Open Access Original Research Article

Efficacy of Electrochemical Treatment Method in Removing Pollutants from Restaurant Wastewater

Paul Ngozi Ojukwu, Kamar Taiwo Oladepo

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-15
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/35219

This study characterized restaurant wastewater and investigated the treatment of restaurant wastewater electrochemically. It also examined the effects of selected factors on the performance of the electrochemical process. This was with a view to evaluating the performance of the electrochemical process. Wastewater from student canteen and a fast-food restaurant were collected into polyethylene bags and treated using electrochemical method in a batch reactor. After addition of wastewater to the reactor, the experiments were carried out separately varying the following factors: voltage, separation distance between electrodes, and volume of wastewater. 23 factorial experiments were used to identify factors that influence the efficacy of the electrochemical method. The efficiency of the method was evaluated using Yates’ algorithm. The results showed that restaurant wastewater is acidic and polluted with high oil and grease content, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), and conductivity. Applied voltage and distance between electrodes had a positive and negative effect respectively on the performance of the electrochemical treatment process while volume of the wastewater had a negative effect on pH increase and a varied effect on the removal of other pollutants. Electrochemical treatment process can neutralize pH of restaurant wastewater and is efficient in removing oil and grease, BOD, COD, TSS and conductivity from restaurant wastewater with results yielding greater than 90% removal. The significant factors at 95% confidence level were applied voltage (F = 20.33), separation distance between electrodes (F = 20.64), and volume of wastewater (F = 39.57).The study concluded that electrochemical treatment method has the potential to treat restaurant wastewater in a rectangular batch reactor.

Open Access Original Research Article

n-co-coherent Modules

Abdul-Qawe Kaed

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-6
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/35451

In [1] the notion of n-coherent modules are introduced and studied. In this paper, we introduce and study a dual notion of n-coherent modules which we call it n-co-coherent modules.

Open Access Original Research Article

Trends of Extreme Events in Precipitation and Temperature during the 1963 - 2012 Period at Mt Makulu, Zambia

Charles Bwalya Chisanga, Elijah Phiri, Vernon R.N. Chinene

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-19
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/34815

The Expert Team on Sector-specific Climate Indices (ET-SCI) for daily temperature and precipitation were analyzed for Mt Makulu (Latitude: 15.550° S, Longitude: 28.250° E, Elevation: 1200 meter) in Zambia. The study objective was to evaluate the ET-SCI climate indices for extreme weather conditions on temperature and precipitation from 1963 to 2012. Quality and homogeneity of the time series data were checked using RHtestsV4 and RHtests_dlyPrcp while ClimPACT2 software package was used to compute the ET-SCI indices. The Mann-Kendall for annual maximum and mean temperature were statistically significant with a positive linear trend (p<0.05). Additionally, results showed a significant increase in absolute indices as a function of temperature. The maximum warmest daily temperature (TXx) index showed a predominant increase in the monthly and annual maximum value of daily maximum temperature at Mt Makulu. The minimum warmest daily temperature (TXn) showed a similar trend for the annual value. Results also showed that the daily mean temperature (TMm) and mean daily maximum temperature (TXm) had increased from 1963 - 2012. The Daily Temperature Range (DTR) significantly increased annually and monthly resulting in a linear slope of 0.031 and 0.003, respectively. SU (Number of days when TX > 25°C) for both monthly and annual trend had increased significantly with a slope of 1.204 and 0.009, respectively. There were much higher heat spell events during DJF and SON with probability occurrence of 0.78 and 0.98 at p<0.05, respectively. Precipitation extreme indices (PRCPTOT, R30 mm, RX5 day, and R95p) had a non-significant positive trend at p<0.05.

Open Access Original Research Article

GC-MS Characterization and Antiulcer Properties of the Triterpenoid Fraction from Propolis of the North West Region of Cameroon

Domgnim Mokam Elisabeth Carol, Tamfu Alfred Ngenge, Talla Emmanuel, Mbafor Tanyi Joseph, Milena Popova, Vassya Bankova, Tan Paul Vernyuy

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-18
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/35377

Aim: To identify the chemical components of the major bioactive fraction from a propolis extract and investigate the gastric cytoprotective effects of the said fraction.

Place and Duration of Study: Department of Animal Biology & Physiology (Animal Physiology Laboratory), Department organic chemistry (Laboratory of medicinal chemistry), Faculty of Science, University of Yaoundé I in collaboration with the IOCCP, Bulgarian academy of sciences  between August  2014 and April 2017.

Methodology: The propolis extract previously shown to possess gastric cytoprotective activity was subjected to column chromatography to obtain fractions, the major one of which was used in this study. About 5 mg of this fraction was silylated using BSTFA and subjected to GC–MS analysis on a Hewlett–Packard gas chromatograph. Identification of individual compounds was performed based on mass-spectral fragmentation and by comparison with some literature data and authentic samples. Gastric cytoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of the fraction were then evaluated using experimentally-induced gastric ulcers in rat models including HCl/ethanol, HCl/ethanol pretreated with indomethacin, absolute ethanol and stress-induced gastric ulcers. In each experimental model percentage of ulcerated surfaces, ulcer indices, mucus production as well as the percentage inhibition of ulceration were evaluated. The effects of this fraction on the anti-oxidative parameters in stomach tissues of rats subjected to cold/restraint stress were equally evaluated.

Results: The GC-MS profile of the major fraction under investigation revealed that it was a mixture of pentacyclic triterpenes; lanosterol, α-amyrine, 28-norolean-12-en-3-ol, Cycloartenol, 3-epi-α-amyrine, lupeol and 24-methylenecycloartenol. In the HCl/ethanol-induced gastric lesions model the fraction significantly (p < 0.01) reduced ulcer index at dose 50 mg/kg with a percentage inhibition of 47.25%, a significant increase in mucus production from 70.60 mg (p < 0.5) to 88.00 mg (p < 0.001) for the 25 and 50 mg/kg doses, respectively, compared with 53.40 mg for the negative controls. HCl/ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats pre-treated with indomethacin showed that ulcer index decreased significantly (p < 0.001) from 1.93 to 1.50 for the 25 and 50 mg/kg doses, respectively, compared with 5.77 for the control. This corresponded with 66.55 and 74 percentage inhibition for the same doses of triterpenes, and the quantity of mucus increased to 104.20, 116.20 and 139.40 mg for the 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg doses. With absolute ethanol the fraction significantly reduced ulcer indices to 3.63 and 2.28 for the 25 and 50 mg/kg doses, respectively, compared with 4.87 for controls. The highest dose (50 mg/kg) of the fraction provided 53.18% inhibition of ulceration and the increase in mucus production was significant (p < 0.001) at the two doses. In the cold/restraint stress model, the fraction showed significant reduction in ulcer index, and the highest dose (50 mg/kg) prevented lesion formation by 52.51% inhibition while mucus production increased significantly. Cold/restraint stress significantly increased tissue concentrations of NO and MDA but the positive control (Omeprazole) and the fraction (50 mg/kg) reduced these parameters back to normal levels. The fraction (50 mg/kg) also reverted the increased concentrations of SOD and GSH (but not of catalase) back to normal values.

Conclusion: Cameroonian propolis likewise tropical and subtropical propolis samples are rich in triterpenes. The triterpene fraction dose-dependently acts by different and complementary mechanisms to improve the mucosal defensive factors. The mode of its gastroprotective activity may be attributed to reduction in gastric mucosal lipid peroxidation (MDA), elevation of glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide (NO).

Open Access Original Research Article

Survey of Energy Drink Consumption and Adverse Health Effects: A Sample of University Students in the United Arab Emirates

Dr. Matthew A. Robby, Sarah Sanad

Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, Page 1-13
DOI: 10.9734/JSRR/2017/34978

Aims: The study examined energy drink consumption patterns, reasons for use, and the brand preferences of university students. Based on participant characteristics, the variation in use was determined including the impact on university performance in terms if grades and quality of health. The study also determined whether high frequency of consumption was correlated with negative physical health symptoms.

Study Design: A cross sectional study design was implemented.

Place and Duration of Study: At a higher education institution in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), the survey study was conducted between November 2016 and January 2017.

Methodology: Among four campuses, a 30% random sample of 1,100 Emirati students were surveyed and 522 completed the Energy Drink Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using IBM-SPSS and frequency tables, cross-tabulations, and graphs; including chi-square and phi statistics, t-tests, hedge’s g, and spearman correlations.

Results: Two-thirds of participants were 18 to 20 years of age, in year 2 of university, in good health, and from Dubai or Abu Dhabi. Energy drinks were consumed by 85.1%. Thus, 54.9% drank 1 to 8 cans a month, 13.2% drank 3 to 4 a week, and 16.7% drank 1 or more a day. Daily users were more likely males. The most consumed brands were identified and the reasons for consumption varied. Those consuming 1 to 3+ a day had a “slight to moderately” lower Grade Point Average (GPA).Statistically significant correlations were found between drinking 1 to 3+ a day and experiencing headaches, blurred vision, nervousness, excessive thirst, and difficulties sleeping.

Conclusion: Young adults should not consume energy drinks daily and excessively because of the likelihood of negative side effects. Students need to exercise caution when considering using energy drinks and strive to make healthier lifestyle choices to maximize their health. Public health information plays a vital role in raising awareness, altering behavior, and reducing risks. Student support services in higher education are important for at risk students with excessive daily energy drink usage and potential dependency. Stronger future research is recommended to help quantify the risk of disease from specific substances found in energy drinks and their long-term impact on health.