Open Access Case study

The Case Study on Cubes Compressive Strength Variations for Different Water Sources in Dares Salaam City, Tanzania

Livingstone Swilla, Mpima Zeddy, Yona Kimori

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-5
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/35781

In this study the concrete compressive strength variations for different water sources in Dares Salaam city is presented. Concrete cubes were casted and cured for 7, 14 and 28 days using public fresh water and water samples collected from different borehole sources in Dar es Salaam city. The selected parameters (pH, chlorine content, sulphate content, TDS level and Electrical Conductivity) were analyzed in the laboratory for all water samples. The concrete was mixed with mixing ratio of 1:2:4. The concrete cube size measuring 150×150×150 mm in dimension was used. The results of the compressive strength of cubes showed that there was increase in strength at 7 days, 14 days and 28 days for cubes casted from Kawe, Riverside, Mabibo external, Makumbusho boreholes samples and public fresh water sample. Also results showed that pH, chlorine content (CL-), sulphates  and Total dissolved solids (TDS) contribute to lower the compressive strength of the concrete when are in higher side and contribute to increase the compressive strength when are in lower side.

Open Access Minireview Article

Influence of Fertilization and Agronomic Practices on Acrylamide Formation: Review for Potato and Grain Crops

Julijana Tomovska, Suzana Stojanovska, Borce Makarijoski

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/34512

Efforts to reduce acrylamide formation would be greatly facilitated by the development of crop varieties with lower concentrations of free asparagine or reducing sugars, and of best agronomic practice to ensure that concentrations are kept as low as possible. Examinations have shown that 134 kg N ha-1 and 168 kg K2O ha-1 are the best fertilizer rates for balancing tuber yields with a range of tuber quality attributes, including acrylamide- forming potential. The influence of potassium fertilizer source (K2SO4 and KCl) on potato yield and quality under pot experimental conditions was studied by some authors. Fertilizer importance was also proved by comparing five commercial rye varieties grown under a range of fertilization regimes to investigate the effects of genotype and nutrient (nitrogen and sulphur) availability on the accumulation of acrylamide precursors. From the above evidence, conclusions can be made that usage of agro-technical measures can reduce the toxic substances in grains and potato. Also, the appropriate ratio of applied fertilizers and basic nutrient metabolism for acrylamide creation can be adjusted to obtain predefined quantities of reducing sugars and asparagine as the main precursors.

Open Access Original Research Article

Investigation into the Dynamic Properties of Jute Fibre Reinforced Concrete

G. M. Amusan, A. O. Nofiu, S. O. A. Olawale

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-8
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/35352

Concrete as construction material has been marked with little resistance to crack, low tensile strength and limited ductility. Corrosion in reinforcing steel is also a major problem faced in reinforced concrete construction, which significantly affect the life and strength of concrete structures. Thus, the research aimed at investigating the dynamic properties of jute fibre reinforced concrete. Randomly dispersed jute fibres were added to concrete of grade 20 MPa in varying percentage range of 0 to 2% in step of 0.5 by weight of concrete. Concrete specimens of cube size (120 × 120 × 120) mm3 were cast from the mix and cured for 28 days. The impact resistance of Jute Fibre Reinforced Concrete (JFRC) was investigated using falling dart machine. The results depicted that 2% JFRC at 14 days age of curing had the highest average number of blows, impact energy and impact strength of 115, 4098.60 kNmm and 284.63 N/mm2, respectively compared to control (0% jute fibre) at 14 days curing age of 27, 962.28 kNmm and 66.83 N/mm2, respectively. The impact strength of JFRC increases with increase percentage dosage of jute fibre. The increase in jute fibre content in the concrete further increase the number of blows as well as impact energy required for the final failure of the concrete. The inclusion of jute fibre to concrete abetted as crack arrestor, and substantially improved the concrete dynamic properties.

Open Access Original Research Article

Physical, Functional and Sensory Properties of Foam Mat Dehydrated Whole Egg Powder

C. O. Orishagbemi, I. B. Ichado, M. E. Sanda

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-7
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/33305

Two types of edible eggs were subjected to foam-mat dehydration to determine properties of the egg powder. Both fresh local and poultry eggs (LE and PE, respectively) were obtained from Anyigba, Nigeria, separately prepared into whole liquid egg of stable foam by whipping and dried (60°C) in tray dryer. Then, milled into powder (180 m size), packaged and kept under refrigeration for physical, functional property, sensory evaluation and statistical data analysis using standard methods. Foaming capacity of liquid egg (LE and PE) ranged from 20.1%–20.5%, and corresponding egg powder, 17%–18.2%. Egg powder bulk density (0.45–0.62 g/mL), local egg sample with greater value. Water absorption capacity (7.8–8.0 mL/g powder), poultry egg showing higher value, which did not seem to affect its reconstitution. The wettability values (2.5–8.2s range) showed significant variation (P<0.05). Colour of reconstituted boiled local egg powder was rated higher (6.10), so also the texture (6.71), flavour (6.64), taste (6.57) and mouthfeel (6.45) of boiled poultry egg. Reconstituted fried poultry egg powder has higher texture, colour, flavor, mouthfeel scores and lower taste than local egg powder. Apparently, more desirable properties of foam–mat dried poultry egg powder, suggest its suitability for different food applications.

Open Access Original Research Article

Biomarker Characteristics of Crude Oil Blends from Some Flow-Stations in Bayelsa State, Nigeria

A. K. Inengite, S. S. Angaye, I. T. Ajoko

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-9
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/35078

Three different crude oil samples from three crude oil flow stations in Bayelsa state, Nigeria, were chosen for this study and were used to analyze the geochemical characteristics such as thermal maturity, depositional environments, sources of organic matter and extent of biodegradation. The crude oil samples were separated into saturated hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons and polar compounds. The saturated hydrocarbons were determined by Agilent (HP) 5890 Series II gas chromatography equipped with a Flame Ionization Detector (California, USA). Ratios of the biomarkers pristane/phytane, Isoprenoids/n-alkanes and CPI were determined. The pristane/phytane ratio in the oils reflects that the oils originated mainly from a source rock with a significant terrestrial contribution deposited under oxic environment with high maturation level due to the high pr/ph ratio of the oils. The ph/n-C18 ratios of the oils were less than one (< 1.0) suggesting that the oils were non-biodegraded. The CPI values of the three crude oil samples were below 1.0 indicating that the crude oil samples can be described as matured.