Open Access Original Research Article

Length Functions and HNN Groups

Faisal H. Nesayef

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/33282

The concept of length functions on groups is first introduced by Lyndon. This is used to give direct proofs of many other results in combinatorial group theory. Two important sets called M and N satisfying some certain axioms of length functions are considered. Finally investigations of the nature and the structures of the sets M and N in relation to the elements of HNN group were carried out.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Climate Change Adaptation Options and their Implications on Mangrove Resources in Bagamoyo District, Tanzania

Iman S. Yangaza, Agnes M. S. Nyomora

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/32612

The study assessed climate change adaptation options and their implications on mangrove resources in Bagamoyo District. A total of three villages and 158 respondents were involved. Close and open-ended questions and FGDs were used to collect quantitative and qualitative data. Descriptive and content analysis was used for qualitative data while SPSS (Version 20) and Microsoft excel were used for quantitative data analysis. Results indicated that, majority of respondents (>80%) were aware of the climate changes and majority perceived rainfall (Kaole 72.7%, Kondo 70% and Mbegani 43.9%) as a major climate change indicator. Analysis of the empirical data from TMA showed a decline of rainfall (y = -3.8748x + 978.1) and an increase of earth’s surface temperature of an average of 0.8°C (y = 0.4142x + 21.655) from 1985-2015. Unpredictable and shortage of rainfall and increased earth’s surface temperature in combination acted to reduce agricultural yields and fish catch in the surveyed villages. Different climate change adaptation strategies identified in the surveyed villages include; expansion of farms, modifying fishing activities and engagement into different income generating activities such as casual labour, and petty businesses. The identified adaptation options in Kaole seemed to have positive implications on mangroves resources i.e. effective mangrove restoration programmes while those identified in Mbegani and Kondo i.e. weak mangrove restoration programmes, commercial firewood and charcoal making were unsustainable and had negative implications on mangroves resources. Further studies on climate change adaptation, awareness raising and scientific studies on mangroves species composition, richness and restoration in a changing climate are recommended to enhance coastal community adaptive capacity and effective management of coastal resources.

Open Access Original Research Article

Teacher Support and School Environment Factors Influencing Children’s Outdoor Play in Early Childhood Curriculum in Pre-schools in Kenya

Anne Syomwene

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/33594

Teacher support and school environment are central in the provision of play in early childhood education. This paper is a report of a study that was carried out in the months of February and March 2016 on teacher support and school environment factors influencing children’s outdoor play in early childhood curriculum in pre-schools in Kenya. The study area was in Wareng Sub-County in Uasin Gishu County in Kenya. The research objectives were to find out the teacher support; and school environment factors influencing children’s outdoor play in early childhood curriculum. The study was guided by Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory and adopted a mixed methods research methodology with a descriptive research design. The target population was all the teachers in the pre-schools in the area. A total of 4 private and 17 public pre-schools were selected to participate in the study through stratified and simple random sampling methods. The sample constituted 42 pre-school teachers selected through simple random sampling method. The research instruments used were questionnaires for teachers, observation check lists and photo voice techniques. The findings revealed that teachers provided minimal support to children’s outdoor play due to heavy workloads, limited time and demotivation. School environment factors such as inadequacy of and poor maintenance of materials; and safety issues affected children’s outdoor play. The study recommended the need to strengthen teacher support in children’s outdoor play through in-service training of teachers, improved teacher: pupil ratio; and improved teacher remunerations. Other recommendations included the need to enhance play materials’ acquisition and maintenance; and that the play environments should be carefully planned and maintained. This study will inform curriculum implementation policies on early childhood education in Kenya and other parts of the world.

Open Access Original Research Article

Socio-demographic Characteristics and Food Hygiene Level Assessment of Food Handlers in Cafeterias around a Federal University in Nigeria

C. E. Aruwa, A. J. Akindusoye, S. I. Awala

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports,
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/33273

Background and Objective: Globally, food hygiene/food borne illnesses remain subjects of great concern. This study sought to assess the knowledge, attitude and practice of food hygiene; and to determine the types, prevalence and load of microbial isolates among food handlers’ in cafeterias around a University in South-Western Nigeria. It also highlighted the socio-demographic characteristics of food handlers/respondents.

Study Design: A cross sectional descriptive design was used, followed by sample collection and analyses.

Place and Duration of Study: Study was carried out over a period of three months at cafeterias around the University campus gates.

Methodology: A cross sectional descriptive design using a simple random sampling technique to select 50 participants from six major cafeterias around the University. Data was collected using a structured questionnaire. Microbial samples collected using palm imprint method, prior to microbial isolation and identification. Descriptive analyses were done with frequency and summary statistics, and SPSS version 15 to determine significant relationships with the p set at 0.05 significance level.

Results: Majority of respondents were female (70%). A higher percentage (46%) of respondents was between 20-29 years. More than half (62%) of respondents were married. Knowledge of food hygiene was good (42%), likewise the attitude (34%), but only one fifth of respondents had good food hygiene practices. Escherichia coli had the highest occurrence (18.9%) of all bacteria. Aspergillus niger had the highest occurrence (31.6%) of all fungal isolates. Hygiene level of respondents was generally low due to the high occurrence of E. coli.

Conclusion: Knowledge of food hygiene amongst food handlers was not complemented by good hygiene practices. Research findings serve as an early warning system to aid implementation of monitoring systems, and spur urgent action from relevant authorities.

Open Access Review Article

Water Coning Prediction Review and Control: Developing an Integrated Approach

Anietie N. Okon, Dulu Appah, Julius U. Akpabio

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-24
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/33291

In petroleum industry, oil production strategy to circumvent water coning in reservoirs with strong water drive is quit challenging. To ameliorate this oil production related problem, several water coning prediction models and control approaches have been developed by researchers. The prediction approaches include analytical, empirical and numerical approach. The analytical and empirical prediction approaches are qualitative water coning prediction approach with limited field scale application. However, these approaches model predictions can again field application if upscale. Numerical approach has provided the fulcrum to study the complexity of water coning phenomenon in bottom-water drive reservoirs, and its prediction and sensitivity results have found wide field application. In addition, the various developed water coning control methods: downhole oil-water separation (DOWS), downhole water sink (DWS), downhole water loop (DWL), among others have proved to be effective, as it reduces the water-cut, produced water and water handling problem at the surface during hydrocarbon production. However, the challenge of producing the bypassed oil in the reservoir remains unattended with these coning control methods. Also, even as effective as these water coning control methods may seems, they have their drawbacks that limit their application in certain reservoirs. Therefore, developing integrated approach that is adaptive to control water coning and produce bypassed oil in bottom-water drive reservoirs is important to the oil and gas industry.