access Original Research Article

Selected Wild Plants Ethanol Extracts Bioactivity on the Coagulation Cascade

Ghadeer Omar, Lubna Abdallah, Ahmad Abdal Rahim, Rami Othman, Ali Barakat

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/32989

Aim: As there is little data available on the validity of wild plants use in Palestine for blood disorders, the aim of this study was to determine the anticoagulant properties of Urtica urens, Parietaria judica, Satureja thymbra, Thymbra spicata, Teucrium creticum, Verbascum fruticulosum, Lupinus pilosus, Paronychia argentea, and Ruta chalepensis.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Biotechnology and Biology/ Faculty of Science/ An-Najah National University, between November 2015 and May 2016.

Methodology: Studied plant species ethanol extracts were prepared to final concentrations 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/ml. In vitro PT and aPTT assays were conducted on normal platelet poor plasma blood samples by a digital coagulation analyzer. Statistical analysis of the results was conducted using a statistical package SPSS via applying mean values using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc tests.

Results: Urtica urens extract prolonged PT at 50 mg/ml, while T. spicata at 50 and 25 mg/ml, suggesting their inhibitory effect on the tissue clotting factors, which belong to the extrinsic pathway of the coagulation cascade. Paronychia argentea demonstrated a decreasing effect on PT at all studied concentrations recording zero PT, affecting the extrinsic pathway.  Furthermore, U. urens, T. spicata, P. argentea and P. judica prolonged aPTT at 50 mg/ml due to the inhibition of the contact factors in the intrinsic pathway. The greatest anticoagulation activity was seen in U. urens and T. spicata as they prolonged both PT and aPTT, so they could have inhibitory effect not only on the clotting factors in the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, but also, those in the common pathways.

Conclusion: The effective examined plant species could provide potential bioactivity from which anticoagulation or anti-bleeding drugs can be exploited.