Open Access Opinion Article

Science and Technology: A Catalyst for Improving Human Health in Developing Countries

Olanipekun Johnson Adetunji, Fatoba Joseph Oba, Ogundola Peter Ilesanmi

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/32929

Science and technology have the potential to make major contributions to the development of medical devices that can help address the highest burdens of diseases in developing countries. This paper examined how science and technology could assist in speeding the development and dissemination of information on new health products that could address the largest health threats in developing countries. The paper investigated the traits needed by such production to have the desired impact. It also reviewed the extent to which some medical devices and processes possess those traits and discuss the potential of science and technology to develop healthproducts,reveal the constrains on product development and the mechanism in overcoming the new health products. Towards understanding the potential of science and technology to develop more new health products to addressing high-burden diseases, it was therefore recommended that there is need to consider the characteristics of diagnostics, drugs, vaccines and medical devices that could most effectively and efficiently address the critical continent health problems. Science and technology should focus on bio-technologies that could help improve health products that are affordable and appropriate to the circumstances of developing countries, using instrument to addressing the most pressing health needs and be appropriate to the health conditions that cause the largest burden of diseases in developing countries of the world.

Open Access Original Research Article

HPLC Phenolic Compounds Analysis and Antifungal Activity of extract's from Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf against Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium oxysporum sp tulipae

E. Kporou Kouassi, I. Coulibaly, P. Rodica, A. Pintea, S. Ouattara, A. Odagiu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/33810

Aims: To analyze phenolic compounds and evaluate antifungal activity of methanolic and ethanolic extract's from Cymbopogon citratus against Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium oxysporum sp tulipae.

Study Design: Activity directed antifungal activity, total phenolic compounds determination, total antioxidant determination and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) phenolic compounds analysis of extract's from Cymbopogon citratus using in vitro methods.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Environment and plant protection, and Laboratory of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine (USAMV) between March to July 2014, Laboratory of Biochemistry and Microbiology (Bioactives Natural Substances Unit), Jean Lorougnon Guédé University between September 2014 to January 2015.

Methodology: Growth inhibitory effect of ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus were tested in vitro by applying agar slant double dilution method, analyze the profile of phenolic compounds in the two extracts by HPLC and to measure antioxidant activity of the tested extracts through 2, 2’ diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging method.

Results: Methanolic and ethanolic extracts of Cymbopogon citratus inhibited the in vitro growth of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium oxysporum sp tulipae, but the activity of methanolic extract was better. This study revealed the presence of phenolic compounds such as gentisic acid, chlorogenic acid, sinapic acid, protocatechuic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, p-couramic acid, kaempferol and quercetin in the tested extracts. Methanolic extract which was more concentrated in total phenolic, exhibited higher antioxidant activity than ethanolic extract.

Conclusion: Cymbopogon citratus is a powerful antioxidant. This plant is not only a natural antifungal but also a potential source of antioxidant and nutraceuticals. Further work in this direction can allow to isolate a novel natural bioactive compound against Fusarium contamination.

Open Access Original Research Article

Analysis of Candidates’ Performance in Unified Tertiary Matriculation Examinations (UTME) and Post-UTME in the University of Ibadan, Nigeria

Oluwaseun A. Otekunrin, Emmanuel O. Okon, Olutosin A. Otekunrin

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/34322

A major criterion for determining the eligibility of candidates for admission into Nigerian Universities was their performance in UTME and Post-UTME before the scrap of the Post-UTME in 2016. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the performance of students in UTME conducted by Joint Admissions and Matriculation Board (JAMB) and the Post-UTME conducted by the University of Ibadan from 2012/2013 to 2015/2016 with emphasis on gender and age-group performance in the two examinations. The secondary data used for this research comprised of the records of all 100 Level students admitted into the University from 2012/2013 to 2015/2016 academic sessions through UTME and Post-UTME. The data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics, independent samples t test and Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient r. The results [(2012/13: 49.3%; 50.7%); (2013/14: 53.5%;46.5%); (2014/15: 53%;47%) and (2015/16: 53.3%;46.7%)], for male and female respectively showed that more male candidates were admitted compared to their female counterpart in each academic session except the 2012/2013 session that had higher female enrolment. More than 80% of the students were in the 16-20 age group. The independent t-test, for UTME and Post-UTME respectively, showed that the males had higher mean scores than the females and these mean scores were significant in all the sessions except in the 2015/16 session [(2012/13: P = .00; .04); (2013/14: P = .00; .03); (2014/15: P = .00; .00); (2015/16: P = .32; .29)]. The independent t-test for Post-UTME showed that the 16-20 age group had higher mean scores in the Post-UTME than the 21 & above age group in all the sessions but the only significant Post-UTME mean score for this group was in the 2012/13 session (P = .00). Also, the independent t-test for UTME showed that the 21 & above age group had higher mean scores in the UTME than the 16-20 age group in all the sessions except the 2015/16 session but the only significant UTME mean score for this group was in the 2013/14 session (P = .03). The Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient r was 0.306, -0.351, 0.456 and 0.641 for 2012/2013, 2013/2014, 2014/2015 and 2015/2016 respectively. All the r values were positively significant at 5% level except the value of r which was negatively significant for 2013/2014 session. The progressive and significant positive increase in the value of r in all the sessions except the 2013/2014 academic session suggested tacit support for the scrapping of the Post-UTME in the Nigerian University system.

Open Access Original Research Article

Studies on Physico-chemical Parameters of Ambawade Reservoir, Raigad District, Maharashtra, India

Snehal S. Lokhande, S. T. Indulkar, A. D. Adsul, Dipesh Kadam

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/33916

The present study deals with physico-chemical parameters and their correlation coefficient of Ambawade reservoir, Raigad [M.S] India during February 2014 to January 2016. The range of various parameters of reservoirs atmospheric temperature from 25.3ºC to 36.4ºC, water temperature from 23.5 to 35.7ºC, pH from 5.80 to 8.40, DO from 4.56 to 8.32 mg L-1, transparency from 32.56 to 103.40 cm, Free CO2 from nil to 5.90 mg L-1, EC from 58.20 to 110.80 µS cm-1, TDS from 8.41 to 18.42 mg L-1, total hardness from 54.40 to 71.32 mg L-1, total alkalinity from 46.32 to 74.21 mg L-1, NO3 - -N from 0.378  to 1.024 mg L-1, PO4 -P from 0.041 to 0.310 mg L-1, SiO2 from 3.75 to 9.19 mg L-1, Mg2+ from 5.67  to 8.84 mg L-1, Na+ from 3.04  to 5.66 mg L-1 and  K+ from 0.36 to 0.98 mg L-1. Correlation coefficient (r) showed high significant positive and negative relationship (p < 0.01 level) between the parameters. The results revealed that there was a fluctuation in physico-chemical parameters during the period under report.

Open Access Original Research Article

Tax Incentives, Resource Allocation and Efficiency–Sustainable Development of Chinese Enterprise Annuity Plan

Xiaowei Li, Zengwen Wang, Xiaodi Liu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/33533

At present, China's enterprise annuity system by the government tax preferential policies, bringing different economic and social effects. In this paper, according to the actual economic and social conditions of different cities and regions in Jiangsu Province, through the introduction of tax preferential policies, we put forward the actuarial model of preferential tax policy. At the same time, through theoretical and empirical models, we put forward some reasonable suggestions to maximizing the rational allocation of resources to promote China's sustainable development of enterprise annuity system.