Open Access Original Research Article

Botanical Affinity and Physico-chemical Parameters of Honey Samples Obtained from Bee Hives in Cross River State Nigeria

Ebigwai, Joseph Kayefor, Egbe, Alexander, Justin, Dominic Eyoma

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-23
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/34218

Botanical and physico-chemical parameters were used to assess honey quality obtained from eleven beehives across Cross River State, Nigeria. Possible nectar sources from plant species within 3 km base radius from each hive was enumerated using line transect. The obtained honey samples were subjected to non-acetolytic method of preparation. Of the 69 plant species whose nectar were available for foraging by the bees, only 31 species had their pollen represented in the honey samples. Honey samples 2 and 8 fulfilled the CODEX requirements for unifloral honey. When pH, moisture content, sugar content (fructose and sucrose), free lactic and total acidity content, HydroxyMethylFurfural (HMT), protein and diastase were used to evaluate the quality, only honey sample 2 fulfilled the CODEX requirements for pure honey. This finding was strongly correlated by the result of the cluster analysis and dendrogram.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investment Climate in Financial Services in Africa (Country Attractiveness Indices)

Satinder Bhatia

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/34103

This paper analyses the relative investment climate of financial services in the African continent by studying both the domestic state of affairs in the sector and the macro governance indicators that impact the amenability of the domestic environment to foreign investment. Relative attractiveness indices for each country relative to its region and the African continent as a whole are calculated and rankings of countries within each region are arrived at. This is followed by ranking of regions based on weighted averages of performance indicators of the countries comprising the regions. The Study shows that Southern Africa and North Africa remain the two most attractive regions followed by West Africa, East Africa and Central Africa. The most attractive countries in each of these regions are Mauritius, Tunisia, Cape Verde, Seychelles and Gabon respectively. Mauritius has also been found to be the most attractive for financial services in the continent closely followed by Botswana, Cape Verde and South Africa. The Study also finds that though low income countries generally have low investment attractiveness scores, Madagascar, Gambia and Burkina Faso are outliers with especially good governance indicators. In fact, these countries have much higher investment attractiveness scores as compared to high income countries like Equatorial Guinea, Libya and Angola. The financial parameter and governance parameter indices, thereby, provide indications of government interventions that may be prioritized to increase the investment attractiveness potential of the financial services sector in African countries.

Open Access Original Research Article

Assessment of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Use in Construction Education in Ghana

Nongiba Alkanam Kheni, Mushiatu Adamu

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/34462

Aim: The construction industry in the last two decades has witnessed remarkable advancements in construction technology, procurement practices, information technology (IT), legislation and client demands. The paper explores the use of ICT tools in construction education in Ghana.

Study Design: The study adopted a survey design and was conducted over a period from June 2013 to September 2014.

Methodology: A five-point Likert scale survey questionnaire was developed and administered to 50 lecturers and 275 students in six selected public tertiary institutions running construction programmes in Ghana. An overall response rate of 84% achieved with response rates of 78% and 85% for lecturers and students respectively.

Results: The study showed that the level of use of ICT tools in construction education in higher institutions in Ghana is moderately low. Further findings revealed that the numerous constraints to the use of ICT tools in construction education in the institutions surveyed may be categorized as; technological constraints, financial constraints, human related constraints, environmental constraints and administrative constraints.

Conclusion: The study argues for more concerted efforts by educational institutions aimed at overcoming the constraints identified, particularly through effective industry collaborations, innovative funding of ICT budget and training of staff.

Open Access Original Research Article

Laxative Properties of Bacterial Cellulose Isolated from Gluconacetobacter xylinum sju-1 against Loperamide Induced Constipated Sprague-Dawley Rats

G. Gayathry, R. Murugesan

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/34631

Aims: To evaluate the laxative properties of bacterial cellulose (BC) isolated from Gluconacetobacter xylinum sju-1 against loperamide induced constipated Sprague-Dawley rats.

Study Design: Completely Randomised Design (CRD).

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Agricultural Microbiology,Tamil Nadu Agricultural University (TNAU), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu and Kovai Medical College Hospital, KMCH College of Pharmacy, Institute Animal House Facility, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu between March 2013- April 2014.

Methodology: The efficacy of colloidal formulation of BC obtained from Gluconacetobacter xylinum sju-1 was studied against loperamide-induced constipation in Sprague-Dawley rats. The test laxative, namely colloidal bacterial cellulose was orally administered at levels based on body weight of animals. Isabgol, a commercial plant based natural laxative obtained from Psyllium husk was used to compare the laxative effect of colloidal bacterial cellulose laxative. The rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. Prior to the initialisation of the experiment, constipation was induced to all the 4 groups by administration of 0.15 mg of loperamide 100g-1 of body weight twice a day for 5 days. Then the laxatives were administered twice a day orally to the constipated rats for the period of 7 days. Feed and water intake were measured for each group for 24 h period. Faeces were collected from each groups daily at 9.00 h and measured for wet weight.

Results: Among the four groups tested, Group I and III had higher feed intake (20.21±3.39 g and 20.21±1.21 g) compared to Group II (19.99±1.26 g) and IV (19.58±1.52 g). Water intake was found to be higher in Group II and Group IV. Significantly lower water uptake was recorded in Group I followed by Group III. Number of faecal pellets, a most important parameter dealing with the laxative property of the bacterial cellulose was higher in group IV, which excreted 46.34±2.55 number of faecal pellets followed by Group II (44.89±2.36).The animals that fall in group IV recorded a faecal pellet weight of 16.87±54 g with the moisture percent of 2.94±1.24 followed by Group III, II and Group I recorded the least values for number of faecal pellet, moisture content of faecal pellet (%) and weight of faecal pellet of 29.66±1.28, 0.77±1.24 and 3.93±0.54 g of respectively.

Conclusion: Bacterial cellulose increased weight of faeces, water content of faeces, and promoted satiety feeling, and acted as laxative agent by holding water inside the bowel lumen, inhibition of water absorption in the colon and stimulating colonic motility.

Open Access Original Research Article

Application of Costing Techniques in Ornamental Fish Culture

T. Umamaheswari, R. Jayaraman, N. Felix

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-10
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/33739

Indian fisheries resources need to be properly utilized for more foreign exchange earnings and for upgrading livelihood of ornamental fish farmers and entrepreneurs. Madurai district was purposively chosen as it is marked as an ornamental hub in South Tamil Nadu and offers a huge market for many goods and services including aquarium fishes. The primary data was collected from a random sample of 22 ornamental fish farmers using a pre-tested survey schedule during the year 2002-2003 with an objective of estimating the economics of ornamental fish culture by cost-plus method in Madurai district. The selected farms were classified into leased (0.37 ha) and non-leased (7.395 ha) farm units. The estimated total variable cost was Rs. 68,42,934 and the total fixed cost was Rs. 18,78,496 constituting total cost of Rs. 87,21,430. Apportioned total cost and total variable cost were used for computing mark-up and net returns for ornamental fishes produced in Madurai district. The estimated total returns and net returns were Rs. 1,11,02,500 and Rs. 23,81,070, respectively. The Benefit Cost Ratio on total cost and total variable cost bases were found as1.27 and 1.62, respectively. Cost function was estimated on both total cost and total variable cost bases. The ornamental fishes which showed higher marginal cost were marked-up to 25% and 50% and the results were recorded.