Open Access Original Research Article

The Control and Possible Eradication of HIV/AIDS Using Electromagnetic (EM) Radiation

Edison A. Enaibe, Akpata Erhieyovwe, Judith Umukoro, Ezekiel U. Nwose

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-31
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/34834

Some waves in nature behave parasitically when they interfere with another one. Such waves as the name implies have the ability of transforming the initial characteristics and behavior of the host wave to its own form and quality after a period of time. Under this circumstance, all the active constituents of the host wave would have been completely eroded and the resulting wave which is now parasitically monochromatic will eventually attenuate to zero, since the parasitic wave does not have its own physical parameters for sustaining a continuous independent existence. If the vibration of anything is known, then its characteristics can be predicted and be destroyed by an anti-vibrating component. In this work, we calculated the latent Human vibration and that of the HIV vibration. We also show quantitatively how regulated dose of electromagnetic (EM) wave, can be used for the control and possible eradication of HIV/AIDS infection from the Human system. The spectrum of the interception of the applied EM wave with the HIV vibration in the Human system shows a zero amplitude and frequency in the interval when the raising multiplier [0, 892] with a corresponding time interval [0, 0.008897s]. It is shown in this study that the actual time of exposure of the HIV/AIDS patient to EM radiation therapy is about 0.56 seconds. This study also shows that the time it takes the applied EM wave to destroy the HIV vibration completely from the human system is also determined by the path difference between the phase angle of the applied oscillating EM wave and the phase angle of the HIV latent vibration. It is pertinent to note that radiation therapy is already being applied in treatment of HIV/AIDS patients, but more with regards to associated cancer morbidity. What this study is bringing to focus is that electromagnetic radiation may potentially eradicate HIV.

Open Access Original Research Article

Soil Fertility Management and Impact on Sweet Potatoes - Soybeans Growing in Makunga (Kakamega) and (Kibargoi) Elgeiyo Marakwet Counties

Carolyne Jepkemboi, Syphyline Kebeney, Jackson Kitilit, Peter Kale

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-11
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/32797

Sweet potato is a perennial storage tuber crop grown as a food and/or cash crop. Soybean is a multipurpose crop grown for human food, livestock feed, soil fertility improvement, income generation and oil production among the smallholder farmers. Production of sweet potatoes in Kenya is however low due to various factors and constrains low soil fertility inclusive. This paper addressed soil fertility management and its effect on rotational cropping and the use of inorganic fertilizers on soybean - sweet potatoes production. The study was carried out in two regions of Kenya; Kakamega County (Makunga sub County) and Elgeiyo Marakwet County (Kibargoi sub County). The study incorporated 147 respondents from the two regions with 42 in Kibargoi and 107 in Makunga. Sweet potato growing was important to 85.2% of respondents as food crop and 79.8% as a cash crop. The sweet potatoes varieties grown in the areas were dominated by Yellow fleshed, Purple fleshed, Vita and Kabode. Soybeans were grown by 7.1% in Kibargoi and 48.6% in Makunga. The common varieties included local, SP3, SP24 and SP25. The soybeans was consumed by 30.9% and grains used as alternatives to milk. The results indicated that farms where sweet potatoes were grown and organic fertilizers used, the relationship was relatively significant (r=0.158). Soybeans had a negative correlation with organic fertilizers with an r=-0.223, this interprets that the application of inorganic fertilizers to soybeans does not affect its output or yield. The fertility of soils were rated moderate by 81.2% while 8.7% rated fertility high (Kibargoi only). The loss of fertility is attributed to soil erosion 45.6% and previous growing of sugarcane in Makunga was cited as a challenge. Application of fertilizer on crops for fertility management was done by 65.1% (97) of the total respondents with 89.7% (96) from Makunga applying fertilizers and 2.4% (1) applying fertilizers to farms in Kibargoi, a pearsons correlation was conducted and an. r=0.216 in Makunga was obtained (significant positive impact of fertilizers on soil fertility), in the use of organic fertilizers was insignificant and not attached to land fertility and a Pearson correlation r=-0.087 was attained. This indicates that farming in Kibargoi is not dependent of organic fertilizers as opposed to farming in Makunga where fertilizers dictate land fertility. It was therefore observed that the use of organic fertilizers do have an impact on land fertility as compared to the use of inorganic fertilizers.

Open Access Original Research Article

Prevalence of Anaemia and Associated Risk Factors among Children Under Five Years in Hohoe Municipality, Ghana

Phyllis Atta Parbey, Gideon Kyei-Duodu, Wisdom Takramah, Elvis Tarkang, Eric Agboli, Mohammed Takase, Margaret Kweku

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-12
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/31465

Background: The global estimate of anaemia in children indicates that 293.1 million children under five years (43%) are anaemic, of whom 28.5% are residing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study was set out to determine the prevalence of anaemia and its associated risk factors among children under five in Hohoe municipality, Ghana.

Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried in March 2016 at various Child Welfare Clinics (CWCs) using convenient and systematic sampling methods.  Interviews with semi-structured questionnaires were used to obtain information on demographic, socio-economic, dietary and feeding practices of the children. Axillary temperature was measured using electronic thermometer and anthropometric measurements were done using bathroom weighing scale and Infantometer. Finger-prick blood samples were collected for blood film for malaria parasites, and haemoglobin level was measured using an automated Haemocue. Binary logistic regression was used to identify associated factors, odds ratio was used to access the strength of the association and t-test was used for means.

Results: A total of 400 children were sampled from ten CWCs. Insecticide Treated Net (ITN) usage was high, 69.0%; SP-IPTp and iron supplements coverage among pregnant women was very high, 83.5% and 86.8% respectively. The overall prevalence of anaemia (Hb <11.0 g/dl) was 47.5 %, anaemia requiring treatment (Hb <8.0 g/dl) was 10.0% with mean haemoglobin of 10.64 ±2.29.  Children aged 24-35, 36-47 and 48-59 are less likely to have anaemia [OR=0.39(95% CI: 0.19-0.80); p=0.011], [OR=0.21(95% CI: 0.09-0.45); p<0.001] and [OR=0.29(95% CI: 0.14-0.58); p<0.001] respectively. Children with malaria parasitaemia were 7.8 times more likely to develop anaemia [OR=3.8(95% CI: 1.12-2.97); p=0.027].

Conclusion: Anaemia prevalence among children less than five years in the Hohoe municipality was lower than that of the national surveys. The presence of malaria parasitaemia could result in anaemia.  Clearing malaria parasites from the blood, and use of SP-IPTp and iron supplements by mothers during pregnancy could reduce anaemia in children under five.

Open Access Original Research Article

Electrochemical, Spectrochemical and Quantum Chemical Studies on Dimedone as Corrosion Inhibitor for Copper in Acetonitrile

Pipat Chooto, Sontaya Manaboot

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/34929

The inhibition ability of 5,5-Dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione (dimedone, DMD) for copper in acetonitrile at 25°C was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Corrosion resistance increased with inhibitor concentration up to 93.68% inhibition efficiency at 3.00 mM, indicating that DMD molecules can cumulatively adsorb on the copper surface and finally form a protective film on copper-solution interface. This is also supported by the decreasing of copper oxidation in cyclic voltammogram. Polarization curves revealed that DMD is of mixed type inhibitor. The adsorption of DMD on copper surface obeys the Langmuir isotherm and the adsorption mechanism is of physisorption type. The standard energy of adsorption (∆Goads) values was found in good agreement for both polarization and impedance to be -8.17 and -8.43 kJmol-1 respectively. Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the interaction of copper with oxygen on DMD. The mole ratio method suggested that the complexation ratio of copper-DMD is 1:2. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of copper surface after immersion in DMD solution indicates the presence of a protective layer on the electrode surface. The frontier molecular orbital energy EHOMO (highest occupied molecular orbital), ELUMO (lowest unoccupied molecular orbital) and the Mulliken charge distribution obtained from Quantum chemical calculations revealed (∆E) for DMD 0.2091 hartree, reflecting strong adsorption of the molecules on copper surface. The enhanced corrosion inhibition is possibly due to the compact film structure blocking electron transfer at the electrode surface.

Open Access Original Research Article

Sialic Acid and Lipid Profiles of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 and Cardiovascular Disease

Hadiza Abdullahi, Muhammad Safiyanu, Abdullahi A. Imam, Saad Bello Saad

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/35084

Background: Diabetes Mellitus type 2 is among the top ranked non communicable diseases in Nigeria. There is an increasing incidence of this disease condition and its subsequent complications particularly cardiovascular complications. Sialic acid is a constituent of cell membrane and is present in most acute phase proteins. Several studies have indicated changes in sialic acid concentration in different pathological conditions and some studies in different populations of the world have suggested a link between sialic acid concentration, diabetes mellitus, lipid disorders and cardiovascular disease.

Aim: This study was carried out to determine sialic acid concentrations and lipid abnormalities in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 with and without cardiovascular complications hypothesizing that sialic acid concentration will have an association with lipid parameters in diabetic groups.

Method of Study: Blood samples collected from 100 patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and 50 apparently healthy individuals (controls) were subjected to sialic acid analysis by the Thiobarbituric acid assay and a lipid profile analysis where total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), triglyceride (TG) were evaluated. Test of significance was calculated by unpaired student’s t test between study groups. Pearson’s correlation was performed between the variables of serum sialic acid and serum lipid profile.

Results: Significance was set at P=.05. Significantly higher mean serum levels of sialic acid were found in diabetic groups (P=.001) as compared to the apparently healthy group with highest concentrations of sialic acid observed in the diabetic group with cardiovascular disease. However, no significant association was found between sialic acid levels with lipid parameters.

Conclusion: The findings in this study validate other studies linking elevated serum sialic acid levels with diabetes mellitus type 2 and diabetic cardiovascular disease. The study showed lipid abnormalities in all groups indicating rising incidence of diabetic dyslipidemia and dyslipidemia even within healthy population.