Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of the Protein Quality and Mineral Bioavailability of Dacryodes edulis Seed and Seed Coat Mixture

C. U. Ogunka-Nnoka, P. U. Amadi, P. C. Ogbonna, P. O. Ogbegbor

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/32405

Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the amino acid composition, protein quality, and mineral content of Dacryodes edulis seed and seed coat mixture.

Methodology: Ethanol extract of the sample was obtained and analyzed using HPLC amino acid auto analyzer for the evaluation of amino acids, and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer for the mineral content analysis.

Results: Leucine (7.68 g/100 g), lysine (6.44 g/100 g) and arginine (5.08 g/100 g) were the highest occurring essential amino acids, while glutamic acid (15.06 g/100 g), aspartic acid (11.73 g/100 g) and proline (4.09 g/100 g) were the highest occurring non-essential amino acids. Results for the amino acid groups followed the order; Total non-essential amino acid (TNEAA) > Total essential amino acid (TEAA) with His > Total essential amino acid (TEAA) without His > Total acidic amino acid (TAAA) > Total branched chain amino acid (TBCAA) > Total basic amino acid (TBAA) > Total aromatic amino acid (TArAA) > Total sulphur amino acid (TSAA). For the protein quality indices, the predicted protein efficiency ratios (P-PERs I, II, and III) were 2.63, 2.65, and 2.06 respectively, while the Essential amino acid index (EAAI) and Leu/Ile were 1.51 and 1.89 respectively. Only tryptophan exceeded the reference scoring pattern. The result of elemental analysis showed calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, and zinc as the four highest occurring minerals, while only the Ca/P, Ca/K, Ca/Mg, and [Ca]/[Phy] results fell within their reference values.

Conclusion: This study has shown that D. edulis seed and seed coat mixture lacks majority of the recommended mineral proportions, and requires additional supplementation to equal the amino acid scoring patterns, but can be harnessed to ameliorate tryptophan related deficiencies.

Open Access Original Research Article

Diversity and Traditional Consumption of Edible Insects in North Benin

F. Hongbété, J. M. Kindossi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/32542

Shortage of protein from meat leads to the search for alternative protein source in order to meet up with the protein need by man. Edible Insects have been seen as a major alternative protein source in this regard. This study investigated the diversity of edible insect species and the proximate properties of some common insects used in traditional diet from three agro ecological zone in North Benin. In total 20 edible insects belonging to 4 orders Orthoptera, Coleoptera, Isoptera and Hymenoptera were identified to be consumed throughout the year. Thus it was also observed that each insect requires a special collection method. The quality attributes of consumption were distinguished according to the traditional technology processing of insects collected as boiling, sun drying, frying and smoking. These insects were rich in protein (25.2 – 64.4 g/100 g dry matter), fat (16.4-46.8 g/100 g dry matter) and minerals (1.0-4.8 g/100 g dry matter). Therefore effort should be geared toward developing improved preservation and processing methods of these edible insects since they can act as economic and nutritional sources to the inhabitants of these zones, thereby reducing rural poverty and malnutrition.

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey on the Intake of Food Additives by College Students over a Week

Masafumi Tateda, Ryoko Sekifuji

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/33238

Aims: We conducted the survey to identify the amount of food additives consumed by college students within a week. Most college students are not even aware of the food additives used in foods part of their daily intake. The contamination by food additives is one of the adverse effects of the consuming convenience foods.

Study Design: Students recorded all the foods consumed by them over either seven consecutive or non-consecutive days and submitted as reports.

Location and Duration of Study: The survey was conducted at the Toyama Prefectural University. Data were collected from October 2015 to March 2016.

Methodology: Students took pictures of the food labels they consumed for a week and submitted reports. We classified the students based on whether they lived alone or with their family and analyzed the total amount of food additives consumed, frequency of eating out, and frequency of having breakfast. We also analyzed the data based on gender.

Results: There was no significant difference between the students who lived alone or with their family regarding the amount of food additives consumed and frequency of eating out. Further, students who lived with their family showed a higher frequency of having breakfast than those who lived alone.

Conclusion: We found no significant differences in the consumption of food additives based on the students’ gender or living situation. The students in this study became aware of the amount of food additives consumed by them as a part of their daily diet, which may help them pay more attention to the meals they consume daily and improve their dietary pattern.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Chemical Constituents and Nutrients Bioavailability in Moringa oleifera Leaf and Seed

Oluwatoyin A. Oladeji, Kehinde A. Taiwo, Saka O. Gbadamosi, Babatunde S. Oladeji, Mofoluwake M. Ishola

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/32458

Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the nutritional composition, antinutritional factors and antioxidant potentials of the bioactive compounds of Moringa oleifera (M. oleifera) seeds and leaves.

Place and Duration: The study was carried out in the department of Food Science and Technology, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ife, Nigeria, between March-September, 2014

Methodology: M. oleifera leaf powder and seed flour were obtained by drying fresh leaves and seeds in a hot air dryer and milled. The seeds and leaves were characterized and analysed using standard methods.

Results: The results showed that the crude protein, total ash, and crude fat contents of M. oleifera leaf were 20.29±0.41, 7.27±0.25 and 1.79±0.17% while those of the seed were 33.82±0.21, 5.17±0.41 and 38.69 ±0.38%, respectively. Calcium content of the seed (46.93±0.18 mg/100 g) was relatively low when compared with that of the leaf (521.96±0.32 mg/100 g). Zinc and iron concentration (14.72±0.12 and 8.12±0.11 mg/100g) in the seed were higher than in the leaf (12.28±0.02 and 7.86±0.62 mg/100g for Zn and Fe respectively). In the leaf and seed, alkaloids (0.428±0.13 and 0.597±0.04%), saponin (2.860±0.11 and 0.295±0.02%), and tanin (mg/g) were within the consumable limit. Phytate content of the leaf (0.4267±0.02 mg/g) and seed (0.4905 ±0.06 mg/g) were low enough to permit bioavailability of phosphate and not impair calcium and zinc bioavailability but may lower iron absorption in the body. Proportion of phosphate as phytate (11.95 and 13.73 mg/100g for leaf and seed respectively) was low indicating high bioavailability of phosphate. 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activities of the leaf and seed were 83.61±0.31 and 69.84±1.08% respectively implying the seed and leaf possess noteworthy antioxidants activity.

Conclusion: The study implies that M. oleifera leaf and seed from South Western, Nigeria are suitable for consumption with great health benefits.

Open Access Original Research Article

Formation and Association Constants of MnCl2, NiCl2 and CuCl2 with Glycine, Lysine and Cysteine in Aqueous Solution at 293.15 K

Farid I. El-Dossoki, Nasser M. Hosny, Saadeldin E. Taher

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-14
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/32327

The complexation reactions between different amino acids (Glycine, L-Lysine, and L-Cysteine) and transition metal cations (Ni2+, Cu2+, and Mn2+) were studied conductometrically in water at 293.15 K. The formation constants (Kf) of the resulting complexes were calculated from the computer fitting of the molar conductance (Λ)-mole ratio (L/M) data. Semi-empirical PM3 calculations were also used to predict the structure of the metal complex by calculating the enthalpy of formation, the geometrical parameters, refractivity, dipole moment and polarizabilities of the suggested structures of the formed complexes in the gaseous state. The association constant (Ka) of MnCl2, NiCl2 and CuCl2 in aqueous solution in the absence and in the presence of glycine and lysine amino acids at 293.15 K were also determined conductometrically. The conductance data for the association process were analyzed using Shedlovsky conductance equation. The free energy changes of the complexation and association processes were evaluated from the temperature dependence of formation and association constants. A computer program was used for calculating the molar conductance, the limiting molar conductance (Λ˚), the formation constant, the association constant, the free energy change of formation (ΔGf) and association (ΔGa) processes, Walden product (Λ˚η) and the triple-ion association constant (K3). The results indicate the formation constant of Mn2+ and Cu2+ with glycine is more in general than that with cysteine and lysine. The results also indicate that the association constant of the studied salts increase in the presence of the amino acids under consideration (glycine and lysine) comparing to that in the absence of these amino acids. The effect of glycine on the association of the studied salts was found to be less than that of lysine. Also the formation and the association processes are spontaneous one.